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3.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 35-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335587

RESUMO

The gay/lesbian social movement has primarily been understood as an identity movement. This article contributes to expanding understandings of the gay/lesbian movement by following the advocacy of the Dutch Association for the Integration of Homosexuality COC (COC) as a case of a gay/lesbian movement organization's expansion of its action repertoire to include public policy goals. On the basis of archival and interview data, this article identifies several factors that enabled the COC to see the Dutch government as a potential public policy partner. Previous legal successes and facilitation by the institutionalized wing of the women's movement, coupled with a constitutional change, resulted in the COC's development of a policy strategy. By tracing the history of the COC's strategic interactions, this article demonstrates that, while an identity strategy was constant throughout the COC's advocacy, the organization could combine an identity strategy with strategies of legal change, cultural change, and public policy.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Política Pública , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Organizações , Política Pública/história , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história
4.
Disasters ; 44(1): 25-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231841

RESUMO

Although the literature is increasingly concerned with cooperation among humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs), we still lack studies that explain cooperation under conditions of competition. Drawing on 22 semi-structured interviews, this article argues that trust is the driving force behind security-related cooperation within networks of humanitarian NGOs. Which type of trust comes into play and how trust is built depends on the structure of a network. In small, stable networks, trust is typically based on experience, whereas shared identity is at the heart of trust in large, unstable networks. In the latter case, cooperation among humanitarian NGOs is exclusive and comparable to a form of club governance, because NGOs are kept out based on their identity-that is, if they adopt a different operational interpretation of the humanitarian principles.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Organizações/organização & administração , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Confiança/psicologia , Humanos
5.
Swiss Dent J ; 129(12): 1018-1025, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814381

RESUMO

The career of André Schroeder (1918­2004), Professor of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics at the University of Bern, and long-term Editor in Chief of the Schweizerische Monatsschrift für Zahnheilkunde (predecessor of the Swiss Dental Journal SSO), is unique in many respects. Forty years ago, in 1979, Schroeder reached the zenith of his career when he was elected President (Rector) of the University of Bern ­ thereby becoming the first dentist in Swiss academic history to hold this office. Previously, Schroeder had also been the first dentist to become Full Professor (Ordinarius) and, later, Dean of the Medical Faculty. At the same time, Schroeder founded the International Team of Implantology (ITI), which evolved into the largest global organization of Implant Dentistry. The present article uses these anniversaries as an opportunity to (1) retrace Schroeder's career path, (2) contextualize this career path using the education policy in place at the time, and (3) clarify to what extent and by which means the pioneer Schroeder influenced the professionalization of Academic Dentistry in Switzerland. This study draws upon primary sources from the University and City Archives of Bern and the archive of the ITI; these were supplemented by relevant secondary literature. An evaluation of the sources clearly shows that Schroeder was a trailblazer in many ways: Firstly, he exploited his university positions with the primary goal of furthering the basis of Academic Dentistry. Secondly, he promoted Swiss Dentistry through his non-university activities ­ as the successful Editor of the Schweizerische Monatsschrift fu?r Zahnheilkunde and founder of the ITI. And thirdly, Schroeder specifically addressed the increasing relevance of Dentistry for society as a whole by intertwining the two most important arguments ­ the scientific orientation and the benefits for public health ­ in a rhetorically accomplished manner.


Assuntos
Odontologia , Universidades , Organizações , Suíça
6.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(12): 746-755, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875625

RESUMO

Objectives Multinational R&D pharmaceutical companies operating in many countries and regions have deep ties with patient groups that are recipients of their corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR activities are diverse and range from direct funding (including donations and sponsorships) to indirect funding (such as expenses associated with company-sponsored lectures); there are rewards for CSR requests for patient groups (writing, supervision, and surveys), and labor is provided by company employees. In developing pharmaceutical products, R&D companies can provide greater benefits to patients by listening to them. It is therefore important for all stakeholders to ensure transparency regarding the relationship between companies and patient groups. This study aimed to identify trends in information disclosure toward ensuring transparency of relations between CSR activities and patient groups based on industry groups regulations in Japan, the United States, and Europe.Methods The contents described in regulations by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA), Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), and the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) concerning such transparency were qualitatively and inductively analyzed in terms of four concepts: transparency, equal partnership, mutual benefit, and independence.Results Most of the descriptions relate to transparency. The EFPIA regulation is the most detailed; it states that there should be no influence on patient groups' work or on events and activities organized by companies or patient groups. The rules of the three associations also impose the need to maintain records concerning the purpose and contents of financial support and activity items. However, information disclosure to secure transparency is not required in the PhRMA regulation. The JPMA regulation does not specify a clear update schedule; the EFPIA regulation requires disclosure information to be updated once a year. In terms of equal partnership, such terms as "mutual respect," "equal value," and "establishing a trust relationship" appeared in searches with all three regulations. None of the regulations referred to "mutual benefit." All the regulations either respected or validated the independence of patient groups.Conclusion Each pharmaceutical association set its own regulations and recommended voluntary information disclosure by member companies; however, the extent of such disclosure differed with each association. The regulations of industry associations form the basis for the policies of member companies; thus, it is desirable that the contents and regulations related to mutual information disclosure be established in great detail worldwide.


Assuntos
Revelação , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ética nos Negócios , Internacionalidade , Organizações , Pacientes , Responsabilidade Social , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Japão , Estados Unidos
7.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(2): 102-110, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779738

RESUMO

In today's 24/7 business world, any disruption of operations is often disastrous - from both a reputational as well as a financial perspective. This paper discusses why this reality has diminished the perceived value of traditional 'recovery capability' business continuity management programmes among many organisations and executives. The paper proposes three steps to resiliency to show how resiliency programmes can reposition themselves to reverse this perception and provide increased value to the organisations they protect. The paper describes innovative, concrete steps to develop a programme that spans from a simple compliance, or recovery, programme, to becoming a resiliency risk service provider that can become the backbone of an organisation's ability to maintain 24/7 availability.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Comércio , Organizações , Gestão de Riscos
8.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(2): 150-159, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779742

RESUMO

Over the years, the 'cloud' has gained increasing traction in assisting organisations to become more resilient. Building on such successes as migrating office applications using Office 365, organisations are now looking to move disaster recovery to the cloud as a viable solution to protect critical applications at the time of disaster. This paper explores one organisation's journey through the maze that is disaster recovery cloud deployment. Using a case study format, it will explore the organisation's previous experience with cloud applications, the challenges it faced, the solutions put in place to address those challenges, the results of the deployment, the risks, and finally the benefits of the solution going forward. Finally, the paper will walk the reader through the ten steps that an organisation should take to move its own disaster recovery environment to the cloud.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Organizações
9.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(2): 174-185, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779744

RESUMO

Within South Africa and on the African continent, the various reports of the KING Committees on Corporate Governance have become guiding principles for organisations in both the public and private sector. This paper focuses on the KING IV report and discusses its relevance to the different but interrelated fields of business continuity, organisational resilience and risk management. The paper suggests that organisations seeking to comply with KING IV will need to familiarise themselves with ISO 22301 and the BCI Good Practice Guidelines, as well as ISO 31000.


Assuntos
Comércio , Planejamento em Desastres , Organizações , Setor Privado , Gestão de Riscos
10.
Science ; 366(6469): 1072-1073, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780543
11.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775785

RESUMO

In many African countries, hundreds of health-related NGOs are fed by a chaotic tangle of donor funding streams. The case of Mozambique illustrates how this NGO model impedes Universal Health Coverage. In the 1990s, NGOs multiplied across post-war Mozambique: the country's structural adjustment program constrained public and foreign aid expenditures on the public health system, while donors favored private contractors and NGOs. In the 2000s, funding for HIV/AIDS and other vertical aid from many donors increased dramatically. In 2004, the United States introduced PEPFAR in Mozambique at nearly 500 million USD per year, roughly equivalent to the entire budget of the Ministry of Health. To be sure, PEPFAR funding has helped thousands access antiretroviral treatment, but over 90% of resources flow "off-budget" to NGO "implementing partners," with little left for the public health system. After a decade of this major donor funding to NGOs, public sector health system coverage had barely changed. In 2014, the workforce/ population ratio was still among the five worst in the world at 71/10000; the health facility/per capita ratio worsened since 2009 to only 1 per 16,795. Achieving UHC will require rejection of austerity constraints on public sector health systems, and rechanneling of aid to public systems building rather than to NGOs.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Organizações/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Moçambique , Setor Público/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1348, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination misinformation is associated with serious public health consequences, such as a decrease in vaccination rates and a risk of disease outbreaks. Although social media offers organisations promoting vaccination unparalleled opportunities to promote evidence and counterbalance misinformation, we know relatively little about their internal workings. The aim of this paper is to explore the strategies, perspectives and experiences of communicators working within such organisations as they promote vaccination and respond to misinformation on social media. METHODS: Using qualitative methods, we purposively sampled 21 participants responsible for routine social media activity and strategy from Australian organisations actively promoting vaccination on social media, including government health departments, local health services, advocacy groups, professional associations and technical/scientific organisations. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews to explore their perspectives and practices. Applying Risk Communication principles as a lens, we used Framework Analysis to explore the data both inductively and deductively. RESULTS: Organisations promoting vaccination face multiple challenges on social media, including misinformation, anti-science sentiment, a complex vaccination narrative and anti-vaccine activists. They developed a range of sophisticated strategies in response, including communicating with openness in an evidence-informed way; creating safe spaces to encourage audience dialogue; fostering community partnerships; and countering misinformation with care. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that communicators consider directly countering misinformation because of the potential influence on their silent audience, i.e. those observing but not openly commenting, liking or sharing posts. Refutations should be straightforward, succinct and avoid emphasizing misinformation. Communicators should consider pairing scientific evidence with stories that speak to audience beliefs and values. Finally, organisations could enhance vaccine promotion and their own credibility on social media by forming strong links with organisations sharing similar values and goals.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Organizações/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais , Vacinação , Austrália , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 746, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a key population group due to the high HIV prevalence. Studies show that there are various factors in some contexts that render FSWs marginalised, which limits their access to sexual reproductive health (SRH) services. Access to SRH services are particularly challenging in countries where sex work is criminalised such as is the case in South Africa. Evidently, there are alternative ways in which FSWs in this context receive non-stigmatising SRH care through non-governmental organisations. The aim of this study was to understand the functioning of these non-governmental health care services as well as to document the experiences of FSWs utilising these services. METHODS: Eleven focus group discussions were held with 91 FSWs. In addition, 21 in-depth individual interviews with researchers, stakeholders and FSWs were conducted. Interview guides were utilised for data collection. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: The FSWs expressed challenges related to SRH care access at public health facilities. The majority felt that they could not consult for SRH-related services because of stigma. The non-governmental health and advocacy organisations providing SRH services to FSWs through their mobile facilities utilising the peer approach, have done so in a way that promotes trust between FSWs and mobile health care providers. FSWs have access to tailored services, prevention materials as well as health information. This has resulted in the normalising of HIV testing as well as SRH seeking behaviours. CONCLUSION: This study has established that health and advocacy organisations have attempted to fill the gap in responding to SRH care needs of FSWs amidst intersecting vulnerabilities. FSWs' engagement with these organisations has encouraged their willingness to test for HIV. However, it is important to note that these organisations operate in urban areas, thus FSWs operating outside these areas are most likely exposed to compounding health risks and lack access to tailored services.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organizações/estatística & dados numéricos , Defesa do Paciente , Papel Profissional , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estigma Social , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(4): 321-333, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603522

RESUMO

The West Virginia water contamination crisis began on the morning of January 9, 2014, and left approximately 300,000 customers of the West Virginia American Water Company unable to use the water in their homes for any purpose other than flushing their toilets. Given the lack of appropriate response from the established organizations involved, many emergent organizations formed to help fill unmet informational and physical needs of the affected population. Crisis researchers have observed these ephemeral organizations for decades, but the recent proliferation of information communication technologies have made their activities more widespread and observable. In West Virginia, their activities were indispensable to the affected population and helped restore a sense of normalcy. This article analyzes four emergent organizations that formed in response to the West Virginia water contamination and the functions they performed in different phases of this crisis.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Mídias Sociais , Planejamento em Desastres , Organizações , Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , West Virginia
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 691, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Floresco integrated service model was designed to address the fragmentation of community mental health treatment and support services. Floresco was established in Queensland, Australia, by a consortium of non-government organisations that sought to partner with general practitioners (GPs), private mental health providers and public mental health services to operate a 'one-stop' mental health service hub. METHODS: We conducted an independent mixed-methods evaluation of client outcomes following engagement with Floresco (outcome evaluation) and factors influencing service integration (process evaluation). The main data sources were: (1) routinely-collected Recovery Assessment Scale - Domains and Stages (RAS-DS) scores at intake and review (n = 108); (2) RAS-DS scores, mental health inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) presentations among clients prospectively assessed at intake and six-month follow-up (n = 37); (3) semi-structured interviews with staff from Floresco, consortium partners, private practitioners and the local public mental health service (n = 20); and (4) program documentation. RESULTS: Interviews identified staff commitment, co-location of services, flexibility in problem-solving, and anecdotal evidence of positive client outcomes as important enablers of service integration. Barriers to integration included different organisational practices, difficulties in information-sharing and in attracting and retaining GPs and private practitioners, and systemic constraints on integration with public mental health services. Of 1129 client records, 108 (9.6%) included two RAS-DS measurements, averaging 5 months apart. RAS-DS 'total recovery' scores improved significantly (M = 63.3%, SD = 15.6 vs. M = 69.2%, SD = 16.1; p < 0.001), as did scores on three of the four RAS-DS domains ('Looking forward', p < 0.001; 'Mastering my illness', p < 0.001; and 'Connecting and belonging', p = 0.001). Corresponding improvements, except in 'Connecting and belonging', were seen in the 37 follow-up study participants. Decreases in inpatient admissions (20.9% vs. 7.0%), median length of inpatient stay (8 vs. 3 days), ED presentations (34.8% vs. 6.3%) and median duration of ED visits (187 vs. 147 min) were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of a control group and small follow-up sample size, Floresco's integrated service model showed potential to improve client outcomes and reduce burden on the public mental health system. Horizontal integration of non-government and private services was achieved, and meaningful progress made towards integration with public mental health services.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Organizações , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Queensland
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547480

RESUMO

Changes in social and built environments most likely contribute to a decline in physical activity (PA) and physical fitness in children and adolescents. Organized sports may be an important component in ensuring adequate fitness, which is an important aspect in general health and well-being. The present study examines differences by club sports participation in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, power, speed, agility, flexibility and balance in 3293 (55.1% male) Austrian children and adolescents between 6 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were taken and participants completed the German motor test during regular class time. Even though there was no significant difference in body weight between club sports participants and non-club sports participants, club sports participation was associated with higher physical fitness, particularly regarding endurance, strength, power, and agility. Differences by club sports participation, however, declined during the elementary school years (6-10 years of age), while they became more pronounced during middle school years (10-14 years of age). Club sports participation, therefore, may be a viable option in the promotion of physical fitness, particularly during adolescence. At younger ages, other sources of PA, such as physical education and free play, however, should be considered to ensure sufficient fitness levels that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle.


Assuntos
Exercício , Aptidão Física , Esportes , Adolescente , Áustria , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Força Muscular , Organizações , Educação Física e Treinamento , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 676, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asylum seekers coming to most countries are offered a specific health examination. A previous study concluded that a considerable proportion of those taking part of it in Sweden had poor experiences of the communication in and the usefulness of this examination and had poor health literacy. The aim of this study was to explore in greater depth the experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers among Arabic- and Somali-speaking participants in Sweden. A secondary aim was to examine experiences and discuss findings using a health literacy framework. METHODS: Seven focus group discussions were conducted with 28 Arabic and Somali speaking men and women that participated in a health examination for asylum seekers. Data were analyzed by latent content analysis. RESULTS: One overarching theme - beneficial and detrimental - was found to represent the participants' experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers. Three categories were identified that deal with those experiences. The category of "gives some good" describes the examination as something that "gives support and relief" and "cares on a personal level." The category of "causes feelings of insecurity" describes the examination as something that "lacks clarity" and that "does not give protection." The category "causes feelings of disappointment" views the examination as something that "does not fulfil the image of a health examination" and "does not focus on the individual level." CONCLUSION: The health examination for asylum seekers was experienced as beneficial and detrimental at the same time. The feelings were influenced by the experiences of information and communication before, during and after the examination and on how health literate the organizations providing the HEA are. To achieve more satisfied participants, it is crucial that all organizations providing the HEA become health literate and person-centered.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Refugiados/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes , Comunicação , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organizações , Satisfação Pessoal , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Somália/etnologia , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
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