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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1801-1810, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742815

RESUMO

To explore the pollution characteristics, potential sources, and ecological and health risk of organophosphate eaters (OPEs) in the surface water of Taihu Lake, water samples from 18 surrounding rivers were collected, as well as 11 water samples from Taihu Lake. The concentrations of 13 OPEs in the water were determined using UPLC-MS/MS, and the spatial distribution of the OPEs in surface water of Taihu Lake basin was further analyzed. The results indicate that, in addition to tripropyl phosphate (TPrP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), and tricresyl phosphate (TCrP), ten OPEs were detected in all the water samples, the total concentration (ΣOPEs) ranged from 152.5 ng·L-1 to 2524 ng·L-1, and the concentration median value was 519.2 ng·L-1. Tri(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were the dominant OPEs, with the concentration ranges of 73.7-1753.9 ng·L-1 (medium value:204.6 ng·L-1) and 43.9-313.5 ng·L-1 (medium value:131.3 ng·L-1), respectively. The ΣOPEs decreased from the northwest region to the southeast, which corresponds to the economic and industrial development. The results of the source identification reveal that the wastewater discharge from electronics and textile enterprises, construction materials, and vehicular and marine traffic emissions may be the principal sources of the OPEs in Taihu Lake. The ecological risk assessment results indicate that only TCPP, tri(dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) in some sites had a low risk. The health risk assessment reveals that there were no risks based on water intake, but the long-term risk of OPEs to the aquatic ecosystem and surrounding residents still need attention.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Lagos , Organofosfatos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670472

RESUMO

As a first step toward studying the properties of Novichok (ethyl (1-(diethylamino)ethylidene)phosphoramidofluoridate (A234)), we investigated its degradation products and fragmentation pathways in aqueous solution at different pH levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A234 was synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three sets of aqueous samples were prepared at different pH levels. A stock solution of A234 was prepared in acetonitrile at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and stored at -20 °C until use. Aqueous samples (0.1 mg/mL) were prepared by diluting the stock solution with deionized water. The acidic aqueous sample (pH = 3.5) and basic aqueous sample (pH = 9.4) were prepared using 0.01 M acetic acid and 0.01 M potassium carbonate, respectively. The analysis of the fragmentation patterns and degradation pathways of A234 showed that the same degradation products were formed at all pH levels. However, the hydrolysis rate of A234 was fastest under acidic conditions. In all three conditions, the fragmentation pattern and the major degradation product of A234 were determined. This information will be applicable to studies regarding the decontamination of Novichok and the trace analysis of its degradation products in various environmental matrices.


Assuntos
Agentes Neurotóxicos/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Organofosfatos/química , Soluções , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116396, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535362

RESUMO

Landfills represent important sources of local emissions of organic contaminants, including halogenated (HFR) and organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants used in a large variety of consumer products. Gulls foraging in landfills may be exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of HFRs and OPEs that may vary spatially and temporally within a landfill site, thus modulating their exposure. The objective of the present study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of HFR and OPE concentrations in air samples collected from a major landfill in the Montreal area (QC, Canada) that is frequently visited by gulls for foraging. Miniature stationary passive air samplers (PASs) and high-volume active air samplers (AASs) were deployed in six different areas within this landfill site for 34 days to collect HFRs and OPEs in air. During the same period, wild-caught ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) were equipped on their back with a similar miniature PAS that was deployed in the landfill along with a GPS datalogger to monitor their movements for ten days. Elevated concentrations of certain OPEs (e.g., tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-209 were measured in stationary PASs and AASs, although they were homogenously distributed within this landfill site. Temporal variability was observed for concentrations of BDE-209, -99 and -47 measured in AASs as well as tributyl phosphate during the 34-day deployment period. Moreover, air concentrations of BDE-209, -207 and -206 and selected OPEs (tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate) determined using AASs were positively correlated with ambient air temperatures. Gulls that visited a landfill at least once exhibited significantly greater concentrations of BDE-47 measured in PASs they carried on their back, suggesting that landfill air may represent a source of exposure to PBDEs for these birds, and potentially other urban-adapted wildlife using these sites for foraging.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Organofosfatos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
4.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 33(1): 67-78, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518515

RESUMO

Pesticides are chemical or biological agents used to repel or kill pests. Pesticides are potent and lethal toxic substances that are also being infamously used for homicidal purposes due to their easy availability and rapid action. In this review, we look at 21 articles related to homicidal pesticide poisoning in the literature with an emphasis on fatal doses, routes of administration, and profiles of victims and perpetrators. Organophosphates and rodenticides were the most commonly used classes of pesticides, and ingestion was the most common route of administration; however, other modes of administration, such as through intraperitoneal injection, were also reported. Interestingly, we have noticed that victims involved in homicidal poisoning were mostly in close relationships with perpetrators. Most perpetrators were either spouses or other immediate family members. Abiding by the regulations that govern the production, sale, and use of pesticides and proper documentation of the related trail can help control the prevalence of homicidal pesticide poisoning. Recognition of the distinct morbid anatomy of the poisoning cases, alongside a high index of suspicion in cases that fit the profile, is essential for forensic analysis.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/envenenamento , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Organofosfatos
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 146, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635436

RESUMO

The occurrence and profiles of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were investigated in the Huangpu and Shiwuli Rivers, two urban rivers in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total concentrations of OPEs were found at part-per-trillion ranges, with average concentrations that ranged from 424 to 1.84 × 103 ng L-1 for Huangpu River and 221 to 1.84 × 103 ng L-1 for Shiwuli River. Three chlorinated OPFRs including tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were the most abundant compounds among the investigated OPFRs, accounting for 90.6-99.8% of total concentrations. In Huangpu River, the OPFR concentrations were significantly higher in the dry season than in the wet season which indicates obvious seasonal variation. Chlorinated OPFR concentrations differed significantly between upstream and downstream reaches of the Shiwuli River, as the result of geographic features and wastewater discharge. Estimated risk was calculated to compare predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) to observed concentrations of OPFRs. The results indicated no significant acute adverse effects of OPFRs in the two urban rivers for fish, daphnia, or algae.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Rios , Águas Residuárias
6.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(2): 62, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528714

RESUMO

Nowadays, the incidence of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) is increasing. The increased bioavailability and reduced drug resistance of antibiotics are crucial to obtain a more effective treatment response in these infections. These favorable properties could be achieved by different drug delivery systems such as liposomes. In this study, nanosized, radiolabeled tedizolid phosphate liposomal formulations were prepared and evaluated with their in vitro cellular binding capacity and biocompatible profile for topical treatment of ABSSSI. Liposomes were characterized by evaluation of their visual inspection, particle size (about 190-270 nm), zeta potential value (around 0), and encapsulation efficiency (nearly 10%). The release rate of tedizolid phosphate from liposomes was also studied using dialysis membranes and evaluated kinetically. The stability of formulations was observed at three different temperatures and humidity conditions for 28 days. Afterward, liposomes were labeled with 99mTc, and the optimal amount of reducing agent (stannous chloride) was determined as 500 µg in this direct labeling procedure. All liposome formulations were successfully radiolabeled with high efficiency and exhibited high radiochemical purity (> 80%) during 6 h in different media. Furthermore, the cellular bindings of liposomal formulations were evaluated in human skin fibroblast cells by measuring the radioactivity. Higher radioactivity values were obtained in CCD-1070Sk cells incubated by liposome formulations compared to sodium pertechnetate. This finding suggested that liposomal formulation increased the cellular binding of radioactivity. By the result of our study, nanosized, tedizolid phosphate encapsulated liposome formulation was found to be a favorable carrier system in the treatment of ABSSSI.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Organofosfatos/administração & dosagem , Organofosfatos/farmacocinética , Oxazóis/administração & dosagem , Oxazóis/farmacocinética , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Tecnécio/farmacocinética , Administração Tópica , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/farmacocinética , Organofosfatos/química , Oxazóis/química
7.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116586, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529897

RESUMO

Cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), as a kind of aryl substituted organophosphate esters (OPEs), is commonly used as emerging flame retardants and plasticizers detected in environmental media. Due to the accumulation of CDP in organisms, it is very important to discover the toxicological mechanism and metabolic process of CDP. Hence, liver microsomes of crucian carps (Carassius carassius) were prepared for in vitro metabolism kinetics assay to estimate metabolism rates of CDP. After 140 min incubation, the depletion of CDP accounted for 58.1%-77.1% (expect 0.5 and 2 µM) of the administrated concentrations. The depletion rates were best fitted to the Michaelis-Menten model (R2 = 0.995), where maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were 12,700 ± 2120 pmol min-1·mg-1 protein and 1030 ± 212 µM, respectively. Moreover, the in vitro hepatic clearance (CLint) of CDP was 12.3 µL min-1·mg-1 protein. Log Kow and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of aryl-OPEs were both higher than those of alkyl- and chlorinated-OPEs, indicating that CDP may easily accumulate in aquatic organisms. The results made clear that the metabolism rate of CDP was greater than those of other OPEs detected in liver microsomes in previous research. This paper was first of its kind to comprehensively investigate the in vitro metabolic kinetics of CDP in fish liver microsomes. The present study might provide useful information to understand the environmental fate and metabolic processes of these kinds of substances, and also provide a theoretical basis for the ecological risk assessment of emerging contaminants.


Assuntos
Carpas , Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo , Cinética , Microssomos Hepáticos , Organofosfatos , Fosfatos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116541, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529899

RESUMO

Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), a group of new emerging endocrine disruption chemicals, have been reported to cause metabolic disturbance. Currently, mitochondrial abnormality is a new paradigm for evaluating chemical-mediated metabolic disruption. However, a comprehensive correlation between these two aspects of OPFR remains elusive. In the work reported here, 3 markers for morphological abnormality, and 7 markers of mitochondrial dysfunction were detected after treatment with two aryl-OPFRs (TCP and TPhP) and three chlorinated-OPFRs (TDCPP, TCPP, and TCEP) on hepatocyte. The two aryl-OPFRs and TDCPP can cause intracellular lipid accumulation at non-cytotoxic concentrations (<10 µM), while the other two chlorinated-OPFRs only caused lipid deposition at 10 µM. Furthermore, at the tested concentrations, all of them reduced mitochondrial (mito)-network numbers, enlarged mito-area/cells, and skewed mitoATP/glycoATP. Excluding TCEP, the other four chemicals induced mito-ROS and depleted mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Notably, only TCP, TPhP and TDCPP impeded mitoATP generation rate and mito-respiratory rate. Based on potency estimates, the capacity for lipid accumulation was significantly correlated with mito-network numbers (R2 = 0.6481, p < 0.01), mitoATP/glycoATP (R2 = 0.5197, p < 0.01), mitoROS (R2 = 0.7197, p < 0.01), and MMP (R2 = 0.7715, p < 0.01). Remarkably, the mito-respiratory rate (R2 = 0.8753, p < 0.01) exhibited the highest correlation. Thus, the more potent lipid inducers TPhP, TCP and TDCPP could be identified. The results of this study demonstrate that aryl-OPFRs are more potent in metabolic disruption than other esters examined. Metabolic disruption should be examined further for chemicals that have the capacity to counteract the aforementioned functions of mitochondrial.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hepatócitos , Mitocôndrias , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1639: 461938, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535116

RESUMO

A sorbent for the extraction of organophosphorus flame retardants has been proposed, based on UVM-7 (University of Valencia Materials) mesoporous silica doped with titanium. Designed cartridges have been applied to the extraction and preconcentration of flame retardants in water samples, followed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector. Firstly, UVM-7 materials with different contents of titanium were synthesized and characterized by several techniques, thus confirming the proper mesoporous architecture. The potential of these materials was assessed in comparison with their morphological properties, resulting Ti50-UVM-7 the best solid phase. Several extraction parameters were also optimized. Analytical parameters were also evaluated, and limits of detection from 0.019 to 0.21 ng mL-1 were obtained, as well as intra-day relative standard deviation below 11% for all analytes. Extraction efficiencies above 80% in water samples were achieved. The reusability of the material was also proved. Finally, the designed protocol was applied for the analysis of real water samples, and quantifiable concentrations of tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were obtained in some samples. The method was compared with a United States Environmental Protection Agency general method with C18 cartridges.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Dióxido de Silício/química , Titânio/química , Água/química , Adsorção , Limite de Detecção , Organofosfatos/análise , Porosidade , Microextração em Fase Sólida
10.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116660, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582632

RESUMO

Evidence on the relationship between lifestyle, socio-economic factors and pesticide exposure and urinary concentrations of organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites among children is generally incomplete. This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic factors and reported pesticide exposures and the sum of three urinary concentrations of dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAP) among boys living in the rural areas of the Western Cape, South Africa. Data was collected during a cross-sectional study of 183 boys from three agricultural intense areas. Measurements included a questionnaire on socio-economic and pesticide exposures and urinary DAP concentrations. Most boys (70%) lived on farms with a median age of 12 years (range: 5.0-19.5 years). Children aged >14 years had lower DAP urine concentrations (median = 39.9 ng/ml; ß = -68.1 ng/ml; 95% CI: -136.8, 0.6) than children aged 9 years and younger (median = 107.0 ng/ml). DAP concentrations also varied significantly with area, with concentrations in the grape farming area, Hex River Valley (median = 61.8 ng/ml; ß = -52.1; 95% CI: -97.9, -6.3 ng/ml) and the wheat farming area, Piketberg (median = 72.4 ng/ml; ß = -54.2; 95% CI: 98.8, -9.7 ng/ml) lower than those in the pome farming area, Grabouw (median = 79.9 ng/ml). Other weaker and non-significant associations with increased DAP levels were found with increased household income, member of household working with pesticides, living on a farm, drinking water from an open water source and eating crops from the vineyard and or garden. The study found younger age and living in and around apple and grape farms to be associated with increased urinary DAP concentrations. Additionally, there were other pesticide exposures and socio-economic and lifestyle factors that were weakly associated with elevated urinary DAP levels requiring further study. The study provided more evidence on factors associated to urinary DAP concentrations especially in developing country settings.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144752, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540161

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are common additives in a wide range of commercial and industrial products. Elevated and prolonged exposure to OPEs may induce several adverse effects. This is concerning as they are ubiquitous in air, indoor dust, drinking water, and other environmental matrices. However, information on the presence of OPEs in foodstuffs and consequent health risks remains scant. This review critically evaluates available information on levels and sources of OPEs in food, discusses the relative significance of diet as a pathway of human exposure, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests directions for future research. For toddlers, dermal uptake from dust ingestion appears the predominant pathway of exposure to chlorinated OPEs, as well as ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). In contrast, diet appears the main pathway of exposure to all eight OPEs considered for adults, and for tri n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP), and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) for toddlers. While summed exposures via all pathways are within reference dose (RfD) values, they do not include high-end exposure estimates, and for highly-exposed individuals, the margin between exposure and RfD values is smaller. Moreover, our exposure estimates are based on a meta-analysis of multiple exposure assessments conducted over a range of points in space and time. There is an urgent need for assessments of human exposure to OPEs that examine all relevant pathways in a spatially and temporally-consistent fashion. Given food is an important exposure pathway to OPEs, regular monitoring of their presence as well as their metabolites (that may have toxicological significance) in foodstuffs is recommended. While dermal uptake from indoor dust appears an important human exposure pathway, no evaluations exist of exposure via dermal uptake from OPE-containing products such as foam-filled furniture. This review also highlights very few data exist on OPEs in drinking water.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Adulto , China , Poeira/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise , Organofosfatos/toxicidade
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145404, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548720

RESUMO

Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used chemicals, whereas data on OPFRs in human being is limited. In this study, thirteen OPFRs were measured in 105 breast milk samples collected from Beijing mothers in 2018. The ∑13OPFRs ranged from

Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Leite Humano , Pequim , China , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Organofosfatos/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Medição de Risco
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145604, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592467

RESUMO

This study will help to clarify the relationship between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress and paraoxonases (PON) polymorphisms to further characterize the gene-environment interaction. This case-control study enrolled 85 children with ADHD and 96 control subjects. Urinary OP levels were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidative stress biomarkers, such as 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2-Gua), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S) were calculated to evaluate the additive interactions between OP exposure and PON genetic polymorphism on ADHD. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to clarify the mediation effects of oxidative stress due to OP exposure on ADHD. Children with ADHD had significantly higher DMP (238.95 nmol/g cre. vs. 164.83 nmol/g cre., p value = 0.01) and HNE-MA (30.75 µg/g cre. vs. 18.41 µg/g cre., p value<0.01) concentrations than control children. Children who carried the PON1 GG genotype (rs705379) had low urinary DMP levels, and the level increased with increasing numbers of allele variants. The risk for developing ADHD reached 2.06-fold (OR = 2.06, 95% CI:1.23-3.44) and 1.43-fold (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.04-2.03) when the DMP and HNE-MA levels increased by 1 natural log of the concentration, respectively. The estimated AP value was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.17-1.15), indicating that 66% of ADHD cases in DMP-exposed children with the PON1 CT/TT (rs705381) genotype were due to gene-environment interactions. No significant mediation of HNE-MA was observed between DMP exposure and the risk of ADHD. The estimated proportion mediated was only 7.0% (95% CI: -0.08-0.46). This research suggests the role of OP exposure in the occurrence of ADHD after adjusting for covariates.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Polimorfismo Genético , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116729, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618115

RESUMO

The environmental load of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants has caused a series of problems due to their extensive use. The soil matrix, as an ultimate sink for organic pollution, plays a vital part in the fate of OPEs in the environment. In this study, the spatial occurrence, composition profile and health risk of 13 OPE species in farmland soils from four provinces of China were characterized. Excluding tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP) and ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), the remaining eleven OPEs had a high detection frequency (DF) ranging from 60% to 100%. The range of total OPE (ΣOPE) concentrations were 62.3-394 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a median of 228 ng/g dw. Among these OPEs, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) with a median of 143 ng/g dw) was the predominant species, followed by tricresyl phosphate (TCP; median of 20.1 ng/g dw) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP; median of 17.9 ng/g dw). In terms of geographical distribution, significantly lower OPEs levels were found in samples from Heilongjiang (159 ± 47.0 ng/g dw) than in those of Guangxi (264 ± 66.0 ng/g dw), Henan (252 ± 74.5 ng/g dw) and Hubei (242 ± 52.8 ng/g dw) provinces. Principal component analysis and Spearman's correlations were used to reveal potential sources of OPEs in the different provincial regions. Health risk exposure to OPEs in farmland soils was at an acceptable level (<1.20 × 10-5 for non-carcinogenic risk to children as the most sensitive age group; and <6.47 × 10-10 for carcinogenic risk to adults as the most sensitive age group) at the present detected concentrations. However, TCEP and TEHP, the predominant risk contributors, should be paid more attention.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Solo , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Fazendas , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116701, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621737

RESUMO

Since humans spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor exposure can be an important non-dietary pathway to hazardous organic contaminants. It is thus important to characterize the chemical composition of indoor dust to assess the total contaminant exposure and estimate human health risks. The aim of this investigation was to perform a comprehensive chemical characterization of indoor dust. First, the robustness of an adopted extraction method using ultrasonication was evaluated for 85 target compounds. Thereafter, a workflow combining target analysis, suspect screening analysis (SSA) and nontarget analysis (NTA) was applied to dust samples from different indoor environments. Chemical analysis was performed using both gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Although suppressing matrix effects were prominent, target analysis enabled the quantification of organophosphate/brominated flame retardants (OPFRs/BFRs), liquid crystal monomers (LCMs), toluene diisocyanate, bisphenols, pesticides and tributyl citrate. The SSA confirmed the presence of OPFRs but also enabled the detection of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and phthalates/parabens. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis and scaled mass defect plots in the NTA workflow confirmed the presence of the above mentioned compounds, as well as detect other contaminants such as tetrabromobisphenol A, triclocarban, diclofenac and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, which were further confirmed using pure standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 112007, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493637

RESUMO

Consistent gathering of immunotoxic substances on earth is a serious global issue affecting people under pathogenic stress. Organophosphates are among such hazardous compounds that are ubiquitous in nature. They fuel oxidative stress to impair antiviral immune response in living entities. Aside, organophosphates promote cytokine burst and pyroptosis in broncho-alveolar chambers leading to severe respiratory ailments. At present, we witness COVID-19 outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infection triggers cytokine storm coupled with inflammatory manifestations and pulmonary disorders in patients. Since organophosphate-exposure promotes necroinflammation and respiratory troubles hence during current pandemic situation, additional exposure to such chemicals can exacerbate inflammatory outcome and pulmonary maladies in patients, or pre-exposure to organophosphates might turn-out to be a risk factor for compromised immunity. Fortunately, antioxidants alleviate organophosphate-induced immunosuppression and hence under co-exposure circumstances, dietary intake of antioxidants would be beneficial to boost immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/etiologia , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , /patogenicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Piroptose , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 112013, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454638

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and profile of 14 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in surface water and sediment of the whole Bohai Sea. A total of 53 pairs of surface water and sediment samples were collected and the contained OPEs were quantified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentrations of OPEs in surface water and sediment were in the range of 0-92.9 ng/L and 0.001-8.58 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively, with tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as the predominant congener in both compartments. The total concentrations of 14 OPEs (∑14OPEs) in surface water and sediment were in the range of 10.9-516.4 ng/L and 1.42-52.9 ng/g dw, respectively. The inventories of ∑14OPEs were calculated to be 179.3 tons in the water and 101.5 tons in the sediment. Based on the risk quotients (RQs), the ecological risks of OPEs to the aquatic organisms in the Bohai Sea were considered to be negligible.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144433, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422958

RESUMO

We investigated the occurrence, compositions, and partitioning behaviors of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in indoor dust, air, and ornamental plants in Dalian, China, to evaluate the possibility of using houseplants as indoor biosamplers of OPFRs. The mean concentrations of OPFRs in the indoor air, dust, and plant samples were 14.9 ng/m3, 18,000 ng/g, and 345 ng/g, respectively. Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the dominant congener in all kinds of samples. Significant correlation was found between the concentrations of tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in indoor air and plants, suggesting that ornamental plant can be used as a sentinel for certain OPFRs in the indoor air. We developed a predictive model to assess the partitioning coefficients of OPFRs between indoor air and plant. The lipid content in leaf cuticle instead of leaf organic matter was used to improve the accuracy and reliability of this assessment. Using this model, we can estimate the OPFR concentrations in the indoor air based on their concentrations measured in the corresponding indoor plant. The estimated air concentrations were generally comparable with the measured concentrations, especially for those with octanol-air partition coefficient log Koa <11.6. Indoor plants can also provide a more holistic understanding of OPFR occurrence within a home due to the relatively long-term air-foliage partitioning. The results suggest that under certain conditions indoor ornamental plants have the potential to be used as the biosamplers of OPFRs in the indoor environment due to their convenience and low-cost.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(2): 357-366, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511973

RESUMO

Indoor dust ingestion is one of the main pathways for human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs). The urinary concentrations of diesters (DAPs) are usually used as biomarkers to assess human exposure to PFRs. In this study, the PFR and DAP levels were measured in morning and evening urine samples of 30 workers from an e-waste dismantling site in southern China. The indoor dust samples were also collected from workshops and houses for analyzing associations between PFR and DAP levels in urine and dust. Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the dominant PFRs in dust, while bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the major DAPs in dust. A significant positive correlation was observed between TPHP and DPHP concentrations in dust (p < 0.001), suggesting their potentially same source and the degradation of TPHP to form DPHP. TCIPP and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were the predominant PFRs, and BCEP, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), and DPHP were the main DAPs in both the morning and evening urine samples. The DPHP levels in evening urine samples were significantly correlated with TPHP and DPHP levels (p < 0.01) in dust. A similar correlation was found for the BCEP levels in the evening urine samples and the TCEP and BCEP levels (p < 0.01) in dust. These results indicated that in addition to being biotransformed from their respective parent PFRs, direct ingestion from indoor dust could also be the potential source for urinary DPHP and BCEP. Since relatively low detection frequencies were observed for bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP) and bis(butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) in urine, they may not be the major metabolites of TCIPP and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), respectively, in the human body. However, BDCIPP can be considered a useful biomarker because it is a unique metabolite of TDCIPP and has high detection frequencies in urine samples. The results of this study indicated the limitations of solely using urinary DAPs as biomarkers for the evaluation of human exposure to PFRs, and certain PFRs as well as hydroxylated PFRs (OH-PFRs) should also be considered for urinary biomonitoring in future studies.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Retardadores de Chama , Monitoramento Biológico , China , Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144571, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515873

RESUMO

Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which are used in various plastic products, were analyzed in house dust samples collected from three Korean cities (Suwon, n = 23; Jeonju, n = 20; Kunsan, n = 42). OPFRs, including tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), were detected in 95%-100% of the samples analyzed, suggesting the widespread use of these compounds in Korea. The levels of TCEP, TCPP, and TDCPP in Suwon, Jeonju, and Kunsan ranged from the limit of quantitation to 46,000, 28,000, and 2400 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of all OPFRs were significantly higher in house dust samples from Suwon than from Jeonju and Kunsan; this is likely due to the increased use of these compounds in Suwon, which may be associated with the number, volume, and variety of household products in homes. In Korean homes, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OPFRs through house dust ingestion was lower than the guideline values; however, the EDI of OPFRs for toddlers was 30-fold greater than for adults, suggesting a limited risk to human health. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence and distribution of OPFRs in house dust in Korea.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , República da Coreia
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