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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456019

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children. It refers to the phenomenon in which children with normal intelligence lag significantly behind their peers in reading ability. In China, there is no unified standard for the assessment of dyslexia due to the use of simplified and traditional Chinese characters in different regions. This study was aimed at analyzing the reliability and validity of the self-developed Chinese dyslexia assessment tool named Chinese Reading Ability Test (CRAT), which was suitable for students of grade 3 to 5 in primary school. We randomly selected three primary schools in Shantou city of China, including two in the central district and one in the surrounding district. A total of 1492 students of grades 3 through 5 were recruited. We assessed the reliability of CRAT by test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The validity assessment was realized by discriminant validity, content validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For reliability, the test-retest correlation coefficient of the total score of the CRAT was 0.671. The difference between the test-retest was not statistically significant. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CRAT was 0.75. For validity, the correlation coefficient between the score of each subscale and the total score of the scale ranged from 0.29 to 0.73. The indexes of the three structural equation models all meet the standard (p > 0.05, χ2/df < 2.00, RMSEA < 0.05, GFI > 0.90, AGFI > 0.90, NFI > 0.90, CFI > 0.90 and IFI > 0.90). The fitting effects of the models were good. The CRAT has sufficient reliability and validity which could be used for the assessment and auxiliary diagnosis of Chinese Dyslexia in primary school students of grade 3 to 5.


Assuntos
Orientação Infantil , Dislexia , Criança , China , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(13)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em No, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-inflicted poisoning is common in adolescents and is a risk factor for suicide. The aim of this study was to survey the circumstances surrounding hospitalisations due to acute poisoning in patients aged up to 18 years. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All hospitalisations in the Departments of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Sørlandet Hospital Trust (Arendal and Kristiansand) due to acute poisoning in the period 1 August 2014-31 July 2015 were prospectively recorded with the aid of a form completed during the admission. RESULTS: There were 88 hospitalisations distributed among 68 adolescents (mean age 15.5 years, SD 1.5) and 13 children (mean age 2.8 years, SD 2.8). The poisoning was categorised as self-harm behaviour in 32 (47 %) of the adolescents, and as substance misuse-related in 35 (52 %). In total, 37 (54 %) of the adolescents had been or were under treatment at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fifteen (22 %) of the adolescents were deemed to be suicidal. Thirty (94 %) of the adolescents who reported self-harm as the intention behind their poisoning were offered further follow-up at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, along with 7 (20 %) of the group with substance misuse-related poisoning. INTERPRETATION: Adolescents who reported self-harm as their intention were usually offered further follow-up, whereas adolescents with substance misuse-related poisoning were rarely offered follow-up.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Drogas Desenhadas/envenenamento , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Lactente , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454053

RESUMO

The Swedish Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry conducted a survey among their specialty trainees in 2018. Of the 48% response rate, around 48% admitted hesitancy to continue in their chosen specialty. A further 12% planned to depart from their field after completion of training. Factors associated with discontinuation in training were the perception of ineffective psychotherapeutic treatments and a lack of autonomy at work; which was strongly correlated to the doctor's role and team collaboration. Workload was generally perceived as excessive, with not enough time for after work recovery and the subsequent negative impact on private life. However, these factors were not found to significantly affect trainees' decision to leave. The doctor's role requires better clarification and medical leadership needs to be improved, so that evidence based treatments can be offered.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Psiquiatria Infantil , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Humanos , Papel do Médico , Autonomia Profissional , Psicoterapia/normas , Psicotrópicos/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 104: 115-121, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most preschool children in Western industrialized countries attend child care during the day while parents work. Studies suggest that child care may be stressful to young children, perhaps because they still lack the social skills to interact daily in a group setting away from parents. This gap in social abilities may be greater for children in lower-income families, who may face more adversity at home, with fewer resources and more social isolation. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 2013-2014 to test whether a social skills intervention led by early childhood educators within the child care center could reduce diurnal cortisol levels to more typical patterns expected of children this age. We randomized 19 public child care centers (n = 361 children) in low-income neighborhoods of Montreal, Canada, to either: 1) the Minipally program - intervention group (n = 10 centers; 186 children), or 2) waiting list - control group (n = 9 centers; 175 children). Saliva samples for cortisol levels were collected 3 times/day, pre- and post-implementation. The Minipally puppet program consists of 2 workshops/month for 8 months for the development of social skills and self-regulation in 2-5-year-olds, with reinforcement activities between workshops. Educators received 2-days' training and 12 h' supervision in Minipally. RESULTS: Linear mixed models for repeated measures revealed a significant interaction between intervention status and time of day of cortisol sampling (ß = -0.18, p = 0.04). The intervention group showed patterns of decreasing diurnal cortisol secretion (ß = -0.32, p < 0.01), whereas the control group showed increasing slopes (ß = 0.20, p < 0.01). Moreover, family income was a moderator; children in lower-income families benefited most from the intervention. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that a social skills training program, when integrated into a preschool education curriculum, can foster an environment more conducive to typical childhood patterns of cortisol secretion.


Assuntos
Orientação Infantil/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Canadá , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pais , Saliva/química , Habilidades Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
7.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(8): 1191, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038418
9.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 88(2): 192-215, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of longitudinal studies have explored the effects of both parents in early parenthood on children's cognitive development, and no study has controlled for simultaneous early childhood education and care (ECEC) experiences. AIMS: To examine the similarity of each parent's cognitive guidance and contribution to children's pre-mathematical outcomes across parent gender while controlling for amount of ECEC. SAMPLE: A longitudinal study on 66 Finnish two-parent families and their children. METHODS: Both parents' autonomy support and scaffolding behaviour were observed during play interactions with the child at 2;0. Children's numerical and spatial skills were tested at 3;0 and 4;0. Parental reports on amount of ECEC in months were collected at 2;0, 3;0, and 4;0. RESULTS: The two parenting constructs were conceptually similar across parent gender as demonstrated by fairly strong measurement equivalence. While mothers on average showed more scaffolding and equal amounts of autonomy support compared to fathers during play interaction, they displayed less variability in the former and more variability in the latter behaviour. The contribution of mothers' and fathers' cognitive guidance was more similar for children's numerical than spatial development. Both parents' education positively predicted autonomy support but not amount of ECEC exposure, which was positively related to numerical development. As expected, parents' education did not predict ECEC exposure, and child gender was not related to child outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are discussed in relation to measurement invariance and gender-neutral parenting in the context of early childhood.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Orientação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
BIS, Bol. Inst. Saúde (Impr.) ; 19(supl): 84-86, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISACERVO | ID: biblio-1009767

RESUMO

A partir da observação da alta demanda de questões relacionadas à saúde mental de crianças e adolescentes, verificou-se uma necessidade de proporcionar um espaço de acolhimento para questões referentes à temática da saúde mental infantil. O espaço foi criado para que essas questões, que muitas vezes ficam polarizadas entre olhares das equipes de Educação e CAPSi, sejam acompanhadas e referenciadas nas Unidades de Saúde da Família. O trabalho é feito com as crianças e seus responsáveis e são acompanhados por membros da USAFA e NASF. Ainda que existam dificuldades no processo de implementação do grupo, tal espaço auxilia na organização do fluxo da saúde mental infantil, diminui a demanda dos CAPS infantis, colabora para despatologização do comportamento infantil e auxilia no acolhimento das angústias dos responsáveis. O trabalho segue em construção, para que possamos garantir uma rede acolhedora, que enxergue o usuário que a acessa de forma integral e humanizada, como o SUS preconiza.


Assuntos
Humanos , Orientação Infantil , Atenção à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental
11.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 21(3): 541-548, set.-dez. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-895815

RESUMO

El objetivo del artículo consiste en develar las creencias que poseen líderes escolares sobre diseño de enseñanza, proceso de aprendizaje y evaluación, según enfoque pedagógico por transmisión o construcción. El trabajo se suscribe a la investigación educativa. Participan 10 directivos que lideran centros educativos de educación primaria y secundaria, región de La Araucanía, Chile. Para recoger información se aplica un cuestionario de escala tipo Likert y se realiza un grupo de discusión entre los participantes. Los resultados cuantitativos reflejan que coexisten creencias híbridas en el pensamiento directivo desde enfoques pedagógicos por transmisión y construcción. Sin embargo, al analizar el contenido discursivo, emergen las creencias por transmisión. En conclusión, prevalecen creencias directivas con un enfoque pedagógico por transmisión que subyace a la toma de decisiones de estos líderes. Surge la necesidad de una formación directiva centrada en un liderazgo pedagógico que tensione y reconstruya las creencias de directores escolares.


The aim of this article is to reveal the beliefs that leaders have on the instructional design, learning and assessment process, according to the pedagogical approach by transmission or construction. The work subscribes to the educational research. There, participated 10 principals who lead schools in primary and secondary education, in Araucania region, Chile. To collect the information, a questionnaire Likert scale is applied and is done in a group discussion among participants. The quantitative results show that hybrid beliefs coexist in the principal thinking from pedagogical approaches b transmission and construction. However, when analyzing the discursive content, transmission beliefs emerge. In conclusion, prevailing the principal beliefs with a pedagogical approach underlying transmission decisions of these leaders. Arises the need of management training focused on pedagogical leadership that stresses and rebuild the beliefs of school principals.


O objetivo deste artigo consiste em revelar as crenças que possuem os líderes escolares sobre projeto de ensino, processo de aprendizagem e avaliação, segundo o enfoque pedagógico por transmissão ou construção. O trabalho se subscreve à investigação educativa. Participam 10 diretores que lideram centros educativos de educação primária e secundária da região da Araucanía, Chile. Para recolher as informações, se aplica um questionário de escala tipo Likert e se realiza um grupo de discussão entre os participantes. Os resultados quantitativos refletem que coexistem crenças híbridas no pensamento dos diretores desde os enfoques pedagógicos por transmissão e construção. No entanto, ao analisar o conteúdo discursivo, emergem as crenças por transmissão. Em conclusão, prevalecem as crenças com enfoque pedagógico por transmissão que subjaz à tomada de decisão destes líderes. Surge a necessidade de uma formação diretiva centrada na liderança pedagógica que tencione e reconstrua as crenças de diretores escolares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Educação , Psicologia Educacional
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 376: 219-224, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess short-term outcome of impaired functional integrity of the auditory brainstem in term infants who suffer perinatal asphyxia. METHODS: Maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response (MLS BAER) was recorded and analyzed at a mean age of 3months in term infants after perinatal asphyxia. The data were compared with age-matched normal term infants. RESULTS: The infants after asphyxia showed an increase in the latency of MLS BAER wave III at 91, 455 and 910/s, and wave V at all click rates of 91-910/s. The interpeak intervals in the infants after asphyxia were increased at almost all click rates. The IV and I-III intervals were increased at all click rates, and the III-V interval was increased at 455 and 910/s. These increases were generally more significant at higher than at lower click rates. The amplitudes of waves I, III and V in the infants after asphyxia were reduced at all click rates. The V/I amplitude ratio was increased at 91-455/s clicks. The slope of III-V interval-rate function was abnormally increased. 17.1% of the infants after asphyxia had an abnormal increase in IV intervals. CONCLUSIONS: MLS BAER was moderately abnormal at 3months of age in term infants after perinatal asphyxia, suggesting moderate impairment in the functional integrity of the auditory brainstem. The impairment occurs in 17.1% of the infants. Compared with that found at term, the impairment has improved, but not completely recovered.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/fisiopatologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Estimulação Acústica , Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Tronco Encefálico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orientação Infantil , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Prevalência , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 31(3): e15-e23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341524

RESUMO

With a documented shortage in youth mental health services, pediatric primary care (PPC) providers face increased pressure to enhance their capacity to identify and manage common mental health problems among youth, such as anxiety and depression. Because 90% of U.S. youth regularly see a PPC provider, the primary care setting is well positioned to serve as a key access point for early identification, service provision, and connection to mental health services. In the context of task shifting, we evaluated a quality improvement project designed to assist PPC providers in overcoming barriers to practice-wide mental health screening through implementing paper and computer-assisted clinical care algorithms. PPC providers were fairly successful at changing practice to better address mental health concerns when equipped with screening tools that included family mental health histories, next-level actions, and referral options. Task shifting is a promising strategy to enhance mental health services, particularly when guided by computer-assisted algorithms.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Algoritmos , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Promoção da Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New England , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Melhoria de Qualidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Recursos Humanos
14.
Distúrb. comun ; 29(1): 97-107, mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-880684

RESUMO

Objetivo: Desenvolver um levantamento de indicadores para elaboração de uma proposta de orientação a familiares das crianças com alterações de linguagem em atendimento fonoaudiológico, baseado na compreensão das suas necessidades. Método: Em três diferentes momentos do processo terapêutico, 22 familiares de crianças atendidas, entre 2 a 11 anos, participaram de entrevistas semiestruturadas, baseadas na metodologia qualitativa. A análise das entrevistas resultou em 18 indicadores, especificando, para cada um deles, objetivos e sugestões de condutas. Resultados: A partir desses indicadores, uma proposta de intervenção foi construída para ajudar o profissional a atender as necessidades dos familiares, baseado nas suas perspectivas. Conclusão: A literatura conta com poucos estudos sobre intervenções fonoaudiológicas com famílias, logo, este estudo considerou as necessidades dos familiares, para enfatizar a importância de acolher a família e assegurar o respeito às singularidades do paciente e de seus familiares.


Objective: To develop a chart with indicators to help elaborate a family guidance proposal for families of children suffering from language disorders and undergoing speech therapy. That will be done by understanding the families' needs. Method: In 3 different moments of the treatment process, 22 family members of children between 2 and 11 years old who were in treatment, participated in semi-structured interviews for a qualitative enquiry. The analysis of the interviews resulted in 18 indicators, each of them specifying a goal and a guideline for the speech therapist. Results: Based on these indicators, a guidance proposal was constructed to help the professional to attend to the families' needs, as understood from their perspective. Conclusion: The literature offers few studies about family guidance in speech therapy. Therefore, the present study is based on the needs of the families, emphasizing the importance of taking the family in and guaranteeing respect for the singularities of both patients and their relatives.


Objetivo: Desarrollar una investigación de indicadores para preparar una propuesta de orientación a las familias de los niños con trastornos del lenguaje en la terapia fonoaudiológica, basado en la comprensión de sus necesidades. Método: En tres distintos momentos del proceso terapéutico fonoaudiológico, 22 familiares de niños en tratamiento, entre 2 y 11 años participaron de entrevistas semiestructuradas basadas en la metodología cualitativa. Del analisis de las entrevistas, resultaron 18 indicadores y se especifico, para cada una de ellos, metas y sugerencias de conductas. Resultados: A partir de estes indicadores, una propuesta de intervención fue construida para ayudar al Fonoaudiólogo para atender las necesidades de las familias, en fución de sus perspectivas. Conclusión: La literatura tiene pocos estudios sobre las intervenciones fonoaudiológica con las familias, por lo que este estudio tuvo en cuenta las necesidades de las familias para destacar la importancia de acojerlas y garantizar el respeto a las singularidades del paciente y de sus familias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Família , Transtornos da Linguagem , Fonoaudiologia , Relações Familiares
17.
J Med Invest ; 63(3-4): 209-15, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644560

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related to the need for cooperation with child guidance centers with a focus on the presence or absence of a history of childhood problems in at-risk parents receiving support from their municipality. Among the 1890 parents who received child care support from public health nurses in the municipalities, 164 parents (8.7%) had a history of childhood problems. Among these, 50 parents (30.5%) received support from child guidance centers. The parents with a history of childhood problems had a higher incidence rate for receiving support from child guidance centers than other parents. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that "marital strife or domestic violence", and "financial problems" were associated with consultations with child guidance centers among parents with a history of childhood problems. The results showed that family situations of parents who had a history of childhood problems may, in time, become more severe, even if they have received support from public health nurses in the municipalities. Therefore, parents with a history of childhood problems need support as early as possible. In addition, those parents with "marital strife or domestic violence" and "financial problems" also need guidance and early nursing care interventions. J. Med. Invest. 63: 209-215, August, 2016.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 59: 55-65, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27517122

RESUMO

To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), <40year age of the offender (AOR=1.65/95%CI=1.09-2.51), offender's history of maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Orientação Infantil , Modelos Teóricos , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
19.
Fisioter. Bras ; 17(3): f: 204-I: 213, maio.-jun. 2016.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879055

RESUMO

Introdução: O teste Mini Mental adaptado para crianças avalia cinco principais áreas cognitivas, a saber: orientação, atenção, concentração, memória e linguagem, e resultados inferiores aos esperados servem para alertar a escola, a família e o pediatra da criança para a necessidade de uma avaliação mais completa. Objetivos: Verificar o diagnóstico para o estado cognitivo de crianças de ambos os sexos, oriundas de uma escola pública e outra privada do município de Itabuna/BA. Métodos: Participaram da pesquisa 73 escolares com idades compreendidas entre 6 e 9 anos. O exame ocorreu a partir de questionário validado para a língua portuguesa e elaborado para este fim específico. As crianças foram avaliadas individualmente e sem a influência de agentes externos. Ao final, todas as respostas foram somadas e o escore obtido foi confrontado com os valores de normalidade atribuídos segundo a idade. Resultados: Ser do sexo feminino e ter baixa escolaridade materna mostraram forte correlação para estado cognitivo deficiente. Houve maior prevalência de estado cognitivo não preservado entre as crianças oriundas de escolas públicas, para ambos os sexos. Os piores níveis de escolaridade materna estiveram presentes nas escolas públicas. A idade mais afetada foi a de 7 anos, independente da origem escolar. Conclusão: Pertencer ao sexo feminino, possuir 7 anos e apresentar baixa escolaridade materna estiveram associados a maior risco para ocorrência de estado cognitivo deficiente. (AU)


Background: The Mini Mental test adapted for children assesses five cognitive key areas, namely: orientation, attention, concentration, memory and language and outputs lower than expected alert the school, the family and the child's pediatrician to the need for more complete evaluation. Objectives: To verify the diagnosis for cognitive status of children of both sexes, coming from a public and a private school in the city of Itabuna/BA. Methods: 73 students 6 to 9 years old participated. The examination took place through a questionnaire validated for the Portuguese language and designed for this specific purpose. Children were assessed individually and without the influence of external agents. At the end, all the answers were summed and the score was compared with normal values assigned according to age. Results: Being female and having low maternal education showed strong correlation to poor cognitive status. There was a higher prevalence of cognitive state not preserved between children from public schools, for both sexes. The worst maternal education levels were present in public schools. The most affected age was 7 years old, regardless of school origin. Conclusion: Being a female, being 7 years old with low maternal education were associated with greater risk for poor cognitive status. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Sintomas Comportamentais , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Orientação Infantil , Fisioterapia , Atenção , Linguagem Infantil , Memória
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758339

RESUMO

In the psychosocial support of families with a chronically ill or disabled child siblings are increasingly addressed as a target group for prevention and rehabilitation projects intending to reduce the risk for adverse health consequences. The following article presents a childfocused approach to family counselling as a short-term intervention. Ten flexibly applicable counselling core points covering commonly reported problems of affected siblings and their families are available - including the communication about the disease within the family or the expression of the sibling's feelings and needs. For this purpose an approach in specific counselling sessions has been determined which is used similarly by adept child and youth psychotherapists. The counselling approach is founded theoretically. Furthermore, the counselling approach provides guidance for the structured approach in the diagnosis of potential difficulties, the choice of core points and setting, the closure of counseling sessions as well as the recommendation of additional programs.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Relações entre Irmãos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Relações Pais-Filho , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/psicologia , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos
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