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6.
New Solut ; 30(3): 237-248, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121368

RESUMO

The World Health Organization's (WHO) workplace health and safety guidelines on COVID-19 are unacceptably complacent in parts, patently dangerous in others, and contain serious gaps. Omissions include no mention of the essential role of labor inspection and enforcement, and a lack of recognition of potential interactions with other workplace hazards. WHO also omitted discussion of the necessity for wider employment protections to make safety and safe behavior a realistic prospect. Potential risks in outdoor work and the need to address the impact of job segregation related to inequalities in health outcomes are also absent. WHO's advice influences national practice, official guidance, and binding rules.The International Trade Union Confederation has assessed the flaws in WHO's arguments and has prepared a critique so they are understood and can be challenged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Sindicatos/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas
9.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 445-446, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880545

RESUMO

Less than 3 months after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and within a month of the WHO declaring COVID19 a global pandemic, COVID-19 infections and fatalities have grown exponentially, globally. Now, more than ever, the world needs responsible political leadership, evidence-based decision-making, and co-ordinated global health action.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764480

RESUMO

Health crisis situations generate greater attention and dependence on reliable and truthful information from citizens, especially from those organisations that represent authority on the subject, such as the World Health Organization (WHO). In times of global pandemics such as COVID-19, the WHO message "health for all" takes on great communicative importance, especially from the point of view of the prevention of the disease and recommendations for action. Therefore, any communication must be understandable and accessible by all types of people, regardless of their technology, language, culture or disability (physical or mental), according to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), taking on special relevance for public health content. This study analysed whether the WHO is accessible in its digital version for all groups of citizens according to the widely accepted standards in the field of the Internet. The conclusion reached was that not all the information is accessible in accordance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1, which implies that there are groups that are, to some extent, left out, especially affecting the elderly. This study can contribute to the development of proposals and suggest ways in which to improve the accessibility of health content to groups especially vulnerable in this pandemic.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Competência Cultural , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Internet , Idioma , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
13.
BMJ ; 370: m2322, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: 85 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Population of 85 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A graded coding method was developed and used to extract quantitative recommendations from 85 FBDGs. The health and environmental impacts of these guidelines were assessed by using a comparative risk assessment of deaths from chronic diseases and a set of country specific environmental footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, and fertiliser application. For comparison, the impacts of adopting the global dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization and the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems were also analysed. Each guideline's health and sustainability implications were assessed by modelling its adoption at both the national level and globally, and comparing the impacts to global health and environmental targets, including the Action Agenda on Non-Communicable Diseases, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Aichi biodiversity targets related to land use, and the sustainable development goals and planetary boundaries related to freshwater use and fertiliser application. RESULTS: Adoption of national FBDGs was associated with reductions in premature mortality of 15% on average (95% uncertainty interval 13% to 16%) and mixed changes in environmental resource demand, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 13% on average (regional range -34% to 35%). When universally adopted globally, most of the national guidelines (83, 98%) were not compatible with at least one of the global health and environmental targets. About a third of the FBDGs (29, 34%) were incompatible with the agenda on non-communicable diseases, and most (57 to 74, 67% to 87%) were incompatible with the Paris Climate Agreement and other environmental targets. In comparison, adoption of the WHO recommendations was associated with similar health and environmental changes, whereas adoption of the EAT-Lancet recommendations was associated with 34% greater reductions in premature mortality, more than three times greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and general attainment of the global health and environmental targets. As an example, the FBDGs of the UK, US, and China were incompatible with the climate change, land use, freshwater, and nitrogen targets, and adopting guidelines in line with the EAT-Lancet recommendation could increase the number of avoided deaths from 78 000 (74 000 to 81 000) to 104 000 (96 000 to 112 000) in the UK, from 480 000 (445 000 to 516 000) to 585 000 (523 000 to 646 000) in the USA, and from 1 149 000 (1 095 000 to 1 204 000) to 1 802 000 (1 664 000 to 1 941 000) in China. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that national guidelines could be both healthier and more sustainable. Providing clearer advice on limiting in most contexts the consumption of animal source foods, in particular beef and dairy, was found to have the greatest potential for increasing the environmental sustainability of dietary guidelines, whereas increasing the intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and legumes, reducing the intake of red and processed meat, and highlighting the importance of attaining balanced energy intake and weight levels were associated with most of the additional health benefits. The health results were based on observational data and assuming a causal relation between dietary risk factors and health outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these relations is mostly graded as moderate in existing meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/tendências , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
16.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 940-947, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730785

RESUMO

Major gains in reducing the burden of hepatitis C are now possible because of the discovery of a cure. The prevention of premature deaths and increased workforce participation among people who are cured are likely to provide substantial indirect economic benefits. We developed an investment case for hepatitis C for the six WHO world regions, which, to our knowledge, is the first to consider both indirect and direct economic benefits in this context. Scaling up of testing and treatment to reach the 2030 WHO hepatitis C elimination targets was estimated to prevent 2·1 million (95% credible interval 1·3-3·2 million) hepatitis C-related deaths and 10 million (4-14 million) new hepatitis C virus infections globally between 2018 and 2030. This elimination strategy was estimated to cost US$41·5 billion (33·1-48·7 billion) in testing, treatment, and health care between 2018 and 2030 ($23·4 billion more than the status quo scenario of no testing or treatment scale up), with a global average of $885 (654-1189) per disability-adjusted life-year averted at 2030. Compared with the status quo scenario, the elimination scenario generated $46·1 billion (35·9-53·8 billion) in cumulative productivity gains by 2030. These indirect costs made elimination cost-saving by 2027, with a net economic benefit of $22·7 billion (17·1-27·9 billion) by 2030. This model shows that countries might be underestimating the true burden of hepatitis C and will benefit from investing in elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Prevalência , Vírus de RNA/genética , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
17.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 927-939, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730786

RESUMO

WHO has set global targets for the elimination of hepatitis B and hepatitis C as a public health threat by 2030. However, investment in elimination programmes remains low. To help drive political commitment and catalyse domestic and international financing, we have developed a global investment framework for the elimination of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The global investment framework presented in this Health Policy paper outlines national and international activities that will enable reductions in hepatitis C incidence and mortality, and identifies potential sources of funding and tools to help countries build the economic case for investing in national elimination activities. The goal of this framework is to provide a way for countries, particularly those with minimal resources, to gain the substantial economic benefit and cost savings that come from investing in hepatitis C elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Saúde Global/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Redução de Custos/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Feminino , Saúde Global/normas , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período Periparto , Gravidez , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/normas , Vacinação/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
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