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1.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(9): 985-989, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated upper airway collapse while sleeping which leads to intermittent hypoxemia. Upper airway stimulation (UAS) is a commonly practiced modality for treating OSA in patients who cannot tolerate, or do not benefit from, positive airway pressure (PAP). The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of lateral pharyngeal collapse patterns on therapy response in UAS. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from a single, tertiary-care academic center was performed. Patients who underwent UAS between October 2016 and July 2019 were identified and analyzed. Drug-induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) outcomes between Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) responders and AHI non-responders were compared. Those with complete concentric collapse at the velopharynx were not candidates for UAS. RESULTS: About 95 patients that underwent UAS were included in this study. Pre- to Post-UAS demonstrated significant improvements in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.0 vs 4.0, P = .001), AHI (29.8 vs 5.4, P < .001) and minimum oxygen saturation (79% vs 83%, P < .001). No DISE findings significantly predicted AHI response after UAS. Specifically, multiple types of lateral pharyngeal collapse patterns did not adversely effect change in AHI or AHI response rate. CONCLUSION: Demonstration of lateral pharyngeal collapse on DISE, in the absence of complete concentric velopharyngeal obstruction, does not appear to adversely affect AHI outcomes in UAS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: VI.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Palato Mole/fisiopatologia , Músculos Faríngeos/fisiopatologia , Faringe/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Idoso , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipofaringe/fisiopatologia , Laringoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 48(3): 434-440, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the relationship between anthropometric data, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) findings, and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: From August 2016 to August 2017, a total of 147 surgically naïve adult patients with OSA underwent DISE. Factors that were analyzed included anthropometric data and DISE findings. RESULTS: When anthropometric data and DISE findings were analyzed with AHI by univariate analysis, the results showed that Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, concentric collapse of the velum, lateral oropharyngeal collapse, and anterior-posterior collapse of the tongue base were considered potentially independent predictors (p = 0.024, p < 0 .001, p < 0 .001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0 .001, respectively, by Spearman correlation). When all important factors were evaluated in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, BMI, lateral oropharyngeal collapse, and anterior-posterior collapse of the tongue base were identified as significant predictors for the severity of OSA. The final model was listed as below: AHI score = 2.19 BMI + 7.56 Oropharynx/Lateral degree + 8.23 Tongue base/ Anterior-Posterior degree - 40.59. CONCLUSION: By analyzing anthropometric data and DISE findings with AHI score, the results indicated that BMI, lateral oropharyngeal collapse, and anterior-posterior collapse of the tongue base were important factors associated with the severity of OSA.


Assuntos
Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Língua/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 83, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the anatomical differences between positional and non-positional OSA, and to identify the potential predictors for distinguishing between these two types of OSA. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 230 consecutive patients with OSA undergoing DISE (Drug-induced Sleep Endoscopy) was carried out at a tertiary academic medical center. The factors correlating with positional and non-positional OSA were analyzed, including clinical characteristics, polysomnography data, and DISE findings. RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that non-positional dependency was correlated with a higher BMI (p < 0.001), neck circumference (p < 0.001), modified Mallampati score (p = 0.003), AHI (p < 0.001), degree of velum concentric collapse (p = 0.004), degree of oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse (p < 0.001), and degree of tongue base anteroposterior collapse (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse (OR = 1.90, p = 0.027) was the only anatomical factor significantly predicted non-positional dependency in OSA patients. AHI (OR = 1.04, p < 0.001), although significant, made only a marginal contribution to the prediction of non-positional dependency. CONCLUSIONS: Oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse was identified as the only anatomical predictor for non-positional dependency in OSA patients. Therefore, further treatment modalities should address the distinct anatomical trait between positional and non-positional OSA.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Postura/fisiologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Língua/fisiopatologia
4.
Sleep Breath ; 24(3): 791-799, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published evidence elucidating the prevalence of dysphagia and detail alterations in swallowing function in patients with OSAS. METHODS: Computerized literature searches were performed from four search engines. The studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were screened using Covidence (Cochrane tool) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards (PRISMA-2009). A total 2645 studies were initially retrieved, of which a total of 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Two reviewers, blinded to each other, evaluated level and strength of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and QualSyst, respectively. RESULTS: Dysphagia prevalence ranged from 16 to 78% among the eligible studies. Studies varied in operational definitions defining swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) and method used to assess swallowing function. Approximately 70% of eligible studies demonstrated strong methodological quality. The majority of studies (n = 11; 65%) reported pharyngeal swallowing impairments in patients with OSAS, including delayed initiation of pharyngeal swallow and penetration/aspiration. CONCLUSION: This systematic review describes swallowing function in patients with OSAS. However, due to the variability in defining OSAS and dysphagia, in the assessment method used to determine dysphagia, and heterogeneity of study designs, true prevalence is difficult to determine. Clinicians involved in the management of OSAS patients should employ validated assessment measures to determine if swallow dysfunction is present.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
5.
Curr Med Imaging Rev ; 16(1): 65-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal motility studies are performed in patients who have dysphagia that is not explained by stenosis. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires expertise in the interpretation of tests and symptoms. AIMS: Our aim is to investigate the diagnostic value of videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in combination with esophageal manometry. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a prospective study design. METHODS: 73 patients with dysphagia underwent videofluoroscopy in a standing position. Each subject swallowed barium boluses and findings were correlated with manometry findings. RESULTS: The study cohort was categorized into five groups according to their disease as achalasia (31.1%), presbyesophagus (4.1%), scleroderma (5.5%), neurogenic dysphagia (6.8%), and other diseases (54.4%), which included gastroesophageal reflux, diffuse esophageal spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia, and diseases with nonspecific VFSS patterns. When evaluating VFSS, the perfect agreement was observed between two observers in the final diagnosis. (kappa: 0.91, p<0,001). CONCLUSION: Although it does not replace manometry, VFSS is important as an additional useful imaging method in EMDs.


Assuntos
Cinerradiografia , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/fisiopatologia , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sulfato de Bário , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Laryngoscope ; 130(9): 2269-2274, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare awake endoscopy with Müller's maneuver (MM) during both sitting and supine positions, with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) as regard determination of different levels, patterns, and degrees of collapse of the upper airway in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: The study included adult patients with OSA symptoms, who had apnea hypopnea index (AHI) > 15. Patients were examined by MM in a sitting position, then during supine position; DISE then followed. Site, pattern, and degree of obstruction were assessed by experienced examiners according to the nose oropharynx hypopharynx and larynx classification. RESULTS: Eighty-one adult subjects were included. The most common pattern of collapse at the retro-palatal level was the concentric pattern, while the predominant pattern at the hypopharyngeal level was the lateral wall collapse. The analysis of the pattern of collapse of the study group revealed that the individual pattern did not change (for the same patient at the same level) in the majority of patients whatever the maneuver or the position. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of positional awake endoscopy for providing valuable surgical information as regard level, pattern, and degree of severity in OSA. The data of positional awake endoscopy were comparable to those gained from DISE with less morbidity and costs. The idea and results of this work provide a useful foundation for future research in this area. Multicenter studies are encouraged to obtain more reliable conclusions and more clear standards aiming at a better surgical planning. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:2269-2274, 2020.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Endoscopia/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipofaringe/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Palato/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Postura Sentada , Sono , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/administração & dosagem , Decúbito Dorsal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sleep Breath ; 24(4): 1279-1291, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with dysfunction of oropharyngeal muscles to maintain upper airway patency during sleep. Oropharyngeal rehabilitation (OPR) was developed to restore, reconstruct, and reeducate oropharyngeal muscle function, but current protocols and effectiveness of OPR have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to review (1) indications of OPR, (2) protocols of OPR, and (3) effectiveness of OPR. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library and then conducted both meta-synthesis and meta-analysis according to the statement of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). RESULTS: A total of eight studies with 203 patients were included. By means of meta-synthesis, the patients with middle age, BMI < 40 kg/m2, mild-to-moderate OSA, and non-severe upper airway anatomical abnormality were found to benefit from OPR. The protocol of OPR was summarized to be an anatomically based, multilevel approach, including the retropalatal, retroglossal, hypopharyngeal, TMJ, and facial levels. By using meta-analysis, overall outcomes were presented as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) with significant improvement from 25.2 ± 7.8/h to 16.1 ± 6.6/h (mean difference [MD] - 9.8 [95% CI - 11.0 to - 8.6], p < 0.0001); the lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) improved from 80.2 ± 4.7 to 83.8 ± 2.9% (MD 3.0% [95% CI 2.0 to 4.0], p < 0.0001); Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) improved from 11.8 ± 1.9 to 6.3 ± 1.6 (MD - 5.9 [95% CI - 7.5 to - 4.2], p < 0.001), neck circumference (NC) from 35.2 ± 1.1 to 34.7 ± 0.9 cm (MD - 0.6 [95% CI - 0.9 to - 0.2], p = 0.002), BMI from 24.8 ± 3.7 to 24.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2 (MD - 0.0; 95% CI - 0.5 to 0.5, p = 0.95). All outcomes except BMI demonstrated significant improvement from OPR. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis of previous OPR reports shows an improvement in AHI of 39%, compared with the usual surgical definition of success at 50%. Only mild and moderate cases of OSA were referred for OPR in the prior studies. In order to improve outcomes with OPR, a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/reabilitação , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 72(6): 464-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734664

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Nowadays, clinical tools are available to evaluate the functional impact of speech disorders in neurological conditions, but few are validated in oncology. Because of their location, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract directly impact patients' communication skills. Two questionnaires exist in French, the Speech Handicap Index (SHI) and the Phonation Handicap Index (PHI), but none are specifically validated for the head and neck cancer population. Our aim is to evaluate the validity of these 2 questionnaires in a population of patients treated for oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eighty-seven patients treated for cancer of the oral cavity or oropharynx, and 21 controls filled in the questionnaires during a consultation or 1-day hospitalization. Validation was studied by the analysis of convergent and discriminant validity, clinical validity, criterion validity, and internal consistency. RESULTS: The 2 questionnaires present a coherent structure in 2 distinct dimensions for the SHI, and in 3 dimensions for the PHI. Both tools discriminate patients and healthy subjects (p value <0.001, Mann-Whitney test). The comparison of the SHI and PHI scores with the "social role functioning" dimension of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 chosen as a reference shows similar performances for the 2 questionnaires (ρ > 0.42). Lastly, the internal consistency is good (Cronbach's α > 0.71). CONCLUSION: In patients treated for oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer, the SHI and PHI are 2 valid and reliable tools for the self-assessment of speech disability. A limitation can be found about criterion validity, because a true gold standard does not exist at the moment. However, the reduced number of questions of the PHI, which implies a shorter completion, leads to prefer this tool over the SHI.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Neoplasias Bucais , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Distúrbios da Fala , Humanos , Idioma , Neoplasias Bucais/complicações , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Fonação , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Dysphagia ; 35(1): 99-109, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989394

RESUMO

At present, the nature and extent of upper esophageal stage clearance issues following nonsurgical management of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to conduct an initial retrospective study of the prevalence and severity of upper esophageal clearance impairments in a cohort of patients post-NPC management. A secondary aim was to explore any observed relationship between severity of impairment with both (a) aspiration and (b) temporal oropharyngeal swallowing measures. A cohort of 134 NPC patients who received curative intent (chemo)radiotherapy (C/RT) and completed a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) between 2012 and 2015 were reviewed. An Esophageal Clearance parameter, based on the scale used in MBSImP was used to classify the presence and severity of esophageal impairment on thin liquid and semisolids. Data on oral and pharyngeal temporal measures, pharyngeal constriction, and penetration/aspiration were also collected. The prevalence of cervical esophageal clearance impairment was high with ratings > 0 observed among 83% and 97% of patients on thin liquid and semisolids, respectively. With the increasing impairment, significantly (p < 0.05) increased oral transit times were observed for liquid swallows, and increased pharyngeal transit times for semisolids. Significantly higher proportions of patients presented with penetration/aspiration in the group with more severe esophageal clearance impairment. Results confirm that cervical esophageal clearance impairment is highly prevalent post-C/RT treatment for NPC. Causality cannot be determined from this study; however, this initial evidence supports that esophageal impairment may coexist in patients post NPC, presenting with more severe oral/pharyngeal deficits, and the impact of this on swallow function needs to be considered. Further systematic research is required.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/fisiopatologia , Aspiração Respiratória/epidemiologia , Idoso , Cinerradiografia , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Aspiração Respiratória/diagnóstico , Aspiração Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Dysphagia ; 35(4): 667-676, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676923

RESUMO

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is the most common Parkinson-Plus syndrome and is associated with early onset of dysphagia relative to Parkinson Disease. The current study contributes to the growing understanding of swallowing dysfunction in PSP by describing oropharyngeal swallowing characteristics in a large prospective cohort of participants with PSP employing a nationally standardized videofluoroscopy protocol and a disease severity scale developed expressly for PSP. Participants were 51 adults diagnosed with PSP. Each participant underwent a clinical interview and standardized videofluorographic assessment. Swallowing function was characterized with the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Scale (MBSImP) and Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). Variables of interest were participant-reported difficulties with liquids and/or solids; overall impression score for each of the 17 individual MBSImP components, as well as Oral Total Sum and Pharyngeal Total Sum; and PAS. Data were described with median interquartile range, counts, and proportions. Spearman's rank correlations were calculated between MBSImP scores and participant-reported indices, FOIS, and PSP Rating Scale. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported difficulties with liquids, solids, or both, although fewer than 15% reported modifying consistencies. Videofluorographic findings included predominant oral phase impairments, including back and forth rocking motion of the tongue, delayed initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, and oral residue. Pharyngeal phase impairments were relatively infrequent and comparatively mild, with the exception of reduced tongue base retraction contributing to pharyngeal residue, and mildly disrupted laryngeal vestibule closure. Disease severity correlated significantly with oral (r = .0.42, p = .0.002) and pharyngeal (r = 0.41, p = .0.003) total sum scores as well as with the oral phase components of oral transport (r = .0.33, p = .0.02) and initiation of the pharyngeal swallow (r = .0.38, p = .0.007), and PAS for thin liquids (r = .0.44, p = .0.001). The PSP Rating Scale was not more strongly correlated with swallowing impairment than has been reported for other disease severity rating scales. Dysphagia is a common complaint of patients with PSP. The current findings corroborate and expand upon those reported in the literature, detailing relatively more frequent and more severe oral phase impairments and relatively spared hyolaryngeal excursion. Further research is needed to characterize the progression of dysphagia in PSP and to determine whether dysphagia varies in character or in rate of progression across variants of PSP.


Assuntos
Cinerradiografia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/complicações
11.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): 68-71, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of nasal surgery in the upper airway (UA) collapse using drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in a group of patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). METHODS: Prospective cohort of patients treated with nasal surgery between 2015 and 2016. All patients were diagnosed with mild to severe OSAHS. The inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 70 years, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) higher than 15, and septal deviation. All patients had a DISE performed before surgery and 3 months after. The DISE findings were evaluated through the NOHL scale. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were included. Surgical success with subjective and objective improvement in nasal obstructions was achieved in all cases. The pattern of UA obstruction did change significantly following nasal surgery (P < 0.05). Before nasal surgery, 74% of the patients demonstrated multilevel obstruction. After nasal surgery, only 50% patients showed multilevel collapse (P < 0.05). Among patients with single-level collapse, the oropharynx was the most common location of obstruction. It became more frequent after nasal surgery was done (41% vs 21%, P < 0.05). Significant improvement was shown in hypopharyngeal collapse. Postoperative AHI decreased from a mean of 26.7 to 19 events/h, but this change was not significant. CONCLUSION: Nasal surgery may improve hypopharyngeal collapses observed during DISE in patients with OSAHS. Thus, an improvement in nasal obstruction may also modify the surgical plan based on UA functional findings in OSAHS patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais , Nariz/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Adulto Jovem
12.
Dysphagia ; 35(3): 414-418, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375916

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the severity of dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Patients with dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included and divided into two groups (non-severe vs. severe). Severe dysphagia was defined as the condition showing decreased bilateral pharyngeal constriction without esophageal passage in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study that initially required enteral tube feeding. Their clinical data (age, sex, lesion side, duration of the illness, penetration-aspiration scale, functional oral intake scale, Modified Barthel index, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and anatomical lesion on diffusion-weighted MRI) were compared to find differences between the two groups. Twelve patients had absence of esophageal passage among a total of 30 patients with dysphagia after LMI. Only anatomical lesion location and extent were significantly different between the two groups. The severe group showed posterolateral involvement in the upper and lower parts of the medulla. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the two groups. The location and extent of involvement in the medulla were the most important factors associated with the severity of dysphagia after LMI.


Assuntos
Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/patologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bulbo/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia
13.
Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed ; 105(3): 177-184, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401552

RESUMO

Paediatricians commonly encounter neck lumps during their routine clinical practice; vascular abnormalities, such as (pseudo)aneurysms, are a rare cause of these. Pseudoaneurysms of the carotid artery in children are usually the result of blunt or penetrating trauma, infection or vasculitis/connective tissue disorders. They can present with a variety of symptoms including neck pain, as a pulsatile neck mass or with compressive symptoms (for example, cranial nerve palsies or dyspnoea). Pseudoaneurysms carry a risk of rupture in which case they are fatal, unless immediate treatment is provided.We report a 17-month-old male child with idiopathic carotid artery blowout syndrome presenting with acute oropharyngeal haemorrhage leading to asystolic cardiac arrest. He was successfully resuscitated and emergency embolisation controlled the bleeding. Despite extensive left hemispheric infarct, he has survived.Carotid artery blowout syndrome needs to be recognised as a potential cause of major haemorrhage in childhood. The purpose of this case report is to remind readers of the differential diagnosis and work-up of a child presenting with a neck lump, to highlight important aspects of the acute management of major haemorrhage and massive blood transfusion in paediatrics, to describe the aetiology, presentation and management of carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in children and to discuss long term rehabilitation in patients with consequent neurological sequelae (including the need for input from multiple specialty teams).


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Embolização Terapêutica/normas , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Pediatria/normas , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Orofaringe/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 70(6): 327-335, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184877

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar nuestra experiencia y consideraciones al cuantificar el desplazamiento hioideo, así como observar su correlación con las escalas cualitativas de valoración de la disfagia. Métodos: Se mide el desplazamiento hioideo mediante el método descrito por el grupo de Molfenter y Steele 2014 en una serie de 14 pacientes con disfagia orofaríngea antes y después del tratamiento, y se valora su correlación con la Escala de penetración y aspiración de Rosenbek de 1996, y con la Functional Oral Intake Scale de Crary de 2005. Resultados: Todos los pacientes variaron el desplazamiento total del hioides tras el tratamiento aplicado. Esta variación se correlacionó con las variaciones de la Escala de penetración y aspiración en todos los pacientes que presentaban aspiración o penetración. Sin embargo, las modificaciones del desplazamiento total hioideo no se correlacionaron con las variaciones de la Functional Oral Intake Scale. Conclusiones: La mejora en el desplazamiento total del hioides es un indicador clínico de la mejora en la aspiración del paciente con disfagia orofaríngea, y puede ser utilizado en su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Sin embargo, no lo es como indicador de la tolerancia de la dieta oral


Introduction and objectives: The objective of this paper was to show our experience and considerations when quantifying hyoid bone displacement and to observe its correlation with the qualitative scales that evaluate dysphagia. Methods: Hyoid displacement was assessed using the method described by Molfenter and Steele's group in 2014 in a series of 14 patients affected by oropharyngeal dysphagia. The degree of dysphagia was also qualitatively assessed with the Rosenbek Penetration and Aspiration Scale (PAS) of 1996 and with the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) of Crary of 2005. All assessments were done before and after treatment. Results: All patients increased their hyoid bone total displacement after the treatment. These variations were highly correlated with the variations in the PAS scale with aspiration or penetration. However, the variations of hyoid bone displacement did not correlate with the FOIS scale. Conclusions: The improvement in total hyoid bone displacement is a clinical indicator of improved aspiration of patients suffering dysphagia. However, the improvement of this displacement is not related to the oral intake tolerance of the patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Avaliação da Deficiência , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluoroscopia , Gravação em Vídeo
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16106, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695062

RESUMO

Thickened fluids are commonly used in the medical management of individuals who suffer swallowing difficulty (known as dysphagia). Previous studies have shown that the rheological properties of a liquid affect the flow behavior of the bolus in swallowing, such as pharyngeal transit time. While there is no doubt that shear rheology is a highly important factor for bolus flow, it is suspected that extensional properties of a liquid bolus also plays an important role in swallowing, due to elongation of the bolus as it flows through the oropharynx. Our aim in this work was to observe the effect of extensional viscosity on pharyngeal transit time and elongation of the bolus during swallowing. Eight samples of thickened liquid barium that were shear-controlled, but varied in extensional viscosity and two samples that were extensional-controlled, but varied in shear viscosity were swallowed by eight healthy individuals. Data were collected under lateral view of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS); measures of pharyngeal transit time and the ratio of the length to the width of the bolus on the frame of Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) opening were taken from the VFSS recordings. It was observed that the pharyngeal transit time generally increases when the fluids are thickened to higher IDDSI consistency. Additionally, higher extensional viscosity fluids reduced the elongation of the bolus during swallowing, thus potentially reducing the risk of post-swallow residue due to bolus breakage. This study confirmed the relevance of the extensional viscosity of the bolus in swallowing.


Assuntos
Bário/química , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Deglutição , Adulto , Bário/metabolismo , Transtornos de Deglutição/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/química , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Faringe/fisiopatologia , Reologia , Gravação de Videodisco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 72(6): 576-582, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The supraglottic airway device is an appropriate alternative to tracheal intubation in laparoscopic surgery. We compared the Baska MaskⓇ with i-gelⓇ by measuring the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A total of 97 patients were randomly allocated to either i-gel group (n = 49) or Baska Mask group (n = 48). Insertion time, number of insertion attempts, fiber-optic view of the glottis, and OLP were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, peak airway pressure (PAP), lung compliance, and perioperative complications were assessed before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic data, insertion time, fiber-optic view of the glottis, and the use of airway manipulation. The OLP was higher in the Baska Mask group than in the i-gel group (29.6 ± 6.8 cmH2O and 26.7 ± 4.5 cmH2O, respectively; P = 0.014). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, PAP, and lung compliance were not significantly different between the groups. The incidence of perioperative complications was small and not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both the i-gel and Baska Mask provided a satisfactory airway during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Compared with the i-gel, the Baska Mask demonstrated a higher OLP.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Máscaras Laríngeas , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Máscaras Laríngeas/efeitos adversos , Complacência Pulmonar/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
17.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 209-227, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183396

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of antipsychotic medication on dysphagia based on clinical case reports. Patients and methods: Literature searches were performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. In PubMed, we used the MeSH terms "antipsychotic agents" OR "tranquilizing agents" combined with "deglutition disorders" OR "deglutition". In Embase, we used the Emtree terms "neuroleptic agents" combined with "swallowing" OR "dysphagia". Two reviewers assessed the eligibility of each case independently. Results: A total of 1043 abstracts were retrieved, of which 36 cases met the inclusion criteria; 14 cases were related to typical antipsychotics and 22 to atypical antipsychotics. Dysphagia occurred together with extrapyramidal symptoms in half of the cases and was the only prominent symptom in the other half. The most common strategy against dysphagia was changing to another antipsychotic (n=13, 36.1%). Conclusions: The data from this review indicate that antipsychotics can increase the prevalence of dysphagia


Objetivo: El propósito de esta revisión sistemática fue examinar el efecto de los fármacos antipsicóticos en la disfagia según los casos clínicos reportados. Pacientes y métodos: La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó utilizando las bases de datos electrónicas PubMed y Embase. En PubMed, utilizamos los términos MeSH «agentes antipsicóticos» o «agentes tranquilizantes» combinados con «trastornos de deglución» o «deglución». En Embase, utilizamos los términos de Emtree «agentes neurolépticos» combinados con «deglutir» o «disfagia». Dos revisores evaluaron la elegibilidad de cada caso de forma independiente. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 1.043 resúmenes, de los cuales 36 casos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión; 14 casos estuvieron relacionados con antipsicóticos típicos y 22 con antipsicóticos atípicos. La disfagia se produjo junto con síntomas extrapiramidales en la mitad de los casos, y fue el único síntoma prominente en la otra mitad. La estrategia más común contra la disfagia fue cambiar a otro antipsicótico (n=13; 36,1%). Conclusiones: Los datos de esta revisión sistemática indican que los antipsicóticos pueden aumentar la prevalencia de la disfagia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Orofaringe/efeitos dos fármacos , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/induzido quimicamente
19.
Laryngoscope ; 129(11): 2658-2662, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine the effect of epiglottis obstruction during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) on the surgical results of multilevel sleep surgery without epiglottic intervention. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This investigation involved patients diagnosed with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) based on preoperative polysomnography (PSG), who underwent DISE followed by multilevel OSA surgery without epiglottic intervention at Kyung Hee Medical Center (Seoul, South Korea) between March 2013 and July 2016. During DISE, obstruction patterns of the upper airway were evaluated using the velum, oropharynx, tongue base, epiglottis classification method. Follow-up PSG was performed 3 months after surgery to determine the success rate of multilevel surgery without epiglottic intervention. A comparison was done between the group with epiglottis obstruction and the group without epiglottis obstruction. RESULTS: Epiglottis obstruction was observed during DISE in 43.7% of patients. After application of exclusion criteria, 54 subjects were included (27 with and 27 without epiglottis obstruction). DISE revealed an association between epiglottis obstruction and tongue base collapse (P = .02). Comparing pre- and postoperative PSG findings, both groups exhibited improvement postoperatively. The success rate was 44.4% in the epiglottis obstruction group and 40.7% in the non-epiglottis obstruction group (P = .80). There was no difference in surgical success rates between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of epiglottis obstruction requiring epiglottic surgery was lower than what was found during DISE. Sleep surgeons may consider staged epiglottic surgery in patients with epiglottis obstruction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3b Laryngoscope, 129:2658-2662, 2019.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Epiglote/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Adulto , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Endoscopia/métodos , Epiglote/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prevalência , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(3): 479-484, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effortful swallowing training (EST) is a remedial method for the training of swallowing-related muscles in the oropharyngeal phase. However, clinical evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. AIMS: To investigate the effects of EST on tongue strength and swallowing function in patients with stroke. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Stroke patients with dysphagia were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an experimental group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 12). The experimental group underwent EST, while the control group performed saliva swallowing. Training was conducted 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent conventional dysphagia treatment for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Tongue strength was assessed using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. The Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS), based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, was used to analyze oropharyngeal swallowing function. The experimental group showed greater improvements in anterior and posterior tongue strength compared with the control group (p = 0.046 and 0.042, respectively), and greater improvement in the oral phases of the VDS (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: We recommend EST as a remedial strategy for improving tongue strength and oral swallowing function in patients with stroke.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/reabilitação , Deglutição/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Língua/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Músculos Faríngeos/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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