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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1193-1196, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580378

RESUMO

The correlation of viral growth capability (n = 156) with the viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 76) was assessed. Epidemic influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B viruses showed a wide range of growth capability (104-1011 copies/mL) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The growth was correlated with the nasopharyngeal viral load (r = 0.53). Six selected strains showed growth-dependent cell death (r = 0.96) in a growth kinetics assay. Epidemic influenza viruses exhibit a wide range of growth capability. Growth capability should be considered one of the key factors in disease prognosis.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células A549 , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Cães , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prognóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Carga Viral
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3209, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547380

RESUMO

Viral co-infections occur in COVID-19 patients, potentially impacting disease progression and severity. However, there is currently no dedicated method to identify viral co-infections in patient RNA-seq data. We developed PACIFIC, a deep-learning algorithm that accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other common RNA respiratory viruses from RNA-seq data. Using in silico data, PACIFIC recovers the presence and relative concentrations of viruses with > 99% precision and recall. PACIFIC accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections in 63 independent in vitro cell culture and patient datasets. PACIFIC is an end-to-end tool that enables the systematic monitoring of viral infections in the current global pandemic.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/diagnóstico , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , /isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/virologia , Coronaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Metapneumovirus/classificação , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , RNA-Seq , Rhinovirus/classificação , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24256, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429831

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Brochoalvelolar lavages (BALs) from patients suffering from hospitalized infections with SARS-CoV-2, other corona viruses (human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1), Influenza virus type A and B, Haemophilus influenzae and Pneumocystis jirovecii were compared cytopathologically.The aim of the study was to evaluate if the cellular profile detectable in BAL may be specific for the respective pathogens and could lead to diagnosis of COVID-19 even in the absence of PCR results.Differential cytology and flow cytometry datasets of 62 patients were observed and compared.We observed a significant association between individual cell pattern changes and the causing pathogen, but no general cell distribution pattern.The cytology pattern of the BAL fluid in COVID-19 is not specific enough to use it as a sole diagnostic criterion, although it may support clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wheezing is a major problem in children, and respiratory viruses are often believed to be the causative agent. While molecular detection tools enable identification of respiratory viruses in wheezing children, it remains unclear if and how these viruses are associated with wheezing. The objective of this systematic review is to clarify the prevalence of different respiratory viruses in children with wheezing. METHODS: We performed an electronic in Pubmed and Global Index Medicus on 01 July 2019 and manual search. We performed search of studies that have detected common respiratory viruses in children ≤18 years with wheezing. We included only studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Study data were extracted and the quality of articles assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroup, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effects model. RESULTS: The systematic review included 33 studies. Rhinovirus, with a prevalence of 35.6% (95% CI 24.6-47.3, I2 98.4%), and respiratory syncytial virus, at 31.0% (95% CI 19.9-43.3, I2 96.4%), were the most common viruses detected. The prevalence of other respiratory viruses was as follows: human bocavirus 8.1% (95% CI 5.3-11.3, I2 84.6%), human adenovirus 7.7% (95% CI 2.6-15.0, I2 91.0%), influenza virus6.5% (95% CI 2.2-12.6, I2 92.4%), human metapneumovirus5.8% (95% CI 3.4-8.8, I2 89.0%), enterovirus 4.3% (95% CI 0.1-12.9, I2 96.2%), human parainfluenza virus 3.8% (95% CI 1.5-6.9, I2 79.1%), and human coronavirus 2.2% (95% CI 0.6-4.4, I2 79.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus may contribute to the etiology of wheezing in children. While the clinical implications of molecular detection of respiratory viruses remains an interesting question, this study helps to illuminate the potential of role respiratory viruses in pediatric wheezing. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018115128.


Assuntos
Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Bocavirus/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915821

RESUMO

Influenza, which is an acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus, represents a worldwide public health and economic problem owing to the significant morbidity and mortality caused by its seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Sensitive and convenient methodologies for the detection of influenza viruses are important for clinical care and infection control as well as epidemiological investigations. Here, we developed a multiplex reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) with quencher/fluorescence oligonucleotides connected by a 5' backward loop (LF or LB) primer for the detection of two subtypes of influenza viruses: Influenza A (A/H1 and A/H3) and influenza B. The detection limits of the multiplex RT-LAMP assay were 103 copies and 102 copies of RNA for influenza A and influenza B, respectively. The sensitivities of the multiplex influenza A/B/IC RT-LAMP assay were 94.62% and 97.50% for influenza A and influenza B clinical samples, respectively. The specificities of the multiplex influenza A/B/IC RT-LAMP assay were 100% for influenza A, influenza B, and healthy clinical samples. In addition, the multiplex influenza A/B/IC RT-LAMP assay had no cross-reactivity with other respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Epidemias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenzavirus C/genética , Influenzavirus C/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Pandemias
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 382-389, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have explored the different lineages of influenza B viruses, which cause excessive fatalities. This study aimed to estimate age- and sex-specific excessive mortality associated with influenza subtypes/lineages in Shanghai, during 2010-2015. METHODS: We used quasi-Poisson regression models to fit weekly numbers of deaths from various causes by adjusting long-term trend, seasonal trend, and absolute humidity as confounding factors. The mortality burden associated with influenza subtypes/lineages was estimated by age and sex. RESULTS: The average influenza-associated excessive mortality rate in deaths coded as all-cause was 27.66 (95%CI: 22.30-33.88) per 100,000 person-years. The excessive deaths from six underlying causes in people aged ≥65 years weight heavily. Compared to influenza B(Victoria) lineage, influenza B(Yamagata) lineage had more effect on the influenza-associated disease burden, particularly in patients with respiratory and circulatory diseases. There was no statistical significance of sex in the mortality burden associated with influenza. CONCLUSION: Disproportionate mortality associated with influenza B virus is dominated by B(Yamagata) lineage in Shanghai, and the evidence for sex differences in the influenza-associated mortality burden for respiratory and circulatory diseases is limited. Improving the vaccination of the elderly and strengthening laboratory-based surveillance of influenza B lineages in Shanghai are needed to reduce this influenza's disease burden.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104543, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread and caused death worldwide. Preventive measures and infection control are underway, and some areas show signs of convergence. Other viruses in addition to SARS-CoV-2 cause cold-like symptoms and spread in the winter. However, the extent to which SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses and other causative viruses have prevailed since implementing preventive measures is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the incidence of causative viruses and pathogens in patients. STUDY DESIGN: We collected 191 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with cold-like symptoms in Japan. All samples were subjected to multiplex PCR with the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: FilmArray Respiratory Panel analysis detected at least one virus in 32 of 191 patients with cold-like symptoms (21 %). Of these, we frequently identified human rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (5.8 %, n=11), human metapneumovirus (3.7 %, n=7), coronavirus 229E (2.1 %, n=4) and coronavirus OC43 (1.6 %, n=3); while no influenza viruses were detected. RT-PCR analysis detected SARS-CoV-2 (4.2 %, n=8) in patients who were not infected with the aforementioned respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses was not observed. Causative viruses remain prevalent after implementing preventive measures. SARS-CoV-2 differs from influenza viruses in its infectivity.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação
9.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104470, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480215

RESUMO

In Italy, the first SARS-CoV-2 infections were diagnosed in Rome, Lazio region, at the end of January 2020, but sustained transmission occurred later, since the end of February. From 1 February to 12 April 2020, 17,164 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested by real time PCR for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" (INMI) in Rome. In the same period, coincident with the winter peak of influenza and other respiratory illnesses, 847 samples were analyzed by multiplex PCR assay for the presence of common respiratory pathogens. In our study the time trend of SARS-CoV-2 and that of other respiratory pathogens in the same observation period were analysed. Overall, results obtained suggest that the spread of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus did not substantially affect the time trend of other respiratory infections in our region, highlighting no significant difference in rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with or without other respiratory pathogens. Therefore, in the present scenario of COVID-19 pandemic, differential diagnosis resulting positive for common respiratory pathogen(s) should not exclude testing of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Roma/epidemiologia
10.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371934

RESUMO

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Aerossóis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 856-862, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281668

RESUMO

COVID-19 has developed into a worldwide pandemic; early identification of severe illness is critical for controlling it and improving the prognosis of patients with limited medical resources. The present study aimed to analyze the characteristics of severe COVID-19 and identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis and prognosis prediction. In total, 27 consecutive patients with COVID-19 and 75 patients with flu were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical parameters were collected from electronic medical records. The disease course was divided into four stages: initial, progression, peak, and recovery stages, according to computed tomography (CT) progress. to mild COVID-19, the lymphocytes in the severe COVID-19 progressively decreased at the progression and the peak stages, but rebound in the recovery stage. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the severe group at the initial and progression stages were higher than those in the mild group. Correlation analysis showed that CRP (R = .62; P < .01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R = .55; P < .01) and granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (R = .49; P < .01) were positively associated with the CT severity scores. In contrast, the number of lymphocytes (R = -.37; P < .01) was negatively correlated with the CT severity scores. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that area under the curve of CRP on the first visit for predicting severe COVID-19 was 0.87 (95% CI 0.10-1.00) at 20.42 mg/L cut-off, with sensitivity and specificity 83% and 91%, respectively. CRP in severe COVID-19 patients increased significantly at the initial stage, before CT findings. Importantly, CRP, which was associated with disease development, predicted early severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Granulócitos/patologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 133-141, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the etiology of respiratory infections among children in Qatar and surrounding countries are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and seasonality of RSV, influenza, and other respiratory pathogens among children in Qatar. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed data of 33,404 children (<15 years) presented with influenza-like illness from 2012 to 2017. RESULTS: At least one respiratory pathogen was detected in 26,138 (78%) of patients. Together, human rhinoviruses (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza viruses comprised nearly two-thirds of all cases, affecting 24%, 19.7%, and 18.5%, respectively. A prevalence of 5-10% was recorded for adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), human bocavirus (HboV), and human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), enteroviruses, M. pneumonia, and parechovirus had prevalences below 5%. While RSV, influenza, and HMPV exhibited strong seasonal activity in the winter, HRV was active during low RSV and influenza circulation. The burden of RSV exceeds that of influenza among young age groups, whereas influenza correlated positively with age. Further, HRV, adenovirus, influenza, and RSV infection rates varied significantly between male and females. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive multi-year study provides insights into the etiology of ILI among children in Qatar, which represents the Gulf region. Our results reinforce the significance of active surveillance of respiratory pathogens to improve infection prevention and control strategies, particularly among children.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(2): 217-225, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284304

RESUMO

A dual monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mAb sandwich ELISA) has been developed using rabbit monoclonal antibodies generated by Ecobody technology, which includes the isolation of single B cells binding to a specific antigen, amplification of the heavy and light chains of these immunoglobulins, and expression of the fragment of antigen binding (Fab) by cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS). A rabbit was immunized with swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine, from which single B cells binding to the antigen were isolated. Then, immunoglobulin mRNA was amplified from single cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by the attachment of a T7 promoter, appropriate tags, and a T7 terminator for the expression of the Fab portion by CFPS. By taking advantage of two different peptide tags fused to the same Fab, optimal combinations for coating Fab on assay plates and detecting Fab, both synthesized by CFPS, were investigated for mAb sandwich ELISA. Pairs of Fab detected 0.5 ng SIV in the assay. In summary, this result showed the applicability of Ecobody technology for a variety of immunodetection kits for high throughput analyses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Biossíntese de Proteínas
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the 2009 influenza pandemic, Latin American (LA) countries have strengthened their influenza surveillance systems. We analyzed influenza genetic sequence data from the 2017 through 2018 Southern Hemisphere (SH) influenza season from selected LA countries, to map the availability of influenza genetic sequence data from, and to describe, the 2017 through 2018 SH influenza seasons in LA. METHODS: We analyzed influenza A/H1pdm09, A/H3, B/Victoria and B/Yamagata hemagglutinin sequences from clinical samples from 12 National Influenza Centers (NICs) in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) with a collection date from epidemiologic week (EW) 18, 2017 through EW 43, 2018. These sequences were generated by the NIC or the WHO Collaborating Center (CC) at the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, uploaded to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) platform, and used for phylogenetic reconstruction. FINDINGS: Influenza hemagglutinin sequences from the participating countries (A/H1pdm09 n = 326, A/H3 n = 636, B n = 433) were highly concordant with the genetic groups of the influenza vaccine-recommended viruses for influenza A/H1pdm09 and influenza B. For influenza A/H3, the concordance was variable. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the constant evolution of influenza viruses, high-quality surveillance data-specifically genetic sequence data, are important to allow public health decision makers to make informed decisions about prevention and control strategies, such as influenza vaccine composition. Countries that conduct influenza genetic sequencing for surveillance in LA should continue to work with the WHO CCs to produce high-quality genetic sequence data and upload those sequences to open-access databases.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229911, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unique characteristics of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) including host factors and living conditions contribute to the spread of contagious pathogens. Control measures are essential to interrupt the transmission and to manage outbreaks effectively. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to verify the causes and problems contributing to transmission and to identify control measures during outbreaks in LTCFs. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched for articles published from 2007 to 2018. Articles written in English reporting outbreaks in LTCFs were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the risk-of-bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies. FINDINGS: A total of 37 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. The most commonly reported single pathogen was influenza virus, followed by group A streptococcus (GAS). Of the studies that identified the cause, about half of them noted outbreaks transmitted via person-to-person. Suboptimal infection control practice including inadequate decontamination and poor hand hygiene was the most frequently raised issue propagating transmission. Especially, lapses in specific care procedures were linked with outbreaks of GAS and hepatitis B and C viruses. About 60% of the included studies reported affected cases among staff, but only a few studies implemented work restriction during outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: This review indicates that the violation of basic infection control practice could be a major role in introducing and facilitating the spread of contagious diseases in LTCFs. It shows the need to promote compliance with basic practices of infection control to prevent outbreaks in LTCFs.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Instituições Residenciais/organização & administração , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/organização & administração , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Assistência de Longa Duração/normas , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Instituições Residenciais/normas , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/transmissão , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Med Virol ; 92(8): 1316-1321, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769524

RESUMO

Host population size, density, immune status, age structure, and contact rates are critical elements of virus epidemiology. Slum populations stand out from other settings and may present differences in the epidemiology of acute viral infections. We collected nasopharyngeal specimens from 282 children aged ≤5 years with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) during 2005 to 2006 in one of the largest Brazilian slums. We conducted real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 16 respiratory viruses, nested RT-PCR-based typing of rhinoviruses (HRVs), and collected clinical symptoms. Viruses were common causes of respiratory disease; with ≥1 virus being detected in 65.2% of patients. We detected 15 different viruses during 1 year with a predominance of HRV (33.0%) and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV, 12.1%) infections, and a high rate of viral coinfections (28.3%). We observed seasonality of hRSV, HRV and human coronavirus infections, more severe symptoms in hRSV and influenza virus (FLU) infections and prolonged circulation of seven HRV clusters likely representing distinct serotypes according to genomic sequence distances. Potentially unusual findings included the absence of human metapneumovirus detections and lack of typical FLU seasonal patterns, which may be linked to the population size and density of the slum. Nonetheless, most epidemiological patterns were similar to other studies globally, suggesting surprising similarities of virus-associated ARI across highly diverse settings and a complex impact of population characteristics on respiratory virus epidemiology.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Densidade Demográfica , Áreas de Pobreza , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/virologia
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1610: 460578, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623846

RESUMO

The macroporous microspheres with core-shell structure, based on a copolymer of 4-Vinylbenzyl chloride, glycidyl methacrylate, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, were fabricated through atom transfer radical polymerization suspension polymerization. The microspheres showed 100-200 nm pores in shell and 500-900 nm pores in core. The shell was hydrophilic modified through grafting of poly(N-hydroxyethyl acrylamide) onto the shell surface for reducing adsorption of proteins. The core was coupled with a ligand of poly(ethylene imine) that could bind the proteins. Feedstock of avian influenza virus could be purified on these modified microspheres through negative chromatography. Avian influenza virus cannot enter the core and was recovered from the flow-through, while other proteins with negative charges were able to penetrate into the core and bind to the poly(ethylene imine) ligands. The dynamic binding capacity of proteins was higher on this medium (61 mg/mL) than the commercially available resin (12 mg/mL, Capto Core 700).


Assuntos
Microesferas , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Cromatografia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/química , Porosidade
19.
Clin Chem ; 66(1): 124-137, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, demands for improved health and quality of life conflict with the realities of delivering healthcare in an environment of higher expenditures, adherence to test utilization, and patient-centered experience. Patient-centered care is commonly identified as a goal of healthcare delivery, and yet healthcare systems struggle with delivery of care to patients, often failing to identify the seriously ill and capitalize on the predictive qualities of diagnostic testing. Point-of-care (POC) testing provides access to rapid diagnosis and predictive value key to realizing patient outcomes. An evaluation of cost-effective models and the clinical impact of POC testing for clinical microbiology is needed. CONTENT: Accurate and rapid diagnostics have the potential to affect healthcare decisions to a degree well out of proportion to their cost. Contemporary healthcare models increasingly view POC testing as a mechanism for efficient deployment of healthcare. POC testing can deliver rapid diagnosis in environments where testing results can be used to direct management during patient visits and in areas where centralized laboratory testing may limit access to care. Nucleic acid assays, designed for POC testing, can match, or exceed, the sensitivity of conventional laboratory-based testing, eliminating the need for confirmation testing. Here, the goals of POC testing for microbiology, applications, and technologies, as well as outcomes and value propositions, are discussed. SUMMARY: The combination of rapid reporting, an increasing array of organisms capable of causing disease, actionable resulting, and improved patient outcomes is key in the evolution of POC testing in clinical microbiology.


Assuntos
Testes Imediatos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/parasitologia , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
20.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(2): 204-209, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-based influenza vaccines can solve the problem of the frequent occurrence of egg adaptation-associated antigenic changes observed in egg-based vaccines. Seed viruses for cell-based vaccines can be prepared from clinical specimens by cell culture; however, clinical samples risk harboring respiratory viruses other than influenza virus. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the patterns of co-infection in clinical samples and explore whether cell culture technology can selectively propagate influenza viruses from samples containing other respiratory viruses. METHODS: A total of 341 clinical specimens were collected from patients with influenza or influenza-like illness and analyzed by ResPlex II assay to detect 18 respiratory viruses. The patterns of co-infection were statistically analyzed with Fisher's exact test. The samples with double or triple infections were passaged in suspension MDCK cells (MDCK-S), adherent MDCK cells (MDCK-A), and LLC-MK2D cells. Cell-passaged samples were analyzed by ResPlex II assay again to investigate whether each cell line could amplify influenza viruses and eliminate other respiratory viruses. RESULTS: Double infections were detected in 8.5% and triple infections in 0.9% of the collected clinical specimens. We identified four pairs of viruses with significant correlation. For all samples with double and triple infection, MDCK-S and MDCK-A could selectively propagate influenza viruses, while eliminating all contaminating viruses. In contrast, LLC-MK2D showed lower isolation efficiency for influenza virus and higher isolation efficiency for coxsackievirus/echovirus than MDCK-S and MDCK-A. CONCLUSIONS: Both MDCK-S and MDCK-A are considered suitable for the preparation of influenza vaccine seed viruses without adventitious agents or egg-adaptation mutations.


Assuntos
Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vacinas Virais
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