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1.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Athletic training rooms have a high prevalence of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms, increasing the risk for both local and systematic infections in athletes. There are limited data outlining formal protocols or standardized programs to reduce bacterial and viral burden in training rooms as a means of decreasing infection rate at the collegiate and high school levels. HYPOTHESIS: Adaptation of a hygiene protocol would lead to a reduction in bacterial and viral pathogen counts in athletic training rooms. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Two high school and 2 collegiate athletic training rooms were studied over the course of the 2017-2018 academic year. A 3-phase protocol, including introduction of disinfectant products followed by student-athlete and athletic trainer education, was implemented at the 4 schools. Multiple surfaces in the athletic training rooms were swabbed at 4 time points throughout the investigation. Bacterial and viral burden from swabs were analyzed for overall bacterial aerobic plate count (APC), bacterial adenosine triphosphate activity, influenza viral load, and multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). RESULTS: Overall bacterial load, as measured by APC, was reduced by 94.7% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0; P = 0.003) over the course of the investigation after protocol implementation. MRSA and VRE were found on 24% of surfaces prior to intervention and were reduced to 0% by the end of the study. Influenza was initially detected on 25% of surfaces, with no detection after intervention. No cases of athletic training room-acquired infections were reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: A uniform infection control protocol was effective in reducing bacterial and viral burden, including multidrug-resistant organisms, when implemented in the athletic training rooms of 2 high schools and 2 colleges. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized infection control protocol can be utilized in athletic training rooms to reduce bacterial and viral burden.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1012, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is the most frequent cause of acute upper respiratory tract infections during winter season. Although rare, neurological manifestations are known to occur during influenza infection and approximatively three-quarters of cases are in children. In this study, we aimed to characterize the burden and clinical spectrum of influenza-associated encephalopathy and encephalitis in children admitted at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Italy over two influenza seasons (2017-2019). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory, instrumental data and outcome of patients discharged with ICD9-CM 487.0 code. RESULTS: Fifteen children (13.1% of those discharged with a diagnosis of influenza infection in the study period), had influenza-associated central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Eight patients (53.3%) were diagnosed as influenza encephalitis, 7 (46.7%) as influenza encephalopathy. Median age was 27 months. In children under 2 years of age (40% of all cases) altered consciousness was the most frequent neurological manifestation while respiratory symptoms were present at admission in all cases. Younger children also required intensive care support more frequently. Five subjects (33.3%) presented comorbidity. None of the patients had received seasonal influenza vaccination. The median time from onset of respiratory signs to onset of neurological manifestations was 24 h. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was normal in most patients and polymerase chain reaction for influenza virus RNA on CSF, when performed, was negative in all samples. Neuroradiological investigations, performed in 5 children, reported cortical and subcortical white matter signal alterations. Oseltamivir was administered only in 2 cases. Fourteen patients recovered without sequelae, and only a 2-year-old girl had minimal impairment in fine motor skills at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: All children presenting acute neurological features during influenza season should be evaluated for influenza-associated CNS complications even if the respiratory involvement is mild. Absence of underlying diseases or other risk factors are not protective factors against CNS influenza-associated complications. The lack of CSF pleocytosis does not exclude CNS involvement. Children under 2 years of age are at higher risk of requiring intensive care support.


Assuntos
Encefalite/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite/etiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/virologia , Itália , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627298

RESUMO

Rather than the internal genome nucleic acids, the biomolecules on the surface of the influenza virus itself should be detected for a more exact and rapid point-of-care yes/no decision for influenza virus-induced infectious diseases. This work demonstrates the ultrasensitive electrical detection of the HA1 domain of hemagglutinin (HA), a representative viral surface protein of the influenza virus, using the top-down complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processed silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistor (FET) configuration. Cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) was employed as a probe that specifically binds both to the aldehyde self-aligned monolayer on the SiNWs and to HA1 simultaneously. CMP-NANA was serially combined with two kinds of linkers, namely 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde. The surface functionalization used was verified using the purification of glutathione S-transferase-tagged HA1, contact angle measurement, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, and isoelectric focusing analysis. The proposed functionalized SiNW FET showed high sensitivities of the threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) ~51 mV/pH and the ΔVT = 112 mV (63 mV/decade) with an ultralow detectable range of 1 fM of target protein HA1.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hemaglutininas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Humanos , Nanofios/química , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Silício
4.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 427-439, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549297

RESUMO

The 2017-2018 flu season is considered to be one of the most severe, with numerous influenza outbreaks worldwide. In an infectious disease hospital of Qinhuangdao, air samples were collected daily from outpatient hall, clinical laboratory, fever clinic, children's ward (Children's Ward I/Children's Ward II), and adult ward during 23-29 January 2018 (peak flu activity) and 9-15 April 2018 (low flu activity). The air samples were collected with SLC-SiOH magnetic beads using impingement samplers. Real-time PCR assay was used to detect the RNA of airborne influenza (IFVA and IFVB) in the 91 collected aerosol samples. The results indicated that the air samples collected from the children's wards, adult ward and fever clinic were detected with airborne influenza viruses. However, the samples collected from outpatient hall and clinical laboratory were absence of influenza viruses. In addition, the subtypes of pH1N1/IFVA, H3N2/IFVA, yamagata/IFVB, and victoria/IFVB were detected among the samples with positive IFVA and IFVB. Notably, a new developed subtype of pH1N1 (an epidemic in 2018) was detected in the aerosol samples. In summary, this study profiled the distribution of airborne influenza in an infectious hospital in Qinhuangdao during 2017-2018 flu season. Patients infected with influenza could release airborne particles containing the virus into their environment. Healthcare workers and visitors in those places might have frequent exposure to airborne influenza virus. Therefore, we recommend some protective measures such as air disinfection and mask wearing to prevent and control the transmission of airborne influenza in hospital.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Aerossóis/química , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 141: 111476, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272058

RESUMO

The ability of influenza viruses to rapidly evolve has caused significant challenges in viral surveillance, diagnosis, and therapeutic development. Molecular sequencing methods, though powerful tools for monitoring influenza evolution at the genetic level, are not able to fully characterize the antigenic properties of influenza viruses. Understanding influenza virus antigenicity is critical to vaccine development and disease prevention. Traditional immunoassays which have been widely used for evaluating influenza antigenicity have limited throughput. To alleviate these problems, new bioanalytical tools to investigate influenza antigenicity by measuring antibody-antigen binding are an active area of research. Herein, we review immunosensor technologies from the aspects of various sensing principles, while highlighting recent developments in multiplex, label-free detection strategies. Highlighted technologies include electrochemical immunosensors relying on impedimetric detection; these demonstrate simple design and cost effectiveness for mass production. Antibody arrays implemented on an optical interferometric sensor system allow systematic characterization of influenza antigenicity. Quartz microbalance immunosensors are highly sensitive but have yet to be explored for multiplex sensing. Immunosensors made on lateral flow strips have shown promise in rapid diagnosis of influenza subtypes. We anticipate that these and other technologies discussed in the review will facilitate advances in the study of influenza, and other viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Imunoensaio/métodos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenzavirus A/imunologia , Influenzavirus A/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 982, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inverse probability weighting (IPW) methods can be used to estimate the total number of cases from the sample collected through sentinel surveillance. Central to these methods are the inverse weights which can be derived in several ways and, in this case, represent the probability that laboratory (lab) sentinel surveillance detects a lab-confirmed case. METHODS: We compare different weights in a simulation study. Weights are obtained from the proportion of participating labs over all labs. We adjust these weights for attractiveness and density of labs over population. The market share of sentinel labs, as estimated by the econometric Huff-model, is also considered. Additionally, we investigate the effect of not recognizing sentinel labs as sentinel labs when they report no cases. We estimate the bias associated with the different weights as the difference between the simulated number of cases and the estimate of this total from the sentinel sample. As motivating data examples, we apply an extended Huff-model to four pathogens under laboratory sentinel surveillance in Belgium between 2010 and 2015 and discuss the model fit. We estimate the total number of lab-confirmed cases associated with Rotavirus, influenza virus, Y. enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp.. The extended Huff-model takes the lab-concept, the number of reimbursements and the number of departments, lab-density, regional borders, distance and competition between labs in account. RESULTS: Estimates obtained with the Huff-model were most accurate in the more complex simulation scenarios as compared to other weights. In the data examples, several significant coefficients are identified, but the fit of the Huff-model to the Belgian sentinel surveillance data leaves much variability in market shares unexplained. CONCLUSION: The Huff-model allows for estimation of the spatial and population coverage of sentinel surveillance and through IPW-methods also for the estimation of the total number of cases. The Huff-model's gravity function allows us to differentiate inside an area while estimating from the full dataset. Our data examples show that additional data on the participation to surveillance and practices of labs is necessary for a more accurate estimation.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Econométricos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação
7.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(8): 1268-1273, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036910

RESUMO

Here, we developed hCK, a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line that expresses high levels of human influenza virus receptors and low levels of avian virus receptors. hCK cells supported human A/H3N2 influenza virus isolation and growth much more effectively than conventional MDCK or human virus receptor-overexpressing (AX4) cells. A/H3N2 viruses propagated in hCK cells also maintained higher genetic stability than those propagated in MDCK and AX4 cells.


Assuntos
Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana , Mutação , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Sialiltransferases/genética , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 339-352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866787

RESUMO

Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) is frequently observed in tropical settings, but diagnosing the cause of AUF is often a challenge for local physicians and the physicians treating returning travellers. We conducted a case-control study in central Vietnam in 2016. A total of 378 febrile adult patients (AUFs) with a fever for ≤21 days, no evidence of localized infection and negative screening tests for dengue and malaria, and 384 afebrile adult patients (Controls) were prospectively enrolled. Whole blood, plasma, eschar swab, throat swab and urine specimens were collected and analysed. Quantitative PCR and RT-PCR were used to test for 55 bacteria, viruses and their subtypes. Serological tests were also used to test for rickettsial agents. The most common aetiology was influenza virus (20.9% in AUFs vs. 0% in Controls), followed by rickettsial agents (mainly Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi) (10.8% vs. 0.3%), dengue virus (7.7% vs. 0.5%), Leptospira (4.8% vs. 0.8%), adenovirus (4.8% vs. 1.0%), and enterovirus (2.1% vs. 0%) (p < .05). The real proportion of dengue in AUF cases was underestimated because patients with dengue-positive rapid diagnosis tests were excluded from the study. The emerging agent Rickettsia felis, which had not been previously observed in Vietnam, was detected in this study. In total, 216 patients (57.1%) were given causative diagnoses, comprising 143 (66.2%) monoinfections and 73 (33.8%) coinfections. The infections caused by these agents should be considered in clinical practice and further studies. Additionally, agents susceptible to doxycycline were detected in 15.6% of AUFs; thus, this drug should be included in the panel used to treat AUF patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Vírus/classificação , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Rickettsia/efeitos dos fármacos , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Med J Aust ; 210(7): 316-320, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) in emergency departments (EDs) is associated with better patient and laboratory outcomes than standard multiplex PCR testing. DESIGN, SETTING: A before-and-after study in four metropolitan EDs in New South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: 1491 consecutive patients tested by standard multiplex PCR during July-December 2016, and 2250 tested by rapid PCR during July-December 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital admissions; ED length of stay (LOS); test turnaround time; patient receiving test result before leaving the ED; ordering of other laboratory tests. RESULTS: Compared with those tested by standard PCR, fewer patients tested by rapid PCR were admitted to hospital (73.3% v 77.7%; P < 0.001) and more received their test results before leaving the ED (67.4% v 1.3%; P < 0.001); the median test turnaround time was also shorter (2.4 h [IQR, 1.6-3.9 h] v 26.7 h [IQR, 21.2-37.8 h]). The proportion of patients admitted to hospital was also lower in the rapid PCR group for both children under 18 (50.6% v 66.6%; P < 0.001) and patients over 60 years of age (84.3% v 91.8%; P < 0.001). Significantly fewer blood culture, blood gas, sputum culture, and respiratory bacterial and viral serology tests were ordered for patients tested by rapid PCR. ED LOS was similar for the rapid (7.4 h; IQR, 5.0-12.9 h) and standard PCR groups (6.5 h; IQR, 4.2-11.9 h; P = 0.27). CONCLUSION: Rapid PCR testing of ED patients for influenza virus and RSV was associated with better outcomes on a range of indicators, suggesting benefits for patients and the health care system. A formal cost-benefit analysis should be undertaken.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(9): 1147-1153, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify patients' clinical characteristics associated with respiratory viruses identified among patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: A sample of patients of all ages presenting with ILI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles network during two seasons (2015/16 and 2016/17). Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of influenza virus (IV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). Patients' characteristics associated with each of the four virus classes were studied using multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 5859 individuals were included in the study: 48.0% tested positive for IV, 7.9% for HRV, 7.5% for RSV and 4.1% for HMPV. Cough was associated with IV (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.81-2.52) RSV (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.75-3.74) and HMPV detection (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.40-3.45). Rhinorrhoea was associated mainly with HRV detection (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.34-2.32). Headache was associated with IV detection (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.34-2.32), whereas absence of headache was associated with RSV and HMPV detection. Dyspnoea was associated with RSV detection (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.73-3.12) and absence of dyspnoea with IV detection. Conjunctivitis was associated with IV detection (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.50). Some associations were observed only in children: dyspnoea and cough with RSV detection (age <5 years), conjunctivitis with IV detection (age <15 years). Period of onset of symptoms differed among aetiological diagnoses. Seasonal influenza vaccination decreased the risk of IV detection (OR, 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: This study allowed the identification of symptoms associated with several viral aetiologies in patients with ILI. A proper knowledge and understanding of these clinical signs may improve the medical management of patients.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
11.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 94(1): 33-37, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638655

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the Idylla™ Respiratory (IFV-RSV) panel to the GeneXpert Xpert® Flu/RSV assay and establish the performance of a midturbinate swab compared to nasopharyngeal sampling. Considering GeneXpert® assay as imperfect reference standard, a positive percentage agreement between both assays of 98-100% for influenza A and 96-99% for influenza B could be calculated when 354 nasopharyngeal and 325 midturbinate swabs were retrospectively analyzed. Comparing midturbinate samples to nasopharyngeal specimens of 321 subjects, positive percentage agreement varied from 42% to 94% depending on both target virus and assay used. Negative percentage agreements ranged from 98% to 100% for both methods and sample type comparison. The Idylla™ assay showed excellent performance compared to the GeneXpert® assay for the detection of influenza virus. The study also showed a slightly better performance for nasopharyngeal sampling compared to the use of a midturbinate swab.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(6)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610079

RESUMO

The occurrence of influenza in different climates has been shown to be associated with multiple meteorological factors. The incidence of influenza has been reported to increase during rainy seasons in tropical climates and during the dry, cold months of winter in temperate climates. This study was designed to explore the role of absolute humidity (AH), relative humidity (RH), temperature, and wind speed (WS) on influenza activity in the Toronto, ON, Canada, area. Environmental data obtained from four meteorological stations in the Toronto area over the period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015 were linked to patient influenza data obtained for the same locality and period. Data were analyzed using correlation, negative binomial regressions with linear predictors, and splines to capture the nonlinear relationship between exposure and outcomes. Our study found a negative association of both AH and temperature with influenza A and B virus infections. The effect of RH on influenza A and B viruses was controversial. Temperature fluctuation was associated with increased numbers of influenza B virus infections. Influenza virus was less likely to be detected from community patients than from patients tested as part of an institutional outbreak investigation. This could be more indicative of nosocomial transmission rather than climactic factors. The nonlinear nature of the relationship of influenza A virus with temperature and of influenza B virus with AH, RH, and temperature could explain the complexity and variation between influenza A and B virus infections. Predicting influenza activity is important for the timing of implementation of disease prevention and control measures as well as for resource allocation.IMPORTANCE This study examined the relationship between environmental factors and the occurrence of influenza in general. Since the seasonality of influenza A and B viruses is different in most temperate climates, we also examined each influenza virus separately. This study reports a negative association of both absolute humidity and temperature with influenza A and B viruses and tries to understand the controversial effect of RH on influenza A and B viruses. This study reports a nonlinear relation between influenza A and B viruses with temperature and influenza B virus with absolute and relative humidity. The nonlinear nature of these relations could explain the complexity and difference in seasonality between influenza A and B viruses, with the latter predominating later in the season. Separating community-based specimens from those obtained during outbreaks was also a novel approach in this research. These findings provide a further understanding of influenza virus transmission in temperate climates.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ecossistema , Humanos , Umidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Viruses ; 11(2)2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678330

RESUMO

Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic mite of Asian or Eastern honeybees Apis cerana (A. cerana) which has become a serious threat to European subspecies of Western honeybees Apis mellifera (A. mellifera) within the last century. V. destructor and its vectored honeybee viruses became serious threats for colony survival. This is a short period for pathogen- and host-populations to adapt. To look for possible variation in the composition of viral populations we performed RNA metagenomic analysis of the Western honeybee subspecies A. m. ligustica, A. m. syriaca, A. m. intermissa, and A. cerana and their respective V. destructor mites. The analysis revealed two novel viruses: Varroa orthomyxovirus-1 (VOV-1) in A. mellifera and V. destructor and a Hubei like-virga virus-14 homolog in V. destructor. VOV-1 was more prevalent in V. destructor than in A. mellifera and we found evidence for viral replication in both hosts. Interestingly, we found differences in viral loads of A. cerana and their V. destructor, A. m. intermissa, and its V. destructor showed partial similarity, while A. m. ligustica and A. m. syriaca and their varroa where very similar. Deformed wing virus exhibited 82.20%, 99.20%, 97.90%, and 0.76% of total viral reads in A. m. ligustica, A. m. syriaca, A. m. intermissa, and A. cerana, respectively. This is the first report of a complete segmented-single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus genome in honeybees and V. destructor mites.


Assuntos
Abelhas/parasitologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Varroidae/virologia , Animais , Genoma Viral , Metagenômica , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Carga Viral
15.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(1): 71-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV). OBJECTIVES: Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types. METHODS: An influenza ABCD tetraplex real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was developed in the frame of this study. A selection of reference virus strains and more than 4000 porcine samples from a passive IAV surveillance programme in European swine with acute respiratory disease were examined. RESULTS: Two IBV, a single IDV but no ICV infections were identified by tetraplex RT-qPCR. IBV and IDV results were confirmed by conventional RT-PCR and partial sequence analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The tetraplex RT-qPCR proved fit for purpose as a sensitive, specific and high-throughput tool to study influenza virus transmission at the human-animal interface. Complementing close-meshed active virological and serological surveillance is required to better understand the true incidence and prevalence of influenza virus type B, C and D infections in swine.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Europa (Continente) , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenzavirus C/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Thogotovirus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 80: 46-53, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide. However, the distribution of the etiology of CAP varies from one country to another, with limited data from rural areas. METHODS: A prospective hospital-based study on adult CAP was conducted in Leyte, Central Philippines from May 2010 to May 2012. Blood, sputum, and nasopharyngeal samples obtained from patients were used to identify pathogens using standard microbiological culture methods and PCR. RESULTS: Of the 535 patients enrolled, 38% were younger than 50 years old. More than half of the patients had an underlying disease, including pulmonary tuberculosis (22%). The detection rate was higher for bacteria (40%) than viruses (13%). Haemophilus influenzae (12%) was the most commonly detected bacterium and influenza virus (5%) was the most commonly detected virus. The proportion of CAP patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was higher in the younger age group than in the older age group. Among CAP patients, 14% died during hospitalization, and drowsiness on admission and SpO2 <90% were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial infections contribute substantially to the number of hospitalizations among CAP patients in rural Philippines. This study also highlights the importance of treatment of tuberculosis in reducing the burden of adult CAP in the country.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escarro/microbiologia , Escarro/virologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93(4): 305-310, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528424

RESUMO

We used RT-PCR-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to identify subtypes and strains of influenza viruses detected during a maternal influenza immunization study in Nepal from May 2011 to April 2014. Hemagglutinin (HA) gene amino acid (aa) sequences of inferred reference strains were compared to those of the vaccines to determine impact of aa relatedness on vaccine efficacy (VE) and disease severity. Three influenza subtypes and many strains were identified. A(H3N2) strains with less than 13 aa differences in HA compared to vaccine strains (matched) showed higher VE than strains with 13 or more differences (mismatched). Yamagata lineage B strains, which were mismatched to the Victoria strain in the vaccine, demonstrated lower VE compared to Victoria strains. Differences in VE were not statistically significant. All A(H1N1pdm) matched the vaccine strain, with 10 or fewer aa differences. Except for women infected with vaccine-matched strains of influenza A, clinical signs and symptoms did not differ between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Nepal , Orthomyxoviridae/química , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Homologia de Sequência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(4): 398-406, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported detection of influenza RNA in stools of patients with seasonal influenza infection. While this detection may have a clinical significance, other factors may influence the stool positivity for influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate demographical, clinical, and microbiological factors which could favor the presence of influenza viral RNA in the stools of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. METHODS: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) patients were enrolled by general practitioners (GP) during two winter seasons (2014-2016). Nasopharyngeal swabs, stool specimens, and clinical data were collected. Samples were tested for 12 respiratory pathogen groups (nasopharyngeal and stool specimens) and for 12 enteric pathogens (stool specimens). RESULTS: Among the 331 patients with ARI enrolled by GP, 114 (34.4%) presented influenza infection. Influenza RNA was detected in stool samples of 21% (24/114) of the 114 stool specimens analyzed. Hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 7.8 (95% confidence interval (CI)) [1.7-33.7], P = .02), age between 45 and 64 years (aOR = 4.8 [1.7-14.5], P = .01), consumption of raw shellfish and/or mollusks (aOR = 16.7 [3.6-90.9], P = .00), and use of antibiotics (aOR = 6.4 [2.1-19.8], P = .006) or antiviral treatment (aOR = 7.4 [1.9-29], P = .01) were significantly associated with an increased odds of the detection of influenza RNA in stools. Among the 24 stool samples subjected to viral isolation, no one showed virus growth. CONCLUSIONS: These findings will be useful to studies investigating the dissemination route of influenza viruses to gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Medicina Geral , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Indian J Med Res ; 148(3): 329-333, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425224

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Respiratory tract infections are common among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims which pose a public health risk of spread of respiratory infections. Influenza has been reported from Indian Hajj and Umrah returning pilgrims, but data on other respiratory pathogens are sparse in India. Here we report the presence of common respiratory viral pathogens in returning Hajj and Umrah pilgrims suffering from acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2014-2015. Methods: Respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were collected from 300 consenting pilgrims with ARI in the past one week and tested for influenza and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses using in-house standardized quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical features among the pathogen positive and negative patients were compared. The patients received symptomatic treatment and antivirals where appropriate and were followed telephonically to collect data on illness outcome. Results: Ninety seven (32.3%) of the 300 participants were tested positive for any virus, most common being influenza viruses (n=33, 11%). Other respiratory viruses that were detected included human coronaviruses [n=26, 8.7%; OC43 (n=19, 6.3%) and C229E (n=7, 2.3%)], rhinovirus (n=20, 6%), adenoviruses (n=8, 2.6%), parainfluenza viruses (n=7, 2.3%), respiratory syncytial virus (n=3, 1%) and bocaviruses (n=2, 0.6%). Clinical features observed in pathogen positive and pathogen negative patients did not differ significantly. Eighteen influenza positive patients were treated with oseltamivir. Interpretation & conclusions: Pilgrims returning from mass gatherings are often afflicted with respiratory pathogens with a potential to facilitate transmission of respiratory pathogens across international borders. The study reinforces the need for better infection prevention and control measures such as vaccination, health education on cough etiquette and hand hygiene.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Missões Religiosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
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