Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.941
Filtrar
1.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(11): 1874-1885, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of inducing vascular occlusion by application of radiofrequency (RF) energy via conductive endovascular wires or baskets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrievable nitinol basket and stainless steel guidewire with a platinum tip were evaluated as conductors for endovascular application of RF energy. Tissue-mimicking thermochromic gel phantoms that change color with heating were cast with 2-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter lumens and filled with 37 oC saline. After ablation, the phantoms were sectioned, and the thermal footprints were evaluated. Six castrated male domestic swine underwent endovascular ablation using the basket in iliac arteries and guidewires in renal arteries. Post-procedural angiography was performed, and postmortem arterial segments were resected for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: In the phantom, the depth of thermal change in the 5- and 7-mm lumens averaged 6.3 and 6.0 mm along the basket, respectively, and in the 2- and 5-mm lumens, the depth of thermal change averaged 1.9 and 0.5 mm along the wire, respectively. In the swine, RF energy delivery led to angiographic occlusion at 12 of 13 sites. Thermal injury and occlusion were similar at the proximal, middle, and distal basket treatment zone, whereas injury and occlusion decreased from the proximal to the distal end of the 5-cm wire treatment zone. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular delivery of RF energy via a conductive basket in medium-sized arteries or a guidewire in small arteries led to acute angiographic and histologic occlusion. The potential to induce stasis might be useful in settings where rapid occlusion is desirable.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Artéria Ilíaca/cirurgia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/instrumentação , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Ligas , Animais , Condutividade Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Temperatura Alta , Artéria Ilíaca/patologia , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Animais , Orquiectomia , Platina , Artéria Renal/patologia , Aço Inoxidável , Sus scrofa
2.
Life Sci ; 261: 118342, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853655

RESUMO

AIMS: The increased incidence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in men compared with women suggests that male sex hormones significantly impact myocardial contractile activation. This study aims to examine associations among molecular alterations, cellular modulations and in vivo cardiac contractile function upon deprivation of testicular hormones. MAIN METHODS: Myocardial structure and functions were compared among sham-operated control and twelve-week orchidectomized (ORX) male rats with and without testosterone supplementation. KEY FINDINGS: Echocardiography and pressure-volume relationships demonstrated a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction compared with sham-operated controls. The percentage of contractility reduction was generally similar to the decrease in tension development detected in both right ventricular trabeculae and skinned isolated left ventricular cardiomyocytes of ORX rats. Reductions in tension cost and the rate constant of tension redevelopment (ktr) in ORX samples suggested a decrease in the rate of cross-bridge formation, reflecting a reduced number of cross-bridges. Slow cross-bridge detachment in ORX rat hearts could result from a shift of myosin heavy chain isoforms towards a slower ATPase activity ß-isoform and reductions in the phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I and myosin binding protein-C. All the changes in the ORX rat heart, including ejection fractions and myofilament protein expression and phosphorylation, were completed attenuated by a physiological dose of testosterone. SIGNIFICANCE: Testosterone plays a critical role in regulating the mechanical and contractile dynamics of the heart. Deprivation of male sex hormones cause the loss of normal preserved cardiac contractile function leading to a high risk of severe cardiomyopathy progression.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Coração/fisiologia , Masculino , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Orquiectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4278, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855388

RESUMO

Activation and migration of endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are critical for bone regeneration. Here, we report a combinational peptide screening strategy for rapid discovery of ligands that not only bind strongly to osteogenic progenitor cells (OPCs) but also stimulate osteogenic cell Akt signaling in those OPCs. Two lead compounds are discovered, YLL3 and YLL8, both of which increase osteoprogenitor osteogenic differentiation in vitro. When given to normal or osteopenic mice, the compounds increase mineral apposition rate, bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength, as well as expedite fracture repair through stimulated endogenous osteogenesis. When covalently conjugated to alendronate, YLLs acquire an additional function resulting in a "tri-functional" compound that: (i) binds to OPCs, (ii) targets bone, and (iii) induces "pro-survival" signal. These bone-targeted, osteogenic peptides are well suited for current tissue-specific therapeutic paradigms to augment the endogenous osteogenic cells for bone regeneration and the treatment of bone loss.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Fraturas Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Anabolizantes/química , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Orquiectomia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Ovariectomia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida , Células-Tronco/citologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21545, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756211

RESUMO

Traditional open surgery (OS) is usually necessary when testicular torsion (TT) cannot be excluded by scrotal ultrasound. Scrotoscopy has been used as a minimally invasive technique to diagnose or treat scrotal diseases, and it may also play a role in diagnosing TT.A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with TT to evaluate the consistency of scrotoscopy and OS in the diagnosis of TT. In the cases where preoperational Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed, scrotoscopy, open surgery, and confirmed TT were included for future analysis.A total of 43 patients were studied. Twisted testes were retained in 11 cases (25.59%), and the remaining 32 patients (74.41%) underwent orchiectomy. There were significant differences in the diagnostic value between the grading of scrotoscopy and ultrasound, as well as between ultrasound grading and blood supply grading (BSG) (both P < .05). However, no significant difference was observed between the grading of scrotoscopy and BSG in traditional OS (P > .05), but a high degree of consistency existed between scrotoscopy grading and BSG in traditional OS (Kappa = 0.733, P ≤ .001).Our limited data indicate that the diagnosis of testicular torsion by scrotoscopy is highly consistent with that of traditional surgical exploration. Therefore, further studies are necessary to confirm its application value in the future. Scrotoscopy may have potential application value for the patients whom testicular torsion are insufficiently diagnosed but cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Escroto/cirurgia , Torção do Cordão Espermático/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Torção do Cordão Espermático/diagnóstico por imagem , Torção do Cordão Espermático/patologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127451, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683255

RESUMO

Castration may decrease off-odors and improve meat flavor. Meat flavor is generated through complex chemical reactions that involve hydrophilic and hydrophobic flavor precursors. In this study, we investigated the flavor precursors in psoas major muscles of castrated and intact sheep using lipidomics and targeted metabolomics. Castration decreased testosterone levels and increased intramuscular fat content. Six hundred fourteen lipid molecules confirmed showed a separation between castrated and intact sheep based on principal component analysis. Fourteen lipid species and 224 lipid molecules increased in castrated sheep. Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that 18 hydrophilic metabolites were affected by castration; however, only hypoxanthine significantly increased in the castration group. Among 45 volatiles identified, 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal were significantly higher in castrated sheep. These results revealed that lipids, hydrophilic metabolites, and volatile compounds in lamb were affected by castration, which might be beneficial in lamb quality.


Assuntos
Carne , Orquiectomia , Músculos Psoas/química , Músculos Psoas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Paladar , Animais , Estradiol/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Carne/análise , Metabolômica , Odorantes/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Life Sci ; 257: 118138, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712298

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypertension is a relevant sex and sex hormones-dependent risk factor where the cardiovascular and renal health of the population are concerned. Men experience greater losses of renal function (RF) than women, but the mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activities and RF in male and female SHR. MAIN METHODS: Twelve-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were submitted to either castration or SHAM surgery and divided into 4 groups, SHAM or Castrated (CAST) males or females. After 51 days we evaluated RF (inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate), ACE and ACE2 activities (fluorimetry), OS (flow cytometry), collagen deposition (picrosirius red) and protein expression (western blot). KEY FINDINGS: Males presented lower RF than females and castration impaired this parameter in both groups. Sexual dimorphism was not observed regarding OS and inflammation; however, castration increased this parameter more severely in males than in females. SHAM males exhibited higher collagen deposition than females, though castration increased it in both sexes, eliminating the difference. We found sexual dimorphism regarding renal ACE and ACE2 activities, which were lower in males than in females. Although castration did not alter ACE activity, it reduced ACE2 activity in females and increased it in males. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that sex hormones affect RF in SHR. As alterations in the oxidative system were capable of promoting podocyte injury, inflammation, and collagen deposition, we put forward that these effects are differently modulated by ACE and ACE2.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Nefropatias/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Colágeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(6): 499-508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Advanced prostate cancer (PC) is a frequent entity. The objectives of this paper are the presentation of a sample of patients with PC undergoing treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in usual clinical practice and the determination of parameters associated with the development of resistance to castration (CRPC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicenter, observational, retrospective study that analyzes patients treated with ADT from January 2016 to January 2017. Descriptive analysis of the most relevant clinical variables and univariante analysis and progression times by Kaplan-Meier test. RESULTS: Sample of 952 patients. At PC diagnosis median age 74 years. Median PSA at PC diagnosis 23 ng/ml, when begining ADT 20.2 ng/ml. 80.2% of patients were biopsied at PC diagnosis: 28.2% Gleason score group 1, 38.7% groups 2 and 3 and 33.1% groups 4 and 5. Initial treatment of PC: 75.9% ADT, radical prostatectomy 8.4% and radiotherapy 15.1%. Of the 952 patients, 281 (29.6%) fulfilled CRPC criteria.In this group 21.7% achieved undetectable PSA (group in which it was 59.9%. Increased probability of progression to CRPC in: PSA >30ng/ml at PC diagnosis (p=0.000, OR 2.78), Gleason score group 4-5 (p=0.000, OR 2.33), and not to reach undetectable PSA after ADT (p <0.001, OR 3.32). The initial ADT group presents progression to metastatic CRPC more rapidly in unfavourable histology and when not reached undetectable PSA after ADT. CONCLUSIONS: We present a sample of patients with advanced PC in treatment with ADT that shows heterogeneity in usual clinical practice. In our sample, elevated PSA at PC diagnosis, unfavorable histology and failure to achieve a PSA<0.1 ng/ml after ADT is presented as an indicator of progression to the CRPC stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Prostatectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Hinyokika Kiyo ; 66(6): 171-176, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605355

RESUMO

A 49-year-old male visited our department of gastroenterology with chief complaints of blackish feces and ill complexion in February 1997. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a right retroperitoneal tumor, which was removed the same month. Histopathological examination showed teratoma and yolk sac tumor. He was diagnosed with primary retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor, and received three cycles of chemotherapy (bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin ; BEP) starting in March 1997. Periodic imaging and determination of tumor markers (α fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase) showed no recurrence or metastasis for five years after treatment. After his visit in April 2002 he stopped visiting our outpatient ward. In November 2017, the patient visited our department with chief complaints of indolent right scrotum enlargement and a right inguinal mass. Past history showed that he had undergone hydrocele of the right testicle in August 1999. Contrast enhanced CT showed a 35-mm contrast effect with uneven contents in the right testis, and enlarged nodes that were suspicious of metastases in the right inguinal and right external iliac lymph nodes. All tumor markers were within the normal ranges. He underwent right high orchiectomy and resection of the right inguinal lymph nodes in the same month. Histopathological findings revealed seminoma (pT1, pN2, M0, S0, and clinical Stage IIA). He received postoperative chemotherapy starting in January 2018 ; one cycle of BEP therapy and three cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP) therapy. Post-chemotherapeutic CT confirmed clinical complete response at the right external iliac lymph nodes, and this response was confirmed 12 months later. Neither recurrence nor metastasis has occurred so far.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Bleomicina , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Orquiectomia
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 152: 102994, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480269

RESUMO

Testosterone suppression by androgen deprivation therapy is the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment. New-generation hormone therapies improved overall survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer. More recent trials showed a further increase in overall survival when enzalutamide or abiraterone are associated with androgen deprivation therapy in hormone-sensitive disease. However, a higher clonal pressure may lead to the upregulation of alternative pathways for cancer progression and to dedifferentiated diseases that would probably respond poorly to subsequent treatments. In this contest, new strategies that could be able to delay or even revert resistance are needed. The bipolar androgen therapy is an under-investigation treatment that consists in periodical oscillation between castration levels and supraphysiological levels of testosterone in order to prevent the adaptation of prostate cancer cells to a low-androgen environment. This review aims to underline the biological rationale of bipolar androgen therapy and gather evidences from the most recent clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Androgênios , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Receptores Androgênicos
10.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(5): 390-394, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide a priority algorithm for determinate diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up procedures regarding at testicular cancer, adjusted by institutional requirements. Testicular cancer patient assessment during COVID-19 Pandemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of relevant manuscript published up to date, draft creation correctedt hough modified nominal group until final corrected manuscript. RESULTS: A lack of scientific evidence exists through a large amount of manuscripts. The authors support prioritizing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Once priorities have been established, that will facilitate providing each patients the limited resources. Initial diagnostic procedures for testicular cancer such as scrotal US, orchiectomy, staging CT and adjuvant treatment (if required) are priority. Reducing the usage of chemotherapy with respiratory toxicity and increasing the usage ofgrowth factors during chemotherapy treatment are the main stakeholders of treatment. Besides, providing active surveillance on non-risk factor clinical stage I is alsoa priority. In case of positive COVID-19, it is important to high light that the vast majority of patients are tentatively cured. CONCLUSIONS: During de-escalation phases, patients diagnosed with testicular cancer should receive priority care during initial assessment. The follow-ups of patients with low -risk and without recurrence for a long time, might be delayed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Neoplasias Testiculares , Betacoronavirus , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Orquiectomia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480399

RESUMO

The creation of species-specific valid tools for pain assessment is essential to recognize pain and determine the requirement and efficacy of analgesic treatments. This study aimed to assess behaviour and investigate the validity and reliability of an acute pain scale in pigs undergoing orchiectomy. Forty-five pigs aged 38±3 days were castrated under local anaesthesia. Behaviour was video-recorded 30 minutes before and intermittently up to 24 hours after castration. Edited footage (before surgery, after surgery before and after rescue analgesia, and 24 hours postoperatively) was analysed twice (one month apart) by one observer who was present during video-recording (in-person researcher) and three blinded observers. Statistical analysis was performed using R software and differences were considered significant when p<0.05. Intra and inter-observer agreement, based on intra-class correlation coefficient, was good or very good between most observers (>0.60), except between observers 1 and 3 (moderate agreement 0.57). The scale was unidimensional according to principal component analysis. The scale showed acceptable item-total Spearman correlation, excellent predictive and concurrent criterion validity (Spearman correlation ≥ 0.85 between the proposed scale versus visual analogue, numerical rating, and simple descriptive scales), internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient >0.80 for all items), responsiveness (the pain scores of all items of the scale increased after castration and decreased after intervention analgesia according to Friedman test), and specificity (> 95%). Sensitivity was good or excellent for most of the items. The optimal cut-off point for rescue analgesia was ≥ 6 of 18. Discriminatory ability was excellent for all observers according to the area under the curve (>0.95). The proposed scale is a reliable and valid instrument and may be used clinically and experimentally to assess postoperative acute pain in pigs. The well-defined cut-off point supports the evaluator´s decision to provide or not analgesia.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/normas , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Análise de Componente Principal , Software/normas
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20861, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590786

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the testes is rare, representing about 9% of testicular neoplasms and 1% to 2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 47-month-old boy came to our institution for 3 months unilateral testicular swelling without tenderness. After preliminary examination, inguinal orchiectomy was performed to resect the right scrotal mass. The histopathological diagnosis of high-grade lymphoma was rendered and paraffin blocks were sent for immunophenotyping. DIAGNOSIS: The final diagnosis by histopathological combined with immunohistochemical staining revealed primary testicular T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (St Jude Children's Research Hospital Staging System, stage I). INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with right inguinal orchidectomy followed by chemotherapy (SMCC-2011 protocol modified based on the BFM-90/95 regimen from Germany) without prophylactic radiotherapy to the contralateral testis. OUTCOMES: After 36 months of follow-up, the patient is now disease-free without any complication. LESSONS: T-lymphoblastic lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular masses in children. Intensive chemotherapy may improve the prognosis of such patients.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584842

RESUMO

As a consequence of a hormonal imbalance, Prostatic Hyperplasia (PH) is characterized by increased prostate volume, along with higher local angiogenesis and vascularization. Orchiectomy is the common treatment for dogs, however it is not an option for breeding animals. Thus, finasteride arises as the drug of choice for stud dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orchiectomy or finasteride therapies on hormonal and vascular dynamics of PH dogs. Fifteen dogs, aged 6-13 years were assigned to: Untreated Group (dogs diagnosed with PH-n = 5), Finasteride treated group (PH dogs treated with finasteride-n = 5) and Orchiectomy treated group (PH dogs submitted to orchiectomy-n = 5). Evaluations were performed in a monthly interval (first day of treatment; after 30 and 60 days). Doppler ultrasonography was performed to measure prostatic volume, vascularization and hemodynamic profile of prostatic artery. Dihydrotestosterone, estrogen and testosterone concentrations were measured. At day 60, prostatic biopsy was performed for histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis for VEGF-A expression. At day 60, vascularization score was higher in untreated compared to treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy). Furthermore, VEGF-A expression was lower in the Orchiectomy Treated Group, but VEGF-A was immunohistochemically lower in both treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy) compared to the Untreated Group. The efficiency of finasteride treatment in reducing clinical signs, prostate volume and vascularization appears to be similar to orchiectomy. In conclusion, both PH medical and surgical therapy lead to reduction in prostate dimension and VEGF-A expression and, consequently, lower local vascularization. However, orchiectomy promotes marked hormonal changes, which ultimately lead to prostate atrophy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Finasterida/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica , Orquiectomia , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Prostate ; 80(12): 926-937, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruption of the phenotypic landscape via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables prostate cancer cells to metastasize and acquire therapeutic resistance. Our previous studies demonstrated that cabazitaxel (CBZ) (second-generation Food and Drug Administration-approved taxane chemotherapy), used for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), causes reversal of EMT to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and reduces expression of kinesin motor protein KIFC1 (HSET). The present study examined the effect of sequencing CBZ chemotherapy mediated MET on prostate tumor redifferentiation overcoming therapeutic resistance in models of advanced prostate cancer. METHODS: To examine the impact of androgens on the antitumor effect of CBZ, we used human prostate cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to androgens and CBZ, in vitro, and two human prostate cancer xenograft models in vivo. Tumor-bearing male mice (with either the androgen-sensitive LNCaP or the CRPC 22Rv1 xenografts) were treated with CBZ (3 mg/kg) alone, or in combination with castration-induced androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for 14 days. RESULTS: Cell viability assays indicate that the presence of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (1 nM) confers resistance to CBZ in vitro. CBZ treatment in vivo induced MET in LNCaP-derived tumors as shown by increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin levels. Sequencing CBZ after ADT improves tumor response in androgen-sensitive LNCaP, but not in CRPC 22Rv1 xenografts. Mechanistic dissection revealed a novel association between the androgen receptor and HSET in prostate cancer cells that is inhibited by CBZ in an androgen-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new insights into the phenotypic reprogramming of prostate cancer cells to resensitize tumors to CBZ action. This evidence is of translational significance in treatment sequencing (CBZ and ADT) towards improved therapeutic benefit in patients with lethal CRPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low plasma testosterone, either spontaneous or as a result of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The underlying mechanism in humans is not understood. Experimental studies in mice have shown that castration facilitates atherogenesis and may increase signs of plaque vulnerability. Pigs used for translational atherosclerosis research have frequently been castrated for practical or commercial reasons, but the effect of castration on atherosclerosis has never been systematically evaluated in pigs. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of castration on atherosclerotic plaque burden and type in genetically modified minipigs with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Newborn male Yucatan minipigs with transgenic overexpression of a human gain-of-function mutant of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 were randomized to undergo orchiectomy (n = 8) or serve as controls (n = 6). Minipigs were started on high-fat diet at 3 months of age and the amount and composition of atherosclerotic lesions were analyzed at 12 months of age. Plasma lipid profiles and behavioral parameters were also assessed. RESULTS: Plasma lipids were slightly affected to a more atherogenic profile by orchiectomy, but atherosclerotic lesion size was unaltered in the LAD, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliac arteries. The distribution of lesion types (xanthomas, pathological intimal thickening and fibroatheromas) were also not statistically different between groups in any of the examined vascular territories. The abdominal aorta developed the most advanced stages of disease with reproducible fibroatheroma formation, and here it was found that the area of necrotic core was significantly increased in orchiectomized pigs compared with controls. Orchiectomy also reduced aggressive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Castration does not alter the burden of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic Yucatan minipigs, but may increase necrotic core area in fibroatheromas.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/complicações , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Artéria Ilíaca/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Necrose , Orquiectomia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Testosterona/sangue
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569273

RESUMO

Male dogs are often castrated based on the thought that it facilitates well-behavedness. However, the causal evidence for this from prospective studies lacks and the existing associative studies present mixed results depending on the studied behaviours. We aimed to gain insight into possible factors driving an owner's decision to castrate their male dog, through a quantitative survey based on a convenience sample. We determined the advice owners received from three types of dog professionals (veterinarian practitioners, behavioural trainers, behavioural therapists) and the owners' assessments of castration's behavioural effects. Data on 491 Dutch owners of castrated and intact male dogs were analysed with Chi-square tests. Results indicate that owners of both castrated and intact dogs received castration advice most often from veterinarian practitioners, with pro-castration at higher frequencies for owners of castrated dogs (Chi-square, P<0.001). Overall, most owners disagreed with or were neutral about statements on castration positively affecting male dog behaviour at a population level. Nevertheless, 58% (N = 145) of the owners of castrated dogs (N = 249) reported that correcting unwanted behaviour was a reason to castrate their own male dog. Unwanted behaviour involved aggression in 50% (N = 70) of the owner-dog dyads. Castrated dog's aggression changes were reported on most as 'no change'. The second most common answer indicated an aggression decrease in dogs castrated to correct unwanted behaviour and an increase in dogs castrated for other reasons (Chi-square, P<0.001). The increase in aggression in a subset of castrated dogs is concerning, as aggression can pose risks to the dog's welfare. We acknowledge the limitations of our study which identifies associations rather than provides causal evidence. Still, we recommend professionals' awareness of possible negative behavioural changes following castration, like increased aggression. Future research on behavioural consequences of castrating dogs needs to build a more solid knowledge base for balanced advice regarding castration.


Assuntos
Agressão , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Atitude , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Animais de Estimação , Autorrelato , Médicos Veterinários
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 297-302, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549558

RESUMO

Contraception is needed to prevent overpopulation and inbreeding in highly fecund captive bat colonies. Reports on surgical contraception in bats are limited. The objective of this study was to describe surgical castration techniques in a megachiropteran and a microchiropteran fruit bat species. Open orchiectomy by transfixing ligation of the spermatic cord was performed in 14 Ruwenzori long-haired fruit bats (Rousettus lanosus) (RL-LIG), and orchiectomy with radiosurgery alone was performed in 125 Jamaican fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) (AJ-RS) and one Ruwenzori bat (RL-RS). The surgical techniques were not compared in different species with the exception of the one Ruwenzori bat operated with RS. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen via facemask. Preoperatively, all bats received butorphanol and subcutaneous fluids. Meloxicam was administered postoperatively for the RL-LIG. For the RL-LIG, anesthesia lasted 49 ± 15 min (mean ± SD) with a total surgery time of 26 ± 12 min. In comparison, the RS was considerably shorter, lasting 10 ± 3 min for anesthesia and 5 ± 2 min for surgery. Complications were rare, with a morbidity rate of 6.7% with the RL-LIG (prolonged recovery [n = 1]) and of 4.8% with the RS (dyspnea [n = 3], hemorrhage [n = 2], and prolonged recovery [n = 1]). One of the cases of hemorrhage was in the single Ruwenzori bat castrated using the RS technique. Mortality rate was 1.6% (n = 2) with the RS. No mortality occurred with the RL-LIG. In conclusion, using radiosurgery alone appears to be a safe and rapid surgical technique in smaller species of fruit bats. For larger species, such as the Ruwenzori fruit bats, ligation or use of an advanced vessel sealing system is recommended.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/cirurgia , Quirópteros/cirurgia , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/classificação , Quirópteros/classificação , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Quebeque
19.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 22, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male piglets are surgically castrated at a young age primarily to prevent pork meat from being tainted with boar taint, an offensive taste and odor that can be present in uncastrated male pigs. The practice of surgical castration is considered to be both stressful and painful for the piglets, and is therefore under scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Rearing of intact males or vaccination against boar taint (immunocastration) are two potential alternatives to surgical castration, but in order to successfully implement either of these alternatives, consumer acceptance of the different methods must be taken into consideration as it will be central for future sales of pork products. A consumer survey mapping Norwegian consumers' attitudes toward piglet castration was conducted to explore whether the consumers' position regarding castration has changed since an almost identical study was completed in 2008. RESULTS: The internet-based survey found that Norwegian consumers are comfortable with the current practice of surgical castration with anesthesia, but also that they are open to the alternative method of vaccination against boar taint. When provided additional information stating that vaccination against boar taint may not be able to reduce boar taint to the levels that castration with anesthesia does, consumer skepticism towards vaccination increased. When evaluating castration methods, animal welfare was the most important influencing factor. Since the original survey from 2008, animal welfare was also the single factor that has increased the most among a set of assessment criteria when purchasing pork products. CONCLUSION: Norwegian consumers regard animal welfare as an important factor both when purchasing pork products and when evaluating different methods of castration, and animal welfare as a factor has increased in importance since the initial survey in 2008. Although the current practice of castration using local anesthesia is still widely accepted among consumers, the acceptance of today's method has declined since the original survey in 2008.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Sus scrofa/cirurgia , Animais , Masculino , Noruega , Orquiectomia/psicologia
20.
Can Vet J ; 61(5): 521-524, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355352

RESUMO

A 5-year-old llama was presented for unilateral cryptorchidism. Clinical findings included an abdominally retained right testicle. Surgical treatment consisted of laparoscopic removal of the abdominally retained testicle and routine closed castration of the descended testicle, which is presented as a therapeutic option for cryptorchidectomy. Key clinical message: Laparoscopic exploration and castration should be considered as a suitable surgical treatment for a llama with abdominally retained testicles.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Criptorquidismo/veterinária , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA