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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3209, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547380

RESUMO

Viral co-infections occur in COVID-19 patients, potentially impacting disease progression and severity. However, there is currently no dedicated method to identify viral co-infections in patient RNA-seq data. We developed PACIFIC, a deep-learning algorithm that accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other common RNA respiratory viruses from RNA-seq data. Using in silico data, PACIFIC recovers the presence and relative concentrations of viruses with > 99% precision and recall. PACIFIC accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections in 63 independent in vitro cell culture and patient datasets. PACIFIC is an end-to-end tool that enables the systematic monitoring of viral infections in the current global pandemic.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/diagnóstico , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , /isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/virologia , Coronaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Metapneumovirus/classificação , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , RNA-Seq , Rhinovirus/classificação , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 733-753, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502593

RESUMO

The chronic dysfunction of neuronal cells, both central and peripheral, a characteristic of neurological disorders, may be caused by irreversible damage and cell death. In 2016, more than 276 million cases of neurological disorders were reported worldwide. Moreover, neurological disorders are the second leading cause of death. Generally, the etiology of neurological diseases is not fully understood. Recent studies have related the onset of neurological disorders to viral infections, which may cause neurological symptoms or lead to immune responses that trigger these pathological signs. Currently, this relationship is mostly based on epidemiological data on infections and seroprevalence of patients who present with neurological disorders. The number of studies aiming to elucidate the mechanism of action by which viral infections may directly or indirectly contribute to the development of neurological disorders has been increasing over the years but these studies are still scarce. Comprehending the pathogenesis of these diseases and exploring novel theories may favor the development of new strategies for diagnosis and therapy in the future. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to review the main pieces of evidence for the relationship between viral infection and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Viruses belonging to the families Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Retroviridae have been reported to be involved in one or more of these conditions. Also, neurological symptoms and the future impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, a member of the family Coronaviridae that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic that started in late 2019, are reported and discussed.


Assuntos
/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/virologia , Epilepsia/virologia , Flaviviridae/metabolismo , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/virologia , Retroviridae/metabolismo , /metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 821, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436985

RESUMO

Influenza virus and coronavirus, belonging to enveloped RNA viruses, are major causes of human respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the broad spectrum antiviral activity of a naturally existing sulfated polysaccharide, lambda-carrageenan (λ-CGN), purified from marine red algae. Cell culture-based assays revealed that the macromolecule efficiently inhibited both influenza A and B viruses with EC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 1.4 µg/ml, as well as currently circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with an EC50 value of 0.9 ± 1.1 µg/ml. No toxicity to the host cells was observed at concentrations up to 300 µg/ml. Plaque titration and western blot analysis verified that λ-CGN reduced expression of viral proteins in cell lysates and suppressed progeny virus production in culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. This polyanionic compound exerts antiviral activity by targeting viral attachment to cell surface receptors and preventing virus entry. Moreover, its intranasal administration to mice during influenza A viral challenge not only alleviated infection-mediated reductions in body weight but also protected 60% of mice from virus-induced mortality. Thus, λ-CGN could be a promising antiviral agent for preventing infection with several respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Carragenina/farmacologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Cães , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 411-420, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395381

RESUMO

Since the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Netherlands has used a weekly death monitoring system to estimate deaths in excess of expectations. We present estimates of excess deaths during the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic and 10 previous influenza epidemics. Excess deaths per influenza epidemic averaged 4,000. The estimated 9,554 excess deaths (41% in excess) during the COVID-19 epidemic weeks 12-19 of 2020 appeared comparable to the 9,373 excess deaths (18%) during the severe influenza epidemic of 2017-18. However, these deaths occurred in a shorter time, had a higher peak, and were mitigated by nonpharmaceutical control measures. Excess deaths were 1.8-fold higher than reported laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 deaths (5,449). Based on excess deaths and preliminary results from seroepidemiologic studies, we estimated the infection-fatality rate to be 1%. Monitoring of excess deaths is crucial for timely estimates of disease burden for influenza and COVID-19. Our data complement laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 death reports and enable comparisons between epidemics.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae , Estações do Ano
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24256, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429831

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Brochoalvelolar lavages (BALs) from patients suffering from hospitalized infections with SARS-CoV-2, other corona viruses (human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1), Influenza virus type A and B, Haemophilus influenzae and Pneumocystis jirovecii were compared cytopathologically.The aim of the study was to evaluate if the cellular profile detectable in BAL may be specific for the respective pathogens and could lead to diagnosis of COVID-19 even in the absence of PCR results.Differential cytology and flow cytometry datasets of 62 patients were observed and compared.We observed a significant association between individual cell pattern changes and the causing pathogen, but no general cell distribution pattern.The cytology pattern of the BAL fluid in COVID-19 is not specific enough to use it as a sole diagnostic criterion, although it may support clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443183

RESUMO

Vaccination yields the direct individual benefit of protecting recipients from infectious diseases and also the indirect social benefit of reducing the transmission of infections to others, often referred to as herd immunity This research examines how prosocial concern for vaccination, defined as people's preoccupation with infecting others if they do not vaccinate themselves, motivates vaccination in more and less populated regions of the United States. A nationally representative, longitudinal survey of 2,490 Americans showed that prosocial concern had a larger positive influence on vaccination against influenza in sparser regions, as judged by a region's nonmetropolitan status, lesser population density, and lower proportion of urban land area. Two experiments (total n = 800), one preregistered, provide causal evidence that drawing attention to prosocial (vs. individual) concerns interacted with social density to affect vaccination intentions. Specifically, prosocial concern led to stronger intentions to vaccinate against influenza and COVID-19 but only when social density was low (vs. high). Moderated mediation analyses show that, in low-density conditions, the benefits of inducing prosocial concern were due to greater perceived impact of one's vaccination on others. In this light, public health communications may reap more benefits from emphasizing the prosocial aspects of vaccination in sparser environments.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , /transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Densidade Demográfica , Probabilidade , Saúde Pública , /imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Vaccine ; 39(2): 255-262, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pandemic planning has historically been oriented to respond to an influenza virus, with vaccination strategy being a key focus. As the current COVID-19 pandemic plays out, the Australian government is closely monitoring progress towards development of SARS-CoV2 vaccines as a definitive intervention. However, as in any pandemic, initial supply will likely be exceeded by demand due to limited manufacturing output. METHODS: We convened community juries in three Australian locations in 2019 to assess public acceptability and perceived legitimacy of influenza pandemic vaccination distribution strategies. Preparatory work included literature reviews on pandemic vaccine allocation strategies and on vaccine allocation ethics, and simulation modelling studies. We assumed vaccine would be provided to predefined priority groups. Jurors were then asked to recommend one of two strategies for distributing remaining early doses of vaccine: directly vaccinate people at higher risk of adverse outcomes from influenza; or indirectly protect the general population by vaccinating primary school students, who are most likely to spread infection. RESULTS: Thirty-four participants of diverse backgrounds and ages were recruited through random digit dialling and topic-blinded social media advertising. Juries heard evidence and arguments supporting different vaccine distribution strategies, and questioned expert presenters. All three community juries supported prioritising school children for influenza vaccination (aiming for indirect protection), one by 10-2 majority and two by consensus. Justifications included that indirect protection benefits more people and is likely to be more publicly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of an influenza pandemic, informed citizens were not opposed to prioritising groups at higher risks of adverse outcomes, but if resources and epidemiological conditions allow, achieving population benefits should be a strategic priority. These insights may inform future SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Influenza/provisão & distribução , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Vacinação/economia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Clin Immunol ; 223: 108652, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333256

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 reminds us that the emerging and reemerging respiratory virus infections pose a continuing threat to human life. Cytokine storm syndromes of viral origin seem to have a common pathogenesis of the imbalanced immune response with the exaggerated inflammatory reaction combined with the reduction and functional exhaustion of T cells. Immunomodulatory therapy is gaining interest in COVID-19, but this strategy has received less attention in other respiratory viral infections than it deserved. In this review we suggest that based on the similarities of the immune dysfunction in the severe cases of different respiratory viral infections, some lessons from the immunomodulatory therapy of COVID-19 (particularly regarding the choice of an immunomodulatory drug, the selection of patients and optimal time window for this kind of therapy) could be applied for some cases of severe influenza infection and probably for some future outbreaks of novel severe respiratory viral infections.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Inflamação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wheezing is a major problem in children, and respiratory viruses are often believed to be the causative agent. While molecular detection tools enable identification of respiratory viruses in wheezing children, it remains unclear if and how these viruses are associated with wheezing. The objective of this systematic review is to clarify the prevalence of different respiratory viruses in children with wheezing. METHODS: We performed an electronic in Pubmed and Global Index Medicus on 01 July 2019 and manual search. We performed search of studies that have detected common respiratory viruses in children ≤18 years with wheezing. We included only studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Study data were extracted and the quality of articles assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroup, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effects model. RESULTS: The systematic review included 33 studies. Rhinovirus, with a prevalence of 35.6% (95% CI 24.6-47.3, I2 98.4%), and respiratory syncytial virus, at 31.0% (95% CI 19.9-43.3, I2 96.4%), were the most common viruses detected. The prevalence of other respiratory viruses was as follows: human bocavirus 8.1% (95% CI 5.3-11.3, I2 84.6%), human adenovirus 7.7% (95% CI 2.6-15.0, I2 91.0%), influenza virus6.5% (95% CI 2.2-12.6, I2 92.4%), human metapneumovirus5.8% (95% CI 3.4-8.8, I2 89.0%), enterovirus 4.3% (95% CI 0.1-12.9, I2 96.2%), human parainfluenza virus 3.8% (95% CI 1.5-6.9, I2 79.1%), and human coronavirus 2.2% (95% CI 0.6-4.4, I2 79.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus may contribute to the etiology of wheezing in children. While the clinical implications of molecular detection of respiratory viruses remains an interesting question, this study helps to illuminate the potential of role respiratory viruses in pediatric wheezing. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018115128.


Assuntos
Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Bocavirus/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
13.
Biomed Khim ; 66(6): 508-513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372910

RESUMO

Several variants of models for predicting the IC50 values of inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase are presented for both individual strains and for combinations of data for neuraminidases of several strains. They are based on the use of calculated energy contributions to the amount of change in the free energy of enzyme-inhibitor complexes. In contrast to previous works, aimed at the complex modeling, we added a procedure of comparison of the docking variants with one of the neuraminidase inhibitors, for which the structure of the complexes was determined experimentally. The choice of the comparison structure was made according to the similarity of structures evaluated using the Tanimoto metrics and the limit of the RMSD value for a similar part of the structure was no more than 2 Å. Using this limitation and filtering datasets for a particular strain by the Q2 value obtained in the leave-one-out control procedure it is possible to construct equations for predicting the IC50 value with a Q2 value close to the minimum confidence threshold (0.57 in this work). Taking into consideration that in this version of the prediction, a minimum set of energy contributions is used, which does not provide for expensive calculations of entropy contributions, the result obtained supports the correctness of using a generalized model based on the data on the position of known ligands to predict the inhibition of neuraminidase of the influenza virus of various strains.


Assuntos
Orthomyxoviridae , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ligantes , Neuraminidase
15.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105694

RESUMO

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/classificação , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descoberta de Drogas , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/patogenicidade , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/patologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simplexvirus/patogenicidade , Simplexvirus/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105830

RESUMO

Inflammation is a biological response to the activation of the immune system by various infectious or non-infectious agents, which may lead to tissue damage and various diseases. Gut commensal bacteria maintain a symbiotic relationship with the host and display a critical function in the homeostasis of the host immune system. Disturbance to the gut microbiota leads to immune dysfunction both locally and at distant sites, which causes inflammatory conditions not only in the intestine but also in the other organs such as lungs and brain, and may induce a disease state. Probiotics are well known to reinforce immunity and counteract inflammation by restoring symbiosis within the gut microbiota. As a result, probiotics protect against various diseases, including respiratory infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. A growing body of research supports the beneficial role of probiotics in lung and mental health through modulating the gut-lung and gut-brain axes. In the current paper, we discuss the potential role of probiotics in the treatment of viral respiratory infections, including the COVID-19 disease, as major public health crisis in 2020, and influenza virus infection, as well as treatment of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis and other mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Influenza Humana/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Simbiose/imunologia
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(4): 506-508, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031768

RESUMO

The features that permit or prevent a virus from becoming a zoonotic threat is an ongoing area of investigation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Herfst et al. and Henritzi et al. help define the molecular and host determinants of influenza virus spillover from animal to human populations.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Humanos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Zoonoses
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(4): 115176, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069048

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 disease, a severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Its main transmission pathway is through large respiratory droplets, as well as direct and indirect contact. Copper in different formats has been used in research and clinical settings to reduce the risk of bacterial and viral contamination. Therefore, this review aims to search for evidence about the biocidal properties of copper over the Coronaviridae family. A literature review was performed using PubMed and Ovid servers without date or language restrictions. The search was carried out on March 7, 2020, using the following search terms: [Copper] Coronavirus OR CoV OR SARS OR MERS OR Influenza. Copper destroys the replication and propagation abilities of SARS-CoV, influenza, and other respiratory viruses, having high potential disinfection in hospitals, communities, and households. Copper can eliminate pathogenic organisms such as coronavirus bacterial strains, influenza virus, HIV, and fungi after a short period of exposure. Copper seems to be an effective and low-cost complementary strategy to help reduce the transmission of several infectious diseases by limiting nosocomial infectious transmission. Copper oxide or nanocompounds may be used as filters, face masks, clothing, and hospital common surfaces to reduce viruses and bacterial incubation.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
19.
J Infect ; 81(5): 793-796, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888977

RESUMO

Although direct detection of SARS-CoV2 in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals is the ideal epidemiological tool for determining the burden of disease, the lack of availability of testing can preclude its wider implementation as a robust surveillance system. We correlated the use of the derivative influenza-negative influenza-like illness (fnILI) z-score from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a proxy for incident cases and disease-specific deaths. For every unit increase of fnILI z-score, the number of cases increased by 376.5 (95% CI [202.5, 550.5]) and number of deaths increased by 10.2 (95% CI [5.4, 15.0]). FnILI data may serve as an accurate outcome measurement to track the spread of COVID-19 infection and disease, and allow for informed and timely decision-making on public health interventions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7049-7056, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining health of healthcare workers with vaccination is a major component of pandemic preparedness and acceptance of vaccinations is essential to its success. This study aimed to examine impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on change of influenza vaccination acceptance and identify factors associated with acceptance of potential COVID-19 vaccination. METHOD: A cross-sectional self-administered anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among nurses in Hong Kong, China during 26 February and 31 March 2020. Their previous acceptance of influenza vaccination and intentions to accept influenza and COVID-19 vaccination were collected. Their relationship with work-related and other factors were examined using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS: Responses from 806 participants were retrieved. More nurses changed from vaccination refusal to hesitancy or acceptance than those changed from acceptance to vaccination hesitancy or refusal (15.5% vs 6.8% among all participants, P < 0.001). 40.0% participants intended to accept COVID-19 vaccination, and those in private sector (OR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.11-2.51), with chronic conditions (OR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.22-2.77), encountering with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients (OR: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.14-2.33), accepted influenza vaccination in 2019 (OR: 2.03, 95%CI: 1.47-2.81) had higher intentions to accept it. Reasons for refusal and hesitation for COVID-19 vaccination included "suspicion on efficacy, effectiveness and safety", "believing it unnecessary", and "no time to take it". CONCLUSION: With a low level of COVID-19 acceptance intentions and high proportion of hesitation in both influenza and COVID-19 vaccination, evidence-based planning are needed to improve the uptake of both vaccinations in advance of their implementation. Future studies are needed to explore reasons of change of influenza vaccination acceptance, look for actual behaviour patterns of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and examine effectiveness of promotion strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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