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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(1): 3-4, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538312

RESUMO

Air quality is intimately linked to human activities, climate, atmosphere and ecosystems. Many of the anthropogenic contributors to air pollution are also sources of greenhouse gases including CO2 and other short-lived climate pollutants, such as Ozone and black carbon, which greatly contribute to the climate change phenomenon and its adverse effects on human health. Unfortunately, fragile and dry ecosystems prevailing in most of our countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region may be implicated for exacerbation of this air pollution and climate change dilemma even more severely.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , /epidemiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044552, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Seroprevalence rates are important indicators to the epidemiology of COVID-19 and the extent of the pandemic given the existence of asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study is to assess the seroprevalence rate in the Palestinian population residing in the West Bank. SETTING: The study involved 1355 participants from 11 governorates, including 112 localities in the West Bank and 1136 individuals visiting Palestinian medical laboratories. PARTICIPANTS: Blood samples were collected between 15th June 2020 and 30th June 2020 from 1355 individuals from randomly selected households in the West Bank, in addition to 1136 individuals visiting Palestinian medical laboratories between the 1st May 2020 and 9th July 2020 for a routine check-up. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Out of the 2491 blood samples collected, serological tests for 2455 adequate serum samples were done using an immunoassay for qualitative detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Seroprevalence was estimated as the proportion of individuals who had a positive result in the total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the immunoassay. RESULTS: The random sample of Palestinians living in the West Bank yielded 0% seroprevalence with 95% and an adjusted CI (0% to 0.0043%), while the lab referral samples yielded an estimated seroprevalence of 0.354% with 95% and an adjusted CI (0.001325% to 0.011566%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that as of mid-June 2020, seroprevalence in Palestine persists low and is inadequate to provide herd immunity, emphasising the need to maintain health measures to keep the outbreak under control. Population-based seroprevalence studies are to be conducted periodically to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Palestine and inform policymakers about the efficacy of their surveillance system.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244925, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400722

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious illness that spreads rapidly through human-to-human transmission. On March 5, the government of Palestine declared a state of emergency in order to curb the spread of the virus, a declaration that it extended for a fifth time on July 5th. The degree to which a population complies with corresponding safety measures is surely affected by the people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the disease. To explore this hypothesis, we gathered data from 1,731 Palestinians between April 19thand May 1st, 2020 through a KAP questionnaire. The participant pool represented a stratified sample of Palestinians living across a number of governorates in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, with 36.5% from Gaza and (63.5%) from the West Bank. Gender was almost equally distributed within the sample with (51%) men respondents and (49%) women respondent. The questionnaire included 17 questions about participants' knowledge and awareness of COVID-19, 17 questions regarding the safety measures they had taken in the wake of the outbreak and 3 questions asking them to assess the efficacy of the government's response to the pandemic. Our data shows that 79% of the respondents have good awareness about transmission of the virus, 55.6% were knowledgeable of the symptoms exhibited by an infected individual, 81% were aware of the preventative measures and 82% demonstrated awareness of the risk groups. Most participants complied with preventative measures (77%) and 62% the study participants agreed that stricter measures have to be enforced by the government to limit the spread of the virus. Our study revealed that younger participants and people with higher educational level demonstrated more awareness of the virus. Also, Women were reported to be more aware of preventative measures and to have complied more with good practices. We report that residents of the West Bank have complied more with the right practices when compared to residents of Gaza. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that health education programs aimed at improving the public's understanding of COVID-19 are important in helping the population maintain appropriate practices and should be target people with lower educational level, and that findings such as those discussed in this report may provide valuable feedback to lawmakers working to stop the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Adulto , Árabes/educação , Árabes/psicologia , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Relig Health ; 60(1): 34-49, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between positive religious coping, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms among Palestinian adults in response to the emergence of coronavirus (COVID-19), and the quarantine system implemented in the city of Tulkarem, Palestine. METHODS: A correlational study was conducted to examine the relationship between study variables. Participants were 400 Palestinian adults, involving 172 males and 228 females, living in the city of Tulkarem, Palestine, during the spread of coronavirus. Participants were selected using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. RESULTS: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between positive religious coping, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. Findings revealed a statistically significant negative correlation between positive religious coping and depressive symptoms (r = - .17, p < .01). Results also indicated a statistically significant negative correlation between positive religious coping and perceived stress (r = - .15, p < .01). The regression analysis for predicting depressive symptoms found that both positive religious coping (B = - .21, SE = .05, ß = - .18) and perceived stress (B = .41, SE = .05, ß = .35) were statistically significant toward explaining variance in depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The importance of developing intervention programs that take into consideration religious/spiritual struggles and positive religious strategies may help improve resilience and well-being among affected populations. With the recent spread of COVID-19, findings of this current study have presented important practical implications for improving the mental health and well-being among Palestinians, especially since Palestinian society continues to face different types of stressors, such as illegal occupation. Further studies are recommended to test the relationship between current study variables and other related variables.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Depressão , Religião e Psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , /psicologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Toxicon ; 191: 83-103, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387549

RESUMO

The twelve Arab countries of the Middle East are inhabited by 117 species of scorpions of varying medical importance within six families. Scorpion stings are a very common occurrence throughout the region. Twenty-two scorpion species are considered to be dangerously venomous, causing potentially life threatening stings. Accessible literature in English and Arabic on scorpions, scorpion stings and available antivenoms was reviewed to document the scorpion fauna and scorpion stings in each country. Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Jordan report the highest numbers of stings and envenomings. Clinically, the most important toxins in Old World scorpion venoms are α-toxins that target voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels at neurotoxin binding site 3, causing sympathetic excitation and the endogenous release of catecholamines that is responsible for transient, but life-threatening myocardial damage. Most victims of scorpion stings suffer severe local pain, but a few, especially children, develop systemic envenoming which, in the case of most Middle Eastern buthid species, such as Androctonus and Leiurus species, is dominated by the cardiovascular and respiratory consequences of hypercatecholinaemic myocarditis. Other syndromes include paralysis (Parabuthus leiosoma), coagulopathy (Nebo hierichonticus and Hemiscorpius species), and local tissue damage, haemolysis and acute kidney injury (H. lepturus). Early antivenom treatment is recommended but its value remains controversial. However, intensive care, with the ancillary use of vasoactive drugs such as prazosin and dobutamine, has proved effective.


Assuntos
Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Árabes , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Neurotoxinas , Venenos de Escorpião , Escorpiões
6.
Angiology ; 72(1): 32-43, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787614

RESUMO

Data on spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is based on European and North American registries. We assessed the prevalence, epidemiology, and outcomes of patients presenting with SCAD in Arab Gulf countries. Patients (n = 83) were diagnosed with SCAD based on angiographic and intravascular imaging whenever available. Thirty centers in 4 Arab Gulf countries (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Bahrain) were involved from January 2011 to December 2017. In-hospital (myocardial infarction [MI], percutaneous coronary intervention, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, cardiogenic shock, death, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, dissection extension) and follow-up (MI, de novo SCAD, death, spontaneous superior mesenteric artery dissection) cardiac events were recorded. Median age was 44 (37-55) years, 42 (51%) were females and 28.5% were pregnancy-associated (21.4% were multiparous). Of the patients, 47% presented with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, 49% with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, 12% had left main involvement, 43% left anterior descending, 21.7% right coronary, 9.6% left circumflex, and 9.6% multivessel; 52% of the SCAD were type 1, 42% type 2, 3.6% type 3, and 2.4% multitype; 40% managed medically, 53% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, 7% underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Females were more likely than males to experience overall (in-hospital and follow-up) adverse cardiovascular events (P = .029).


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Adulto , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/terapia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322416

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a modern-day plague by reaching epidemic levels throughout the world. Due to its similar pathogenesis, gestational diabetes (GDM) increases in parallel to T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM (3.9-18.3%) and GDM (5.1-37.7%) in countries of the Arab Gulf are amongst the highest internationally, and they are still rising precipitously. This review traces the reasons among the Arab nations for (a) the surge of T2DM and GDM and (b) the failure to contain it. During the last five decades, the massive oil wealth in many Arab countries has led to the unhealthy lifestyle changes in physical activity and diet. The excess consumption of calories turned the advantageous genes, originally selected for the famine-like conditions, detrimental: fueling obesity and insulin resistance. Despite genetic differences in these populations, GDM-a marker for future obesity and T2DM-can overcome this scourge of T2DM through active follow-up and screening after delivery. However, the health policies of most Arab countries have fallen short. Neglecting this unique chance will miss an irreplaceable opportunity to turn the tide of the T2DM and obesity epidemic in the Middle Eastern Arab Gulf countries-as well as globally.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Gravidez
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(10): 1148-1150, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103740

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the impact of a major public health emergency on mental health, and the ways that individuals, communities, professionals and systems can react positively to such a crisis. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has substantial experience in mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in crises, and COVID-19 has driven further innovation to support mental health and well-being.Global and regional guidance has been developed quickly, applying lessons learnt from previous disease outbreaks to respond to the pandemic at a systems level, for different population groups, and for countries of different income levels. Preliminary results from a global rapid assessment survey to assess the impact of COVID-19 on MHPSS services, indicate that 20 of the 22 EMR Member States have MHPSS as integral components of national COVID-19 response plans; one-third have allocated additional funding. However, MHPSS services have been severely impacted by the pandemic, including psychotherapy, psychosocial interventions, community services, and services for children/adolescents. Innovative solutions such as crisis hotlines, tele-consultations, digital self-help platforms, novel approaches to ensure supply of psychotropic medicines, and task sharing/shifting for basic psychosocial support, are being used in many countries to overcome service disruptions and maintain care for those with mental conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Desastres , Saúde Global , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105181, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066945

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has led to a change in the way we manage acute medical illnesses. This pandemic had a negative impact on stroke care worldwide. The World Stroke Organization (WSO) has raised concerns due to the lack of available care and compromised acute stroke services globally. The numbers of thrombolysis and thrombectomy therapies are declining. As well as, the rates and door-to treatment times for thrombolysis and thrombectomy therapies are increasing. The stroke units are being reallocated to serve COVID-19 patients, and stroke teams are being redeployed to COVID-19 centers. Covid 19 confirmed cases and deaths are rising day by day. This pandemic clearly threatened and threatening all stroke care achievements regionally. Managing stroke patients during this pandemic is even more challenging at our region. The Middle East and North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA-SINO) is the main stroke organization regionally. MENA-SINO urges the need to developing new strategies and recommendations for stroke care during this pandemic. This will require multiple channels of interventions and create a protective code stroke with fast triaging path. Developing and expanding the tele-stroke programs are urgently required. There is an urgent need for enhancing collaboration and cooperation between stroke expertise regionally and internationally. Integrating such measures will inevitably lead to an improvement and upgrading of the services to a satisfactory level.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/normas , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Quarentena , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triagem/normas
11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(9): 992-993, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047787

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose multiple health challenges in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Morbidity and mortality from the disease remain a serious cause for concern. As of 31 August 2020, a total of 1 924 511 laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection had been reported in the Region, including 51 019 deaths. Moreover, there are worrying signs that cases are now rising again in some countries after a period of decline and the indirect impact of the pandemic on health care is arguably even more troubling. Access to essential health services is being compromised as scarce resources are diverted to fight the pandemic, social restriction measures such as lockdowns disrupt service provision, while fear and rumor deter people from approaching health facilities. Initial studies indicate that services such as immunization, elective surgery and chronic disease management have been severely affected. The long-term consequences threaten to be grave indeed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(9): 1005-1010, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047790

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 is now well documented in the Eastern Mediterranean Region; however, the incidence, mortality and fatality rates differ by country. Aims: The study aimed to describe the COVID-19 pandemic in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, assessing the incidence, mortality-related and fatality rate in different countries, in comparison with the worldwide mean. Methods: Data were sourced from the Worldometer surveillance page and from governmental reporting channels. Data were exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 23.0). Results: In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the testing frequency is heterogeneous between countries, in addition to the reported cases and death. Very few data are available from countries with political instability and security problems (Yemen, Syrian Arab Republic and Sudan), particularly for the testing frequency. Overall, despite similar rates of testing, there was a significantly lower incidence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region versus the rest of the world, in addition to a lower mortality per million-population, particularly in countries with low to moderate testing rates. However, in countries with higher testing than the world average, there is a higher incidence, a lower mortality, but an unexpected higher fatality rate. Conclusion: The overall testing frequency was similar in the Eastern Mediterranean Region compared to the rest of the world; this would be expected to lead to a similar cumulative incidence and case fatality rate. Nevertheless, the average incidence was 70% lower than the rest of the world, and mortality per million-population was lower (90%). Moreover, in Gulf Cooperation Council high-testing countries, a similar case-fatality rate to other countries in the Region was noted, but was higher than the world average, although expected to be lower. Further studies are necessary to explain discrepancies in incidence, mortality and fatality rates among countries; principally, environmental, genetic and managerial reasons should be investigated.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 131, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102151

RESUMO

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic created major global health crises, with serious effects on all aspects of life. The pandemic reached the Israeli occupied West Bank of Palestine in early March 2020, and lockdown immediately ensued. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and predictors of distress and insecurity among Birzeit University's community during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Methods: An online survey completed in March-April 2020 using standardized and previously validated distress and insecurity scales. The survey was placed on the University portal accessed by students, faculty and employees, and was sent by email to faculty and employees. Data were weighted to reflect the University community's distribution. Findings: There were 1,851 participants in the study: 84% were undergraduate students, 10% graduate students, and 6% faculty and employees. Sixty two percent were women. Ages ranged from 17 to 70 years (mean 24 ± 9.7). Prevalence of moderate/high distress and insecurity were 40% and 48% respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that women, those under 35 years old and those with worse reported income, had significantly higher odds of distress and insecurity compared to their counterparts. Undergraduate students or living with a person at home with high risk of illness with COVID-19 were associated with higher odds of distress compared to their counterparts (OR = 1.56, 95%CI[1.13-2.15]) and (OR = 1.34, 95%CI[1.11-1.62]) respectively. A COVID-19 worry score was significantly associated with higher odds of distress and insecurity (OR = 1.77, 95%CI[1.46-2.14]) and (OR = 4.3, 95%CI[3.53-5.23]) respectively. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need to pay attention not only to physical health but also to mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among young people, women, those with lower economic status, and those living with high risk persons during the pandemic. We hope that this study will inform the policies and interventions of the Palestinian Authority, local non-governmental organization, international groups working in the occupied Palestinian territory, and beyond.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Universidades , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Docentes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/tendências , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia
14.
Saudi Med J ; 41(9): 907-915, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the outcomes of the coronavirus disease 2019 infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in the first 4 months of the pandemic. METHODS: A meta-analysis approach was used in this context. We used the aggregate data from the World Health Organization Regional Office for the EMRO (until 26 May 2020) to generate this report. RESULTS: An analysis of official data from all 22 countries and territories in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Central Asia K=22 (a total of 438,717 cases) was performed. The total number of cases, recovered cases were 438,717,228,986,  and deaths was 11,290 in the EMR. Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of recovery rate per country in the EMR was 52.5% (95% CI 52.3% - 52.6%). The lowest recovery rates were in Somalia (4.3%), and the highest rates were in Tunisia (87.4%). Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of death rate per country in the EMR yielded 3.85% [95% CI 3.80% - 3.9%]. Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of recovery rate per country in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries was 46.1% (95% CI 45.8% - 46.3%). Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of death rate per country in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries was 0.6% (95% CI 0.50% - 0.65%). CONCLUSION: Wide variability was found between EMR countries in recovery and mortality, implying the possible impact of resource availability, and genetic and environmental factors on the morality and recovery of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia
16.
J Community Health ; 45(6): 1270-1282, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to find the prevalence of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 infected patients and associated risk factors for death. METHODS: Three electronic databases including PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant cohort studies of COVID-19 disease from January 1, 2020, to August 11, 2020. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence rate (PR), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for both effect measures. Cochrane chi-square test statistic Q, [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] tests were used to measure the presence of heterogeneity. Publication bias and sensitivity of the included studies were also tested. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, a total of 58 studies with 122,191 patients were analyzed. The pooled prevalence rate of mortality among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 18.88%, 95% CI (16.46-21.30), p < 0.001. Highest mortality was found in Europe [PR 26.85%, 95% CI (19.41-34.29), p < 0.001] followed by North America [PR 21.47%, 95% CI (16.27-26.68), p < 0.001] and Asia [PR 14.83%, 95% CI (12.46- 17.21), p < 0.001]. An significant association were found between mortality among COVID-19 infected patients and older age (> 65 years vs. < 65 years) [RR 3.59, 95% CI (1.87-6.90), p < 0.001], gender (male vs. female) [RR 1.63, 95% CI (1.43-1.87), p < 0.001], ICU admitted patients [RR 3.72, 95% CI (2.70-5.13), p < 0.001], obesity [RR 2.18, 95% CI (1.10-4.34), p < 0.05], hypertension [RR 2.08,95% CI (1.79-2.43) p < 0.001], diabetes [RR 1.87, 95% CI (1.23-2.84), p < 0.001], cardiovascular disease [RR 2.51, 95% CI (1.20-5.26), p < 0.05], and cancer [RR 2.31, 95% CI (1.80-2.97), p < 0.001]. In addition, significant association for high risk of mortality were also found for cerebrovascular disease, COPD, coronary heart disease, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, chronic lung disease and chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed that the mortality rate among COVID-19 patients was highest in the European region and older age, gender, ICU patients, patients with comorbidity had a high risk for case fatality. Those findings would help the health care providers to reduce the mortality rate and combat this pandemic to save lives using limited resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , América do Sul/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751384

RESUMO

Aims: Perinatal mental illness (PMI) is associated with a high risk of maternal and infant morbidity. Recently, several systematic reviews and primary studies have explored the prevalence and risk factors of PMI in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. To our knowledge, there has been no critical analysis of the existing systematic reviews (SRs) on this topic in the MENA region. Our systematic overview primarily aimed to synthesize evidence from the published SRs on PMI in the MENA countries focusing on a) the prevalence of PMI and b) the risk factors associated with PMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic overview of the epidemiology of PMI in the Middle East and North Africa region by searching the PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo databases for relevant publications between January 2008 and July 2019. In addition to searching the reference lists of the identified SRs for other relevant SRs and additional primary studies of relevance (those which primarily discussed the prevalence of PMI and/or risk and protective factors), between August and October 2019, we also searched Google Scholar for relevant studies. Results: After applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 systematic reviews (SRs) and 79 primary studies were included in our overview. Studies utilizing validated diagnostic tools report a PMI prevalence range from 5.6% in Morocco to 28% in Pakistan. On the other hand, studies utilizing screening tools to detect PMI report a prevalence range of 9.2% in Sudan to 85.6% in the United Arab Emirates. Wide variations were observed in studies reporting PMI risk factors. We regrouped the risk factors applying an evidence-based categorization scheme. Our study indicates that risk factors in the relational, psychological, and sociodemographic categories are the most studied in the region. Conversely, lifestyle-related risk factors were less studied. Conclusions: Our systematic overview identifies perinatal mental illness as an important public health issue in the region. Standardizing approaches for estimating, preventing, screening, and treating perinatal mental illness would be a step in the right direction for the region.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Gravidez , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Marrocos , Paquistão , Gravidez/psicologia , Sudão , Emirados Árabes Unidos
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720955026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is thought to be the most significant public health threat the modern world has encountered. Health care workers (HCWs) face enormous pressure due to work overload, negative emotions, exhaustion, lack of contact with their families, and risk of catching the infection and death. AIM: This study aims to assess the level of stress perceived by HCWs and possible associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Palestine. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 430 frontlines HCWs was conducted using an online self-reported questionnaire. HCWs' stress from the COVID-19 outbreak, factors that increase stress, and the activities that reduced stress were assessed. Chi-square test was used to compare between a categorical variable and the study outcome; associations are presented as odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) with 0.05 significance level. Al-Najah National University institutional review board granted ethics approval. RESULTS: Most respondents (74.0%) reported high-stress levels during the outbreak. Fear of transmitting the virus to family was the most stressful factor (91.6%). HCWs who did not have training on the outbreak response were more likely to have high-stress levels (OR = 2.7 [95% CI = 1.7-4.4], P < .001). Those with high stress reported being disappointed (OR = 2.4 [95% CI = 1.5-3.6], P < .001), and strongly considered taking sick leave (OR = 3.9 [95% CI = 1.9-7.9], P < .001). CONCLUSION: HCWs are under tremendous stress, given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the psychological impact of the outbreak on HCWs and the activities that mitigate the stress is crucial to guide policies and interventions that can maintain psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(10): 715-717, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report the first person with SARS-CoV-2 in Egypt. METHODS: We interviewed the index case and contacts. RESULTS: The 36-year old man was healthy when he traveled on business to Wuhan, China in January 2020. Upon his return to Cairo, he became ill, went to work, and subsequent autochthonous viral spread occurred. CONCLUSION: We linked SARS-CoV-2 importation to global business travel. The extent to which physical distancing, hand/face/surface hygiene, mask use, viral testing/contact tracing, restricted travel, small gatherings, and/or stay-in-residence mandates will be implemented and limit further spread in the Middle East and North Africa remains to be seen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem
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