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1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(6): 413-419, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514215

RESUMO

Objective: To obtain the perspectives of some small- and medium-sized organizations on the World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification programme for medicines and to ascertain organizations' unmet needs. Methods: We conducted an exploratory, qualitative study in 2018 among 17 representatives of 15 small- and medium-sized Belgian and non-Belgian organizations who purchase medicines for humanitarian, development or public programmes in low- and middle-income countries. We used semi-structured interviews to obtain respondents' views and experiences of using WHO prequalification guidance when procuring medicines. We identified emerging themes and formulated recommendations about the activities of the WHO Prequalification Team. Findings: Most respondents suggested expanding prequalification to essential antibiotics, particularly paediatric formulations; and insulin, antihypertensives and cancer treatments. Respondents were concerned about irregular availability of WHO-prequalified medicines in the marketplace and sometimes high prices of prequalified products. Small organizations, in particular, had difficulties negotiating low-volume purchases. Organizations working in primary health care and hospitals seldom referred to the prequalified lists. Conclusion: We recommend that the WHO-prequalified products be expanded to include essential antibiotics and medicines for noncommunicable diseases. The WHO Prequalification Team could require prequalified manufacturers to make publicly available the details of their authorized distributors and facilitate a process of harmonization of quality assurance policies across all donors. Prequalification of distributors and procurement agencies could help create more transparent and stringent mechanisms. We urge WHO Member States and funders to sustain support for the WHO Prequalification Team, which remains important for the fulfilment of universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Saúde Global , Organizações/organização & administração , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribução , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Antibacterianos/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Organizações/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 144-147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573753

RESUMO

Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly common in conflict zones throughout the world. They provide services that have been the responsibility of understaffed, undersupplied, and undertrained local nations and communities. However, these organizations face many difficulties. They are walking a thin line between militaries, governments, and local politics. They must find ways to stay supplied and staffed. The research presented in this article focuses on three NGOs and the impact they are making throughout the world. By understanding the role these organizations play in providing medical relief to conflict zones without the help of government agencies, one can see the importance of their work and the struggles they face.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Governo , Humanos , Militares , Política
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(693): 993-997, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401440

RESUMO

Humanitarian work is stressful and can have an impact on the mental health of humanitarian expatriates. In order to reduce stress and its consequences, humanitarian organizations are implementing various measures to keep their staff healthy. Humanitarian workers, on the other hand, must take care of themselves and apply self-protection mechanisms. Most humanitarian workers are doing well. The treating doctor plays a key role in detecting people and behavior at risk. He/she encourages the expatriate to use his/her resources and provide the adequate support and medical follow-up if necessary. Collaboration with the staff health units of humanitarian organizations allows for optimal care of humanitarian workers' medical conditions.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Socorro em Desastres , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Organizações/organização & administração , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Soins ; 65(842): 21-49, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245552
6.
J Health Commun ; 25(4): 301-302, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306859

RESUMO

As the world reacts with unprecedented efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, the role of organizational leaders is to embark on a parallel track to keep mission-critical initiatives moving forward. One track includes preparing their organizations for the next "novel" virus. After all, organizations do not hire leaders to maintain the status quo; they are hired to drive the future. As much as death and taxes are inevitable, it is equally predictable that all organizations will sooner or later confront a black swan event. History teaches us that while the order of magnitude may vary, management crises are not entirely novel. This article explores a series of early risk mitigation strategies to prevent the next COVID-19 and prepare leadership to face this inevitable challenge.


Assuntos
Liderança , Organizações/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Humanos , Organizações/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
9.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 51(2): 177-188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138856

RESUMO

There exists an unmet need for locally relevant and sustainable orthopedic research in low- and middle-income countries. Partnerships between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries can bridge gaps in resources, knowledge, infrastructure, and skill. This article presents a select list of models for high-income countries/low- and middle-income countries research partnerships including academic partnerships, international research consortia, professional society-associated working groups, and nongovernmental organization partnerships. Models that produce research with lasting legacy are those that promote mutually beneficial partnerships over individual gains.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ortopedia/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Saúde Global , Relações Interinstitucionais , América do Norte , Organizações/economia , Organizações/organização & administração , Ortopedia/economia , Pobreza
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106228

RESUMO

A superlative combination of the Board of Directors (BOD) with diverse members is considered a sign of a good governance structure. Meanwhile, the key decision taken by BOD to make organizations profitable is the capital structure with the optimal mix of debt and equity. Unfortunately, previous literature has reported this relationship with a mixed trend, which may be due to research gaps in the statistical analysis. Moreover, it also shows that the relationship between them has not yet been fully predicted and can still be completely understood. This study contains time-variant and time-invariant variables, and these variables usually have an outlier's problem. As we know that the OLS estimators are more sensitive to react adversely to this problem, yet we have not received enough evidence from similar researches that cares about it. Consistent with these arguments, this study focuses primarily on exploring the influence of corporate governance structure and the capital structure on firms' market-oriented and accounting-based performance, especially with the contemplation of outliers. Hypotheses have been evaluated using M-estimators and S-estimators of robust regression for 45 listed firms for the period from 2013 to 2017. The findings reveal that the governance structure of firms with BOD, independent director, institutional investors, audit committee and female directors accelerates its performance. Further, we find that the leverage ratio improves accounting performance, but it has a downward impact on the share prices of listed firms. Our study contributes to the prevailing literature by proving that the kind of governance structure that based on diverse expert members and a capital structure with a high volume of debt is of utmost importance to the performance of firms as a whole.


Assuntos
Organizações/economia , Organizações/organização & administração , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 106, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organizational readiness assessments have a history of being developed as important support tools for successful implementation. However, it remains unclear how best to operationalize readiness across varied projects or settings. We conducted a synthesis and content analysis of published readiness instruments to compare how investigators have operationalized the concept of organizational readiness for change. METHODS: We identified readiness assessments using a systematic review and update search. We mapped individual assessment items to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which identifies five domains affecting implementation (outer setting, inner setting, intervention characteristics, characteristics of individuals, and implementation process) and multiple constructs within each domain. RESULTS: Of 1370 survey items, 897 (68%) mapped to the CFIR domain of inner setting, most commonly related to constructs of readiness for implementation (n = 220); networks and communication (n = 207); implementation climate (n = 204); structural characteristics (n = 139); and culture (n = 93). Two hundred forty-two items (18%) mapped to characteristics of individuals (mainly other personal attributes [n = 157] and self-efficacy [n = 52]); 80 (6%) mapped to outer setting; 51 (4%) mapped to implementation process; 40 (3%) mapped to intervention characteristics; and 60 (4%) did not map to CFIR constructs. Instruments were typically tailored to specific interventions or contexts. DISCUSSION: Available readiness instruments predominantly focus on contextual factors within the organization and characteristics of individuals, but the specificity of most assessment items suggests a need to tailor items to the specific scenario in which an assessment is fielded. Readiness assessments must bridge the gap between measuring a theoretical construct and factors of importance to a particular implementation.


Assuntos
Inovação Organizacional , Organizações/organização & administração , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Disasters ; 44(1): 25-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231841

RESUMO

Although the literature is increasingly concerned with cooperation among humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs), we still lack studies that explain cooperation under conditions of competition. Drawing on 22 semi-structured interviews, this article argues that trust is the driving force behind security-related cooperation within networks of humanitarian NGOs. Which type of trust comes into play and how trust is built depends on the structure of a network. In small, stable networks, trust is typically based on experience, whereas shared identity is at the heart of trust in large, unstable networks. In the latter case, cooperation among humanitarian NGOs is exclusive and comparable to a form of club governance, because NGOs are kept out based on their identity-that is, if they adopt a different operational interpretation of the humanitarian principles.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Organizações/organização & administração , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Confiança/psicologia , Humanos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1348, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination misinformation is associated with serious public health consequences, such as a decrease in vaccination rates and a risk of disease outbreaks. Although social media offers organisations promoting vaccination unparalleled opportunities to promote evidence and counterbalance misinformation, we know relatively little about their internal workings. The aim of this paper is to explore the strategies, perspectives and experiences of communicators working within such organisations as they promote vaccination and respond to misinformation on social media. METHODS: Using qualitative methods, we purposively sampled 21 participants responsible for routine social media activity and strategy from Australian organisations actively promoting vaccination on social media, including government health departments, local health services, advocacy groups, professional associations and technical/scientific organisations. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews to explore their perspectives and practices. Applying Risk Communication principles as a lens, we used Framework Analysis to explore the data both inductively and deductively. RESULTS: Organisations promoting vaccination face multiple challenges on social media, including misinformation, anti-science sentiment, a complex vaccination narrative and anti-vaccine activists. They developed a range of sophisticated strategies in response, including communicating with openness in an evidence-informed way; creating safe spaces to encourage audience dialogue; fostering community partnerships; and countering misinformation with care. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that communicators consider directly countering misinformation because of the potential influence on their silent audience, i.e. those observing but not openly commenting, liking or sharing posts. Refutations should be straightforward, succinct and avoid emphasizing misinformation. Communicators should consider pairing scientific evidence with stories that speak to audience beliefs and values. Finally, organisations could enhance vaccine promotion and their own credibility on social media by forming strong links with organisations sharing similar values and goals.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Organizações/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais , Vacinação , Austrália , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 263-267, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183747

RESUMO

Objective: Until 2016, around 3 million persons had limited access to health care in Greece due to the economic crisis. We describe a massive solidarity movement of community clinics and pharmacies in Greece. Method: We conducted a survey in 2014-15 and describe the characteristics of community clinics and pharmacies spontaneously established all over Greece after 2008. Results: A characteristic of the 92 active solidarity clinics is autonomous collective functioning, free services, and funding from non-governmental sources. The largest clinics examined more than 500 uninsured or partly insured patients per month. Clinics covered a wide range of clinical and preventive services. Funding, availability of drugs, vaccines, medical material and their legal status were the main problems identified. The solidarity movement involved thousands of health professionals covering essential population needs. Conclusions: The community outpatient clinics were an outstanding example of solidarity and temporarily alleviated the health needs of a large part of the population


Objetivo: Hasta 2016, alrededor de 3 millones de personas tenían acceso limitado a la atención médica en Grecia debido a la crisis económica. Describimos un movimiento masivo de solidaridad de clínicas comunitarias y farmacias en Grecia. Métodos: Realizamos una encuesta en 2014-15 y describimos las características de las clínicas comunitarias y de las farmacias espontáneamente establecidas en toda Grecia después de 2008. Resultados: Una característica de las 92 clínicas solidarias activas es el funcionamiento colectivo autónomo, con servicios gratuitos y financiación de fuentes no gubernamentales. Las clínicas más grandes examinaron más de 500 pacientes no asegurados o parcialmente asegurados por mes. Las clínicas cubrieron una amplia gama de servicios clínicos y preventivos. La financiación, la disponibilidad de medicamentos, vacunas y material médico, y su estado legal, son los principales problemas identificados. El movimiento de solidaridad involucró a miles de profesionales de la salud que cubrieron las necesidades esenciales de la población. Conclusiones: Las clínicas ambulatorias comunitarias fueron un ejemplo de solidaridad y aliviaron temporalmente las necesidades de salud de una gran parte de la población


Assuntos
Humanos , Solidariedade , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Mudança Social , Grécia/epidemiologia , Recessão Econômica , Resolução de Problemas , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Organizações/organização & administração , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Colaboração Intersetorial
18.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(2): 81-83, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181180

RESUMO

En los campos específicos de la gestión de la prevención de riesgos laborales (PRL) y la responsabilidad social (RS) han surgido en los últimos meses importantes novedades con la aprobación de la norma ISO 45001:2018 sobre sistemas de gestión de la seguridad y salud laboral, así como con la publicación en materia de RS del ISO International Workshop Agreement-IWA 26:2017, sobre el uso de la norma ISO 26000:2010 para aquellas organizaciones que han implementado una o más normas ISO sobre sistemas de gestión. Todo ello define nuevos escenarios de normalización, siendo especialmente novedoso el escenario vinculado a la norma ISO 45001:2018 e IWA 26:2010, el cual presenta nuevas oportunidades a través de la integración de los marcos de gestión en materia de PRL y RSP


In the specific fields of occupational safety and health (OSH) and social responsibility (SR) management, important developments have emerged in recent months following the approval of ISO 45001:2018 on OSH management and the publication on SR of the ISO International Workshop Agreement-IWA 26: 2017 on the use of the ISO 26000:2010 standard for those organizations that have implemented one or more ISO standards on management systems. This creates new standardization scenarios, one of the most novel being the scenario linked to ISO 45001:2018 and IWA 26:2010, which presents new opportunities through the integration of management frameworks in OSH and SR


Assuntos
Riscos Ocupacionais , Programa de Prevenção de Riscos no Ambiente de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Responsabilidade Social , Organizações/organização & administração
19.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e2, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Alma-Ata Declaration's commitment to primary health care (PHC) reaches its 40th anniversary in 2018. Over the last 40 years, the number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in low-income countries (LICs) has rapidly multiplied, and over time, NGOs have both positively and negatively impacted equity, effectiveness, appropriateness and efficiency of PHC systems in LICs. AIM: The authors aim to demonstrate that at the 40th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration's commitment to PHC, NGOs are particularly poised to strengthen PHC in LICs. METHODS: In this letter, the authors reflect on how NGOs have both positively and negatively impacted equity, effectiveness, appropriateness and efficiency of PHC systems based on their experience working with NGOs in LICs. RESULTS: NGOs are poised to strengthen PHC in LICs in four distinct ways: assisting with local human resources development, strengthening local information systems, enabling community-based health services and testing innovative service delivery projects. CONCLUSIONS: The authors call for NGOs to commit their expertise and resources to long-term strengthening of PHC in LICs and to critically examine the factors that prevent or assist them in this goal. As the principles of Alma-Ata are renewed, NGOs should be responsibly engaged in strengthening the declaration's goal of 'health for all'.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Assistência à Saúde/história , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Organizações/história , Atenção Primária à Saúde/história
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 556, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study aimed to test the potential effectiveness and acceptability of an intervention to support the implementation of 16 recommended policies and practices to improve the health promotion environment of junior sporting clubs. Reported child exposure to health promoting practices at clubs was also assessed. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial was conducted with eight football leagues. Fourty-one junior football clubs belonging to four leagues in the intervention group received support (e.g. physical resources, recognition and rewards, systems and prompts) to implement 16 policies and practices that targeted child exposure to alcohol, tobacco, healthy food and beverages, and participation in physical activity. Thirty-eight clubs belonging to the four control group leagues did not receive the implementation intervention. Study outcomes were assessed via telephone interviews with nominated club representatives and parents of junior players. Between group differences in the mean number of policies and practices implemented at the club level at follow-up were examined using a multiple linear regression model. RESULTS: While the intervention was found to be acceptable, there was no significant difference between the mean number of practices and policies reported to be implemented by intervention and control clubs at post-intervention (Estimate - 0.05; 95% CI -0.91, 0.80; p = 0.90). There was also no significant difference in the proportion of children reported to be exposed to: alcohol (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.41, 3.28; p = 0.78); tobacco (OR 0.97; CI 0.45, 2.10; p = 0.94); healthy food purchases (OR 0.49; CI 0.11, 2.27; p = 0.35); healthy drink purchases (OR 1.48; CI 0.72, 3.05; p = 0.27); or participation in physical activity (OR 0.76; CI 0.14, 4.08; p = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Support strategies that better address barriers to the implementation of health promotion interventions in junior sports clubs are required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12617001044314 ).


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Organizações/organização & administração , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Futebol
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