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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2608: 281-303, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653714

RESUMO

Cancer-derived organoids and three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) are taking center stage as in vitro models to study neoplastic cell behavior, since they recapitulate the heterogeneous cellular composition of tumors and their extracellular environment. In combination with imaging and molecular/biochemical techniques, 3D organoid models have contributed substantially to our knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the growth of tumors and invasion into the surrounding tissue. We here outline a set of protocols that describe culturing of cancer-derived organoids in 3D matrices and various strategies that allow modeling of tumor growth, tumor cell penetration into basement membranes, and invasion into Collagen I-rich ECM. Furthermore, we specify protocols for subsequent handling of organoids cultured in 3D ECM for confocal microscopy and analysis of gene expression at the protein and mRNA level. Although we here use breast cancer-derived organoids, these protocols can be directly applied or adapted for organoids derived from other cancer types or healthy tissues. Thus, in addition to investigating cell behavior of multiple cancer types, the combination of protocols described here may be used to study processes such as cell differentiation and migration during homeostasis and normal development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Feminino , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Membrana Basal , Organoides
2.
Genome Biol ; 24(1): 11, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658652

RESUMO

Measuring allele-specific expression in interspecies hybrids is a powerful way to detect cis-regulatory changes underlying adaptation. However, it remains difficult to identify genes most likely to explain species-specific traits. Here, we outline a simple strategy that leverages population-scale allele-specific RNA-seq data to identify genes that show constrained cis-regulation within species yet show divergence between species. Applying this strategy to data from human-chimpanzee hybrid cortical organoids, we identify signatures of lineage-specific selection on genes related to saccharide metabolism, neurodegeneration, and primary cilia. We also highlight cis-regulatory divergence in CUX1 and EDNRB that may shape the trajectory of human brain development.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Organoides , Humanos , Alelos , Pan troglodytes , Animais
3.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 42(1): 8, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients could be a key platform to predict drug response and discover new biomarkers. We aimed to integrate PDO drug response with multi-omics characterization beyond genomics. METHODS: We generated 29 PDO lines from 22 advanced CRC patients and provided a morphologic, genomic, and transcriptomic characterization. We performed drug sensitivity assays with a panel of both standard and non-standard agents in five long-term cultures, and integrated drug response with a baseline proteomic and transcriptomic characterization by SWATH-MS and RNA-seq analysis, respectively. RESULTS: PDOs were successfully generated from heavily pre-treated patients, including a paired model of advanced MSI high CRC deriving from pre- and post-chemotherapy liver metastasis. Our PDOs faithfully reproduced genomic and phenotypic features of original tissue. Drug panel testing identified differential response among PDOs, particularly to oxaliplatin and palbociclib. Proteotranscriptomic analyses revealed that oxaliplatin non-responder PDOs present enrichment of the t-RNA aminoacylation process and showed a shift towards oxidative phosphorylation pathway dependence, while an exceptional response to palbociclib was detected in a PDO with activation of MYC and enrichment of chaperonin T-complex protein Ring Complex (TRiC), involved in proteome integrity. Proteotranscriptomic data fusion confirmed these results within a highly integrated network of functional processes involved in differential response to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Our strategy of integrating PDOs drug sensitivity with SWATH-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq allowed us to identify different baseline proteins and gene expression profiles with the potential to predict treatment response/resistance and to help in the development of effective and personalized cancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Proteômica , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Organoides
4.
PLoS Genet ; 19(1): e1010565, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656833

RESUMO

Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by a dominantly inherited single amino acid substitution (D178N) within the prion protein (PrP). No in vitro human brain tissue model for this disease has previously been available. Consequently, how this mutation exerts its damaging effect on brain cells is still unknown. Using CRISPR-Cas9 engineered induced pluripotent stem cells, we made D178N cerebral organoids and compared these with isotype control organoids. We found that, in the absence of other hallmarks of FFI, the D178N organoids exhibited astrogliosis with cellular oxidative stress. Abnormal post-translational processing of PrP was evident but no tissue deposition or propagation of mis-folded PrP isoforms were observed. Neuronal electrophysiological function was compromised and levels of neurotransmitters, particularly acetylcholine and GABA, altered. Underlying these dysfunctions were changes in cellular energy homeostasis, with substantially increased glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates, and greater mitochondrial activity. This increased energy demand in D178N organoids was associated with increased mitophagy and depletion of lipid droplets, in turn resulting in shifts of cellular lipid composition. Using a double mutation (178NN) we could confirm that most changes were caused by the presence of the mutation rather than interaction with PrP molecules lacking the mutation. Our data strongly suggests that shifting biosynthetic intermediates and oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance of energy supply and demand, results in astrogliosis with compromised neuronal activity in FFI organoids. They further support that many of the disease associated changes are due to a corruption of PrP function and do not require propagation of PrP mis-folding.


Assuntos
Insônia Familiar Fatal , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doenças Priônicas , Príons , Humanos , Insônia Familiar Fatal/genética , Insônia Familiar Fatal/metabolismo , Gliose/genética , Gliose/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Príons/metabolismo , Mutação , Oxirredução , Organoides/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Doenças Priônicas/metabolismo
5.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680182

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly and congenital eye disease. The cellular and molecular basis of congenital ZIKV infection are not well understood. Here, we utilized a biologically relevant cell-based system of human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells (FRPEs), hiPSC-derived retinal stem cells (iRSCs), and retinal organoids to investigate ZIKV-mediated ocular cell injury processes. Our data show that FRPEs were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection exhibiting increased apoptosis, whereas iRSCs showed reduced susceptibility. Detailed transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of infected FRPEs were performed. Nucleoside analogue drug treatment inhibited ZIKV replication. Retinal organoids were susceptible to ZIKV infection. The Asian genotype ZIKV exhibited higher infectivity, induced profound inflammatory response, and dysregulated transcription factors involved in retinal organoid differentiation. Collectively, our study shows that ZIKV affects ocular cells at different developmental stages resulting in cellular injury and death, further providing molecular insight into the pathogenesis of congenital eye disease.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Zika virus/fisiologia , Retina/patologia , Replicação Viral , Organoides , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Pigmentos da Retina/metabolismo
6.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688545

RESUMO

Epithelial stem and progenitor cells contribute to the formation and maintenance of the epithelial barrier throughout life. Most stem and progenitor cell populations are tucked away in anatomically distinct locations, enabling exclusive interactions with niche signals that maintain stemness. While the development of epithelial organoid cultures provides a powerful tool for understanding the role of stem and progenitor cells in homeostasis and disease, the interaction within the niche environment is largely absent, thereby hindering the identification of factors influencing stem cell behavior. Fibroblasts play a key role in directing epithelial stem and progenitor fate. Here, a comprehensive organoid-fibroblast co-culture protocol enabling the delineation of fibroblast subpopulations in esophageal progenitor cell renewal and differentiation is presented. In this protocol, a method to isolate both epithelial cells and fibroblasts in parallel from the esophagus is described. Distinct fluorescence-activated cell sorting strategies to isolate both the esophageal progenitor cells as well as the fibroblast subpopulations from either transgenic reporter or wild-type mice are outlined. This protocol provides a versatile approach that can be adapted to accommodate the isolation of specific fibroblast subpopulations. Establishing and passaging esophageal epithelial organoid mono-cultures is included in this protocol, enabling a direct comparison with the co-culture system. In addition, a 3D clearing approach allowing for detailed image analysis of epithelial-fibroblast interactions is described. Collectively, this protocol describes a comparative and relatively high-throughput method for identifying and understanding esophageal stem cell niche components in vitro.


Assuntos
Organoides , Células-Tronco , Camundongos , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Diferenciação Celular , Esôfago , Fibroblastos
7.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688549

RESUMO

Organoids are 3D dynamic tumor models that can be grown successfully from patient-derived ovarian tumor tissue, ascites, or pleural fluid and aid in the discovery of novel therapeutics and predictive biomarkers for ovarian cancer. These models recapitulate clonal heterogeneity, the tumor microenvironment, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Additionally, they have been shown to match the primary tumor morphologically, cytologically, immunohistochemically, and genetically. Thus, organoids facilitate research on tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment and are superior to cell lines. The present protocol describes distinct methods to generate patient-derived ovarian cancer organoids from patient tumors, ascites, and pleural fluid samples with a higher than 97% success rate. The patient samples are separated into cellular suspensions by both mechanical and enzymatic digestion. The cells are then plated utilizing a basement membrane extract (BME) and are supported with optimized growth media containing supplements specific to the culturing of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). After forming initial organoids, the PDOs can sustain long-term culture, including passaging for expansion for subsequent experiments.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Ascite/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688555

RESUMO

Endometrial tissue lines the inner cavity of the uterus and is under the cyclical control of estrogen and progesterone. It is a tissue that is composed of luminal and glandular epithelium, a stromal compartment, a vascular network, and a complex immune cell population. Mouse models have been a powerful tool to study the endometrium, revealing critical mechanisms that control implantation, placentation, and cancer. The recent development of 3D endometrial organoid cultures presents a state-of-the-art model to dissect the signaling pathways that underlie endometrial biology. Establishing endometrial organoids from genetically engineered mouse models, analyzing their transcriptomes, and visualizing their morphology at a single-cell resolution are crucial tools for the study of endometrial diseases. This paper outlines methods to establish 3D cultures of endometrial epithelium from mice and describes techniques to quantify gene expression and analyze the histology of the organoids. The goal is to provide a resource that can be used to establish, culture, and study the gene expression and morphological characteristics of endometrial epithelial organoids.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Útero , Gravidez , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Estrogênios , Organoides/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1223, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681719

RESUMO

We report the generation and analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data (> 38,000 cells) from mouse native retinae and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal organoids at four matched stages of development spanning the emergence of the major retinal cell types. We combine information from temporal sampling, visualization of 3D UMAP manifolds, pseudo-time and RNA velocity analyses, to show that iPSC-derived 3D retinal organoids broadly recapitulate the native developmental trajectories. However, we observe relaxation of spatial and temporal transcriptome control, premature emergence and dominance of photoreceptor precursor cells, and susceptibility of dynamically regulated pathways and transcription factors to culture conditions in retinal organoids. We demonstrate that genes causing human retinopathies are enriched in cell-type specifying genes and identify a subset of disease-causing genes with expression profiles that are highly conserved between human retinae and murine retinal organoids. This study provides a resource to the community that will be useful to assess and further improve protocols for ex vivo recapitulation and study of retinal development.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Transcriptoma , Retina/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras , Organoides/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Diferenciação Celular/genética
10.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677681

RESUMO

Emerging advances in the field of in vitro toxicity testing attempt to meet the need for reliable human-based safety assessment in drug development. Intrahepatic cholangiocyte organoids (ICOs) are described as a donor-derived in vitro model for disease modelling and regenerative medicine. Here, we explored the potential of hepatocyte-like ICOs (HL-ICOs) in in vitro toxicity testing by exploring the expression and activity of genes involved in drug metabolism, a key determinant in drug-induced toxicity, and the exposure of HL-ICOs to well-known hepatotoxicants. The current state of drug metabolism in HL-ICOs showed levels comparable to those of PHHs and HepaRGs for CYP3A4; however, other enzymes, such as CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, were expressed at lower levels. Additionally, EC50 values were determined in HL-ICOs for acetaminophen (24.0-26.8 mM), diclofenac (475.5->500 µM), perhexiline (9.7->31.5 µM), troglitazone (23.1-90.8 µM), and valproic acid (>10 mM). Exposure to the hepatotoxicants showed EC50s in HL-ICOs comparable to those in PHHs and HepaRGs; however, for acetaminophen exposure, HL-ICOs were less sensitive. Further elucidation of enzyme and transporter activity in drug metabolism in HL-ICOs and exposure to a more extensive compound set are needed to accurately define the potential of HL-ICOs in in vitro toxicity testing.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Hepatócitos , Organoides , Humanos , Acetaminofen/metabolismo , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674435

RESUMO

Ovarian organoids, based on mouse female germline stem cells (FGSCs), have great value in basic research and are a vast prospect in pre-clinical drug screening due to their properties, but the competency of these in vitro-generated oocytes was generally low, especially, in vitro maturation (IVM) rate. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the 3D microenvironment triggers mitochondrial dysfunction during follicle growth in vitro. Therefore, therapies that protect mitochondria and enhance their function in oocytes warrant investigation. Here, we reported that exposure to 100 nM MitoQ promoted follicle growth and maturation in vitro, accompanied by scavenging ROS, reduced oxidative injury, and restored mitochondrial membrane potential in oocytes. Mechanistically, using mice granulosa cells (GCs) as a cellular model, it was shown that MitoQ protects GCs against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the oxidative stress pathway. Together, these results reveal that MitoQ reduces oxidative stress in ovarian follicles via its antioxidative action, thereby protecting oocytes and granulosa cells and providing an efficient way to improve the quality of in vitro-generated oocytes.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oogênese , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Organoides/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678267

RESUMO

Many whey proteins, peptides and protein-derived amino acids have been suggested to improve gut health through their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, barrier-protective and immune-modulating effects. Interestingly, although the degree of hydrolysis influences peptide composition and, thereby, biological function, this important aspect is often overlooked. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of whey protein fractions with different degrees of enzymatic hydrolysis on the intestinal epithelium in health and disease with a novel 2D human intestinal organoid (HIO) monolayer model. In addition, we aimed to assess the anti-microbial activity and immune effects of the whey protein fractions. Human intestinal organoids were cultured from adult small intestines, and a model enabling apical administration of nutritional components during hypoxia-induced intestinal inflammation and normoxia (control) in crypt-like and villus-like HIO was established. Subsequently, the potential beneficial effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two whey protein hydrolysates with a 27.7% degree of hydrolysis (DH28) and a 50.9% degree of hydrolysis (DH51) were assessed. In addition, possible immune modulatory effects on human peripheral immune cells and anti-microbial activity on four microbial strains of the whey protein fractions were investigated. Exposure to DH28 prevented paracellular barrier loss of crypt-like HIO following hypoxia-induced intestinal inflammation with a concomitant decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) mRNA expression. WPI increased Treg numbers and Treg expression of cluster of differentiation 25 (CD25) and CD69 and reduced CD4+ T cell proliferation, whereas no anti-microbial effects were observed. The observed biological effects were differentially mediated by diverse whey protein fractions, indicating that (degree of) hydrolysis influences their biological effects. Moreover, these new insights may provide opportunities to improve immune tolerance and promote intestinal health.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Soro do Leite , Humanos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Soro do Leite/química , Hidrólise , Peptídeos/análise , Inflamação , Organoides
13.
Cancer Lett ; 555: 216048, 2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603689

RESUMO

Liver cancer and disease are among the most socially challenging global health concerns. Although organ transplantation, surgical resection and anticancer drugs are the main methods for the treatment of liver cancer, there are still no proven cures owing to the lack of donor livers and tumor heterogeneity. Recently, advances in tumor organoid technology have attracted considerable attention as they can simulate the spatial constructs and pathophysiological characteristics of tumorigenesis and metastasis in a more realistic manner. Organoids may further contribute to the development of tailored therapies. Combining organoids with other emerging techniques, such as CRISPR-HOT, organ-on-a-chip, and 3D bioprinting, may further develop organoids and address their bottlenecks to create more practical models that generalize different tissue or organ interactions in tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the various methods in which liver organoids may be generated and describe their biological and clinical applications, present challenges, and prospects for their integration with emerging technologies. These rapidly developing liver organoids may become the focus of in vitro clinical model development and therapeutic research for liver diseases in the near future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Carcinogênese/patologia
14.
Stem Cell Reports ; 18(1): 175-189, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630901

RESUMO

Characterizing cell identity in complex tissues such as the human retina is essential for studying its development and disease. While retinal organoids derived from pluripotent stem cells have been widely used to model development and disease of the human retina, there is a lack of studies that have systematically evaluated the molecular and cellular fidelity of the organoids derived from various culture protocols in recapitulating their in vivo counterpart. To this end, we performed an extensive meta-atlas characterization of cellular identities of the human eye, covering a wide range of developmental stages. The resulting map uncovered previously unknown biomarkers of major retinal cell types and those associated with cell-type-specific maturation. Using our retinal-cell-identity map from the fetal and adult tissues, we systematically assessed the fidelity of the retinal organoids in mimicking the human eye, enabling us to comprehensively benchmark the current protocols for retinal organoid generation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Adulto , Humanos , Retina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Neurônios , Organoides , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo
15.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 9, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624452

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), which is often driven by acquired somatic mutations in BRAF genes, is the most common pathologic type of thyroid cancer. PTC has an excellent prognosis after treatment with conventional therapies such as surgical resection, thyroid hormone therapy and adjuvant radioactive iodine therapy. Unfortunately, about 20% of patients develop regional recurrence or distant metastasis, making targeted therapeutics an important treatment option. Current in vitro PTC models are limited in representing the cellular and mutational characteristics of parental tumors. A clinically relevant tool that predicts the efficacy of therapy for individuals is urgently needed. METHODS: Surgically removed PTC tissue samples were dissociated, plated into Matrigel, and cultured to generate organoids. PTC organoids were subsequently subjected to histological analysis, DNA sequencing, and drug sensitivity assays, respectively. RESULTS: We established 9 patient-derived PTC organoid models, 5 of which harbor BRAFV600E mutation. These organoids have been cultured stably for more than 3 months and closely recapitulated the histological architectures as well as mutational landscapes of the respective primary tumors. Drug sensitivity assays of PTC organoid cultures demonstrated the intra- and inter-patient specific drug responses. BRAFV600E inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib monotherapy was mildly effective in treating BRAFV600E-mutant PTC organoids. Nevertheless, BRAF inhibitors in combination with MEK inhibitors, RTK inhibitors, or chemotherapeutic agents demonstrated improved efficacy compared to BRAF inhibition alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patient-derived PTC organoids may be a powerful research tool to investigate tumor biology and drug responsiveness, thus being useful to validate or discover targeted drug combinations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Papilar/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Papilar/genética , Mutação/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Organoides/patologia
16.
Sci Adv ; 9(1): eadd1541, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608118

RESUMO

Cell therapies and regenerative medicine interventions require an adequate source of therapeutic cells. Here, we demonstrate that constructing in vivo osteo-organoids by implanting bone morphogenetic protein-2-loaded scaffolds into the internal muscle pocket near the femur of mice supports the growth and subsequent harvest of therapeutically useful cells including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), lymphocytes, and myeloid cells. Profiling of the in vivo osteo-organoid maturation process delineated three stages-fibroproliferation, osteochondral differentiation, and marrow generation-each of which entailed obvious changes in the organoid structure and cell type distribution. The MSCs harvested from the osteochondral differentiation stage mitigated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver fibrosis in mice, while HSPCs and immune cells harvested during the marrow generation stage rapidly and effectively reconstituted the impaired peripheral and solid immune organs of irradiated mice. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potentials of in vivo osteo-organoid-derived cells in cell therapies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fígado , Animais , Camundongos , Diferenciação Celular , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Organoides
17.
Curr Protoc ; 3(1): e641, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633423

RESUMO

Disordered cellular development, abnormal neuroanatomical formations, and dysfunction of neuronal circuitry are among the pathological manifestations of cortical regions in the brain that are often implicated in complex neurodevelopmental disorders. With the advancement of stem cell methodologies such as cerebral organoid generation, it is possible to study these processes in vitro using 3D cellular platforms that mirror key developmental stages occurring throughout embryonic neurogenesis. Patterning-based stem cell models of directed neuronal development offer one approach to accomplish this, but these protocols often require protracted periods of cell culture to generate diverse cell types and current methods are plagued by a lack of specificity, reproducibility, and temporal control over cell derivation. Although ectopic expression of transcription factors offers another avenue to rapidly generate neurons, this process of direct lineage conversion bypasses critical junctures of neurodevelopment during which disease-relevant manifestations may occur. Here, we present a directed differentiation approach for generating human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cortical organoids with accelerated lineage specification to generate functionally mature cortical neurons in a shorter timeline than previously established protocols. This novel protocol provides precise guidance for the specification of neuronal cell type identity as well as temporal control over the pace at which cortical lineage trajectories are established. Furthermore, we present assays that can be used as tools to interrogate stage-specific developmental signaling mechanisms. By recapitulating major components of embryonic neurogenesis, this protocol allows for improved in vitro modeling of cortical development while providing a platform that can be utilized to uncover disease-specific mechanisms of disordered development at various stages across the differentiation timeline. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: 3D hPSC neural induction Support Protocol 1: Neural rosette formation assay Support Protocol 2: Neurosphere generation Support Protocol 3: Enzymatic dissociation, NSC expansion, and cryopreservation Basic Protocol 2: 3D neural progenitor expansion Basic Protocol 3: 3D accelerated cortical lineage patterning and terminal differentiation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Neurônios , Organoides/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 193, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635264

RESUMO

The vascularization of engineered tissues and organoids has remained a major unresolved challenge in regenerative medicine. While multiple approaches have been developed to vascularize in vitro tissues, it has thus far not been possible to generate sufficiently dense networks of small-scale vessels to perfuse large de novo tissues. Here, we achieve the perfusion of multi-mm3 tissue constructs by generating networks of synthetic capillary-scale 3D vessels. Our 3D soft microfluidic strategy is uniquely enabled by a 3D-printable 2-photon-polymerizable hydrogel formulation, which allows for precise microvessel printing at scales below the diffusion limit of living tissues. We demonstrate that these large-scale engineered tissues are viable, proliferative and exhibit complex morphogenesis during long-term in-vitro culture, while avoiding hypoxia and necrosis. We show by scRNAseq and immunohistochemistry that neural differentiation is significantly accelerated in perfused neural constructs. Additionally, we illustrate the versatility of this platform by demonstrating long-term perfusion of developing neural and liver tissue. This fully synthetic vascularization platform opens the door to the generation of human tissue models at unprecedented scale and complexity.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Engenharia Tecidual , Humanos , Organoides , Hidrogéis , Fígado , Neovascularização Patológica , Impressão Tridimensional , Tecidos Suporte
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614212

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids as well as their bacterial producers are of increasing interest in inflammatory bowel diseases. Although less studied compared to butyrate, acetate might also be of interest as it may be less toxic to epithelial cells, stimulate butyrate-producing bacteria by cross-feeding, and have anti-inflammatory and barrier-protective properties. Moreover, one of the causative factors of the probiotic potency of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. boulardii is thought to be its high acetate production. Therefore, the objective was to preclinically assess the effects of high acetate concentrations on inflammation and barrier integrity in organoid-based monolayer cultures from ulcerative colitis patients. Confluent organoid-derived colonic epithelial monolayers (n = 10) were exposed to basolateral inflammatory stimulation or control medium. After 24 h, high acetate or control medium was administered apically for an additional 48 h. Changes in TEER were measured after 48 h. Expression levels of barrier genes and inflammatory markers were determined by qPCR. Pro-inflammatory proteins in the supernatant were quantified using the MSD platform. Increased epithelial resistance was observed with high acetate administration in both inflamed and non-inflamed conditions, together with decreased expression levels of IL8 and TNFα and CLDN1. Upon high acetate administration to inflamed monolayers, upregulation of HIF1α, MUC2, and MKI67, and a decrease of the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed. In our patient-derived human epithelial cell culture model, a protective effect of high acetate administration on epithelial resistance, barrier gene expression, and inflammatory protein production was observed. These findings open up new possibilities for acetate-mediated management of barrier defects and inflammation in IBD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Humanos , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Colite/metabolismo
20.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 158(1): 71-76, 2023.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596495

RESUMO

The main function of the respiratory tract is gas exchange. Because dysfunction of gas exchange is lethal, a lot of people die of respiratory diseases every year. Many researchers are attempting to elucidate the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases and develop effective drugs using several in vitro respiratory models. Recently, respiratory organoids are widely used as human respiratory models. Respiratory organoids are self-organized three-dimensional tissue-like structures that are derived from pluripotent stem cells or tissue stem cells. Because respiratory organoids derived from a patient's stem cells carry its genetic mutation, they are widely used to recapitulate respiratory genetic diseases. It has been reported that some respiratory genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, or Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, could be recapitulated using respiratory organoids. Moreover, because respiratory organoids possess innate immune response activity, they are also used as a model for respiratory infectious diseases. It has been reported that some respiratory diseases which are caused by the infection of pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus, seasonal influenza viruses, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, enterovirus, or cryptosporidium spp., could be reproduced using respiratory organoids. This review introduces the current status and future prospects of respiratory organoids in respiratory disease research.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Doenças Respiratórias , Humanos , Organoides
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