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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 129, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376017

RESUMO

Metal whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) have been reported as very useful tools to detect and quantify the presence of bioavailable fractions of certain metals in water and soil samples. In the current work, two bacterial WCBs able to report Cr(VI) presence and plants growing on Cr(VI)-enriched soil/medium were used to assess the potential transfer of this metal to organisms of higher trophic levels, and the risk of transfer to the food chain. To do it, the functionality of the WCBs within tissues of inoculated plants in contact with Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and water was studied in vitro and in a controlled greenhouse environment. One WCB was the previously described Ochrobactrum tritici pCHRGFP2 and the second, Nitrospirillum amazonense pCHRGFP2, is a newly engineered naturally-occurring endophytic microorganism. Three rice varieties (IAC 4440, BRS 6 CHUÍ, IRGA 425) and one maize variety (1060) were tested as hosts and subjected to Cr(VI) treatments (25 µM), with different results obtained. Inoculation of each WCB into plants exposed to Cr(VI) showed GFP expression within plant tissues. WCBs penetrated the root tissues and later colonized the shoots and leaves. In general, a higher fluorescence signal was detected in roots, together with a higher Cr content and denser WCB colonization. Best fluorescence intensities per plant biomass of shoots were obtained for plant host IRGA 425. Therefore, by analyzing colonized tissues, both WCBs allowed the detection of Cr(VI) contamination in soils and its transfer to plants commonly used in crops for human diet.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cromo/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/química , Rhodospirillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Engenharia Metabólica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ochrobactrum/genética , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Rhodospirillaceae/genética , Rhodospirillaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8766-8772, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313921

RESUMO

In decades of hybrid rice breeding, the combining ability has been successfully used to evaluate excellent parental lines and predict heterosis. However, previous studies for the combining ability mainly focused on cultivated rice and rarely involved wild rice. In this study, for the first time, we identified 20 new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the combining ability in wild rice using a North Carolina II mating design. Among them, qGCA1, one of the major QTLs that can significantly improve the general combining ability of the plant height, spikelet number, and yield per plant, was delimited to an interval of about 72 kb on chromosome 1. qSCA8, another major QTL, which can significantly improve the specific combining ability of the seed-setting rate and yield per plant, was located in an interval of about 90 kb on chromosome 8. These QTLs discovered from wild rice will provide new ideas to explain the genetic mechanism of the combining ability and establish the basis for breeding of high-combining-ability rice.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Plant Sci ; 286: 17-27, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300138

RESUMO

The plant-specific gibberellic acid (GA)-stimulated transcript gene family is critical for plant growth and development. There are 10 family members in rice (Oryza sativa), known as OsGASRs. However, few have been functionally characterized. Here, we investigated the function of OsGASR9 in rice. OsGASR9 transcripts were detected in various tissues, with the lowest and highest levels in leaves and panicles, respectively. Greater mRNA levels accumulated in young, compared with in old, panicles and spikelets. OsGASR9 localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. Transgenic RNA interference-derived lines in the Zhonghua 11 background exhibited reduced plant height, grain size and yield compared with the wild-type. The two osgasr9 mutants in the Nipponbare background showed similar phenotypes. Conversely, the overexpression of OsGASR9 in the two backgrounds increased plant height and grain size. A significantly increased grain yield per plant was also observed in the overexpression lines having a Nipponbare background. Furthermore, by measuring the GA-induced lengths of the second leaf sheaths and α-amylase activity levels of seeds, we concluded that OsGASR9 is a positive regulator of responses to GA in rice. Thus, OsGASR9 may regulate plant height, grain size and yield through the GA pathway and could have an application value in breeding.


Assuntos
Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência de RNA
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8107-8118, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260291

RESUMO

Humic substances (HS) are vital to soil fertility and carbon sequestration. Using multiple cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (multiCP/MAS) NMR combined with dipolar dephasing, we quantitatively characterized humic fractions, i.e., fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA), and humin (HM), isolated from two representative soils (upland and paddy soils) in China under six long-term (>20 years) fertilizer treatments. Results indicate that each humic fraction showed chemical distinction between the upland and paddy soils, especially with much greater aromaticity of upland HMs than of paddy HMs. Fertilizer treatment exerted greater influence on chemical natures of upland HS than of paddy HS, although the effect was less than that of soil type. Organic manure application especially decreased the percentages of aromatic C in the upland HAs and HMs compared with the control. We concluded that humic fractions responded in chemical nature to environmental conditions, i.e., soil type/cropping system/soil aeration and fertilizer treatments.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8130-8137, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287295

RESUMO

Chlorantraniliprole (3-bromo-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridine-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide; CAP) was granted supplemental registration for use in rice cultivation in California through December, 2018. Previous work investigated the partitioning of CAP in California rice field soils; however, its degradation in soils under conditions relevant to California rice culture has not been investigated. The degradation of CAP in soils from two California rice fields was examined under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with varying salinity via microcosm experiments. Results indicate that soil properties governing bioavailability may have a greater influence on degradation than flooding practices or field salinization over a typical growing season. Differences between native and autoclaved soils (t1/2 = 59.0-100.2 and 78.5-171.7 days) suggest that biological processes were primarily responsible for CAP degradation; however, future work should be done to confirm specific biotic processes as well as to elucidate abiotic processes, such as degradation via manganese oxides and formation of nonextractable residues, which may contribute to its dissipation.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/química , Agricultura , California , Inundações , Cinética
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 302, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are two important mineral nutrients in regulating leaf photosynthesis. Studying the interactive effects of N and K on regulating N allocation and photosynthesis (Pn) of rice leaves will be of great significance for further increasing leaf Pn, photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and grain yield. We measured the gas exchange of rice leaves in a field experiment and tested different kinds of leaf N based on N morphology and function, and calculated the interactive effects of N and K on N allocation and the PNUE. RESULTS: Compared with N0 (0 kg N ha- 1) and K0 (0 kg K2O ha- 1) treatments, the Pn was increased by 17.1 and 12.2% with the supply of N and K. Compared with N0K0 (0 kg N and 0 kg K2O ha- 1), N0K120 (0 kg N and 120 kg K2O ha- 1) and N0K180 (0 kg N and 180 kg K2O ha- 1), N supply increased the absolute content of photosynthetic N (Npsn) by 15.1, 15.5 and 10.5% on average, and the storage N (Nstore) was increased by 32.7, 64.9 and 72.7% on average. The relative content of Npsn was decreased by 5.6, 12.1 and 14.5%, while that of Nstore was increased by 8.7, 27.8 and 33.8%. Supply of K promoted the transformation of Nstore to Npsn despite the leaf N content (Na) was indeed decreased. Compared with N0K0, N180K0 (180 kg N and 0 kg K2O ha- 1) and N270K0 (270 kg N and 0 kg K2O ha- 1), K supply increased the relative content of Npsn by 17.7, 8.8 and 7.3%, and decreased the relative content of Nstore by 24.2, 11.4 and 8.7% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated the mechanism that K supply decreased the Na but increased the Npsn content and then increased leaf Pn and PNUE from a new viewpoint of leaf N allocation. The supply of K promoted the transformation of Nstore to Npsn and increased the PNUE. The decreased Nstore mainly resulted from the decrease of non-protein N. Combined use of N and K could optimize leaf N allocation and maintain a high leaf Npsn content and PNUE.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 308, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land preparation is an important component of fragrant rice production. However, the effect of tillage on fragrant rice production is unclear, especially regarding the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is the main compound of the unique aroma of fragrant rice. This study aimed to explore 2-AP biosynthesis in fragrant rice under different tillage regimes. Three tillage methods were applied in the present study: conventional rotary tillage (CK) as the control, plough tillage (PT), and no-tillage (NT). RESULT: Compared with CK, the PT treatment increased 2-AP content in grain, upregulated the activity of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and increased contents of 1-pyrroline and pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C). Furthermore, the PT treatment increased the grain yield and nitrogen accumulation of fragrant rice. Meanwhile, the 2-AP content in the grain produced under the NT treatment was significantly higher than that in the grain produced under both the PT and CK treatments due to the enhancement of proline content and the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and △1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS). However, the present study observed that the overall production of fragrant rice under NT conditions was inferior due to lower yield, nitrogen accumulation, and anti-oxidative enzymatic activities. Moreover, the organic matter content and soil microorganism quantity increased due to PT and NT treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CK, PT improved fragrant rice grain yield and nitrogen accumulation and induced an increase in OAT activity and led to an increase in 2-AP concentration. No-tillage also produced increased 2-AP content in grain by enhancing PDH and P5CS activities but limited yields and nitrogen accumulation in fragrant rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Pirróis/metabolismo , Odorantes , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 492, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300895

RESUMO

Irrigation water salinity is one of the factors that reduces agricultural production. Guilan Province is one of the most important rice-producing areas in Iran where groundwater is used for irrigation. The temporal and spatial variations of groundwater salinity were studied in the coastal strip covering 4285 km2 of the province using data from 73 wells, as well as its estimated effect on the rice yield. Data on mean electrical conductivity (EC) for each 6-month period of 12 consecutive years, from the second half of 2002 until the end of 2014, were analyzed and resulted in 25 mean ECs. EC maps and maps of the probability of higher salinity areas were obtained by using ordinary kriging (OK) and indicator kriging (IK) in ArcGIS 9.3 software, respectively. Thereby, areas belonging to different salinity classes were outlined and places with higher salinity reducing the rice yield were identified. In addition, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to project future changes. The results indicated that due to the salinity of groundwater in the coastal strip area, the minimum and the maximum rice yields were 80% and 100%, respectively. Using the IK method, higher probability of groundwater salinity reducing the yield was found from the central parts toward the east. The Mann-Kendal test result showed significant temporal trends of the size of areas below the 100% yield (EC < 1 dS/m) and 90-100% yield (1 < EC < 1.34 dS/m) thresholds. The equations given by Sen's slope estimator indicated that the groundwater salinity will not be a limiting factor for achieving 100% rice yields from the year of 2021 onward in all of the Guilan coastal area. The trend of increasing precipitation in the area may be an important cause.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/tendências , Previsões , Irã (Geográfico) , Salinidade , Análise Espacial
10.
Phytochemistry ; 166: 112057, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306913

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) leaves accumulate phytoalexins in response to pathogen attack. The major phytoalexins in rice are diterpenoids such as oryzalexins, momilactones, and phytocassanes. We measured the amount of oryzalexin A in leaves irradiated by UV light, treated with jasmonic acid, or inoculated with conidia of Bipolaris oryzae in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar Kasalath. Nipponbare leaves accumulated oryzalexin A at a high concentration, but Kasalath leaves did not. The locus responsible for this difference was mapped using backcrossed inbred lines and chromosome substitution lines. A region on Chr. 12 containing the KSL10 gene was responsible for the deficiency in oryzalexin A in the Kasalath cultivar. The amount of KSL10 transcript increased in Nipponbare leaves but not in Kasalath leaves in response to UV light irradiation, indicating that the suppressed expression of KSL10 caused the deficiency of oryzalexin A in Kasalath. We analyzed oryzalexin A accumulation in UV light-irradiated leaves of cultivars in the world rice core collection. There were cultivars that accumulated oryzalexin A and those that did not, and both of these chemotypes were found in japonica and indica subspecies. Furthermore, these chemotypes were found in the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon. The phylogenetic relationship of KSL10 sequences was not correlated to oryzalexin A chemotypes. These findings suggested that the biosynthesis of oryzalexin A was acquired by a common ancestor of O. rufipogon and was lost multiple times during the evolutionary process.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Cruzamento
11.
Gene ; 710: 279-290, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200083

RESUMO

Plants are frequently exposed to variable environmental stresses that adversely affect plant growth, development and agricultural production. In this study, a trypanothione synthetase gene from Trypanosoma cruzi, TcTryS, was chemically synthesized and its roles in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses were functionally characterized by generating transgenic rice overexpressing TcTryS. Overexpression of TcTryS in rice endows transgenic plants with hypersensitivity to ABA, hyposensitivity to NaCl- and mannitol-induced osmotic stress at the seed germination stage. TcTryS overexpression results in enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, cadmium, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol stresses in transgenic rice, simultaneously supported by improved physiological traits. The TcTryS-overexpression plants also accumulated greater amounts of proline, less malondialdehyde and more transcripts of stress-related genes than wild-type plants under drought and salt stress conditions. In addition, TcTryS might play a positive role in maintaining chlorophyll content under 2,4,6-trichlorophenol stress. Histochemical staining assay showed that TcTryS renders transgenic plants better ROS-scavenging capability. All of these results suggest that TcTryS could function as a key regulator in modulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plant, and may have applications in the engineering of economically important crops.


Assuntos
Amida Sintases/genética , Amida Sintases/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Regulação para Cima
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 770-779, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154202

RESUMO

The study implements a periodical intermittent water cycle during rice cultivation providing insight potential in minimizing soil bio-available arsenic. Soil As concentrations were 34 ±â€¯0.49 and 72.03 ±â€¯0.54 mg kg-1 As respectively in two selected fields with rice cultivars gosai and satabdi, in comparison to 42.26 ±â€¯0.37 and 83.69 ±â€¯0.48 mg kg-1 in continuously flooded field soil, determined through ICP-MS. The study found higher translocation of silicon from soil to rice plant parts under intermittent irrigation having pH range of 7.6-9.4 and greater availability of soil organic content that in turn release more labile silicon from soil to aqueous phase for plant accumulation. This increased uptake of silicon strengthens rice shoots, nodes and leaf xylem-phloem integrity compared to conventional continuously flooded rice cultivation approach, suppressing the arsenic translocation, as observed under FE-SEM real-time imaging. Fresh plants were analysed for bioaccumulation and translocation factors of arsenic and silicon to justify the enhanced silicon uptake under proposed practice. Plant stress regulator enzymes viz. malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) from both conditions and found to be better in intermittent method over conventional practice with higher productivity.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Arsênico/farmacocinética , Oryza/fisiologia , Silício/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Índia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 268, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on plant amino acid transporters was mainly performed in Arabidopsis, while our understanding of them is generally scant in rice. OsLHT1 (Lysine/Histidine transporter) has been previously reported as a histidine transporter in yeast, but its substrate profile and function in planta are unclear. The aims of this study are to analyze the substrate selectivity of OsLHT1 and influence of its disruption on rice growth and fecundity. RESULTS: Substrate selectivity of OsLHT1 was analyzed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. The results showed that OsLHT1 could transport a broad spectrum of amino acids, including basic, neutral and acidic amino acids, and exhibited a preference for neutral and acidic amino acids. Two oslht1 mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology, and the loss-of-function of OsLHT1 inhibited rice root and shoot growth, thereby markedly reducing grain yields. QRT-PCR analysis indicated that OsLHT1 was expressed in various rice organs, including root, stem, flag leaf, flag leaf sheath and young panicle. Transient expression in rice protoplast suggested OsLHT1 was localized to the plasma membrane, which is consistent with its function as an amino acid transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that OsLHT1 is an amino acid transporter with wide substrate specificity and with preference for neutral and acidic amino acids, and disruption of OsLHT1 function markedly inhibited rice growth and fecundity.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Xenopus
14.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1038-1048, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146310

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization in China during the last three decades has resulted in widespread contamination of Cd in agricultural soils. A considerable proportion of the rice grain grown in some areas of southern China has Cd concentrations exceeding the Chinese food limit, raising widespread concern regarding food safety. In this review, we summarize rice grain Cd concentrations in national Chinese markets and in field surveys from contaminated areas, and analyze the potential health risk associated with increased dietary Cd intake. For subsistence rice farmers living in some contaminated areas of southern China who mainly consume locally-produced Cd-contaminated rice, their estimated dietary Cd intake is now comparable to that for the population in the region of Japan where the Itai-Itai disease was first reported. Interventions must be taken urgently to reduce Cd intake for these farmers. We also analyze i) the main reasons causing elevated grain Cd concentrations in southern China, ii) the dominant biogeochemical processes controlling the solubility of Cd in paddy soils, and iii) molecular mechanisms for the uptake and translocation of Cd in rice plants. Based on these analyses, we propose a number of countermeasures to address soil Cd contamination, including i) mitigation of Cd transfer from paddy soils to rice grain, and ii) intervention in those farmers who consume home-grown Cd-contaminated rice. Liming to increase soil pH to 6.5 and gene editing biotechnology are effective strategies to decrease Cd accumulation in rice grain. For these local farmers with high-Cd exposure risk, local governments should monitor the Cd concentration in their home-grown rice and exchange those high-Cd rice with low-Cd rice in order to reduce their dietary Cd intake.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Compostos de Cálcio , China , Grão Comestível/normas , Japão , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxidos
15.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178042

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, but often limited in soils for plant uptake. A major economic constraint in the rice production is excessive use of chemical fertilizers to meet the P requirement. Bioaugmentation of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria (PSB) can be used as promising alternative. In the present study 11 mineral PSB were isolated from Basmati rice growing areas of Pakistan. In broth medium, PSB solubilized tricalcium phosphate (27-354 µg mL-1) with concomitant decrease in pH up to 3.6 due to the production of different organic acids, predominantly gluconic acid. Of these, 4 strains also have ability to mineralize phytate (245-412 µg mL-1). Principle component analysis showed that the gluconic acid producing PSB strains (Acinetobacter sp. MR5 and Pseudomonas sp. MR7) have pronounced effect on grain yield (up to 55%), plant P (up to 67%) and soil available P (up to 67%), with 20% reduced fertilization. For simultaneous validation of gluconic acid production by MR5 and MR7 through PCR, new specific primers were designed to amplify gcd, pqqE, pqqC genes responsible for glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) mediated phosphate solubilization. These findings for the first time demonstrated Acinetobacter soli as potent P solubilizer for rice and expands our knowledge about genus specific pqq and gcd primers. These two gcd containing PSB Acinetobacter sp. MR5 (DSM 106631) and Pseudomonas sp. MR7 (DSM 106634) submitted to German culture collection (DSMZ), serve as global valuable pool to significantly increase the P uptake, growth and yield of Basmati rice with decreased dependence on chemical fertilizer in P deficit agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Acinetobacter/genética , Agricultura , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transporte Biológico , Meios de Cultura , Fertilizantes , Germinação , Gluconatos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Paquistão , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Solubilidade
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7249-7257, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244201

RESUMO

The duration of the rice growth phase has always been an important target trait. The identification of mutations in rice that alter these processes and result in a shorter growth phase could have potential benefits for crop production. In this study, we isolated an early aging rice mutant, pe-1, with light green leaves, using γ-mutated indica rice cultivar and subsequent screening methods, which is known as the phytochrome synthesis factor Se5 that controls rice flowering. The pe-1 plant is accompanied by a decreased chlorophyll content, an enhanced photosynthesis, and a decreased pollen fertility. PE-1, a close homologue of HY1, is localized in the chloroplast. Expression pattern analysis indicated that PE-1 was mainly expressed in roots, stems, leaves, leaf sheaths, and young panicles. The knockout of PE-1 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system decreased the chlorophyll content and downregulated the expression of PE-1-related genes. Furthermore, the chloroplasts of pe-1 were filled with many large-sized starch grains, and the number of osmiophilic granules (a chloroplast lipid reservoir) was significantly decreased. Altogether, our findings suggest that PE-1 functions as a master regulator to mediate in chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic pathways.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225880

RESUMO

Rotations that include winter cover crops are widely used in agricultural systems and can provide numerous agroecological and economic benefits. However, the effects of winter cover crops on arthropod diversity, specifically rice pests and related natural enemies in rice rotation systems, are still largely unknown. We compared the effects of three winter cover crops, rapeseed, Brassica napus L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), Chinese milkvetch, Astragalus sinicus L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and garlic, Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), on arthropods species diversity and evenness, densities of populations of major rice pests and major natural enemies, and grain yield in an experimental double cropping rotational rice field in Jiangxi Province, China. We did not observe any effects of cover crops on arthropod species diversity and evenness. The presence of prior cover crops also had no effect on the number of plants infested by the two major rice pests, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Our study did not show any effects of rapeseed and Chinese milkvetch on grain yield. However, grain yield was increased in the garlic treatment. Our results suggest that although the winter cover crops we tested in our study do not affect the number of rice plants infected by major rice pests, they do not negatively affect the arthropod community and grain yields in rice rotation systems. Therefore, planting of winter cover crops may increase agricultural land utilization and have an overall economic benefit in rice rotational systems.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Hemípteros , Mariposas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Brassica rapa , Fabaceae , Fertilizantes , Alho , Larva
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 360-370, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153082

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic (As) through rice consumption potentially threatens millions of people worldwide. Understanding is still lacking the recycling impacts of rice residues on As phytoavailability in paddy soils and is of indisputable importance in providing a sustainable and effective measure to decrease As accumulation in rice grain. Herein, we examined the effects of rice husk biochar (RHB) and rice husk ash (RHA) on As grain speciation, and As dynamics in the soil porewater and solid-phase fractions. The results corroborated that both the RHB and RHA (0.64% w/w) treatments significantly (p < 0.05) decreased inorganic As accumulation in rice grain to 0.27-0.29 mg kg-1, which was below the maximum inorganic As level in husked rice (0.35 mg kg-1) established by the Codex. The residual phase (F6 = 90% of total soil As) as quantified by the sequential extraction was the dominant As pool; the fractions were subsequently transformed into several As pools associated with soluble and exchangeable (F1), organically bound (F2), Mn oxides (F3), poorly crystalline (F4) and crystalline (F5) Fe oxides during the rice growing periods. The Si-rich amendments enhanced the residual phase formation upon soil flooding, which decreased the As availability to rice plant. The inorganic grain-As concentrations were well explained by the soil-extractable As concentrations in the F2, F3, F5, and F6 fractions. The pore-water analysis indicated that Mn oxides were important sources and sinks for As released to the soil solution. Our findings shed light on the beneficial role of RHB and RHA in alleviating inorganic As uptake in paddy rice.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/química , Arsenicais/química , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 23119-23128, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183760

RESUMO

With the widespread use of metal oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), agricultural soil is gradually becoming a primary sink for MNPs. The effect of these nanoparticles on the fate and the toxicity of co-existing heavy metals is largely unknown. In this paper, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on Cd toxicity and bioaccumulation in a soil-rice system. Different amounts of ZnO-NPs were added to three different levels of Cd-contaminated paddy soil (L-Cd, 1.0 mg kg-1; M-Cd, 2.5 mg kg-1; H-Cd, 5.0 mg kg-1). The results showed that the addition of ZnO-NPs significantly increased the soil pH value, and the soil pH value increased with the increase in ZnO-NP concentration. Reductions in plant height and biomass under Cd stress were recovered and increased after the addition of ZnO-NPs; the addition of ZnO-NP promoted rice biomass increased by 13~22% and 25~43% in the M-Cd and H-Cd groups, respectively, compared with that of the respective control treatment. A high concentration of ZnO-NPs could increase the concentration of bioavailable Cd in rhizosphere soil. In the L-Cd group, the Cd concentration of the rice in the L-Z500 treatment increased to 0.51 mg kg-1, exceeding the limit for acceptable Cd concentrations in rice of China (0.2 mg kg-1). This work revealed that ZnO-NPs could improve plant growth, especially in the early-growth stage, and alleviate the toxic effects of Cd. However, the addition of high-concentration (500 mg kg-1) ZnO-NPs in the lower Cd pollution soil could significantly facilitate the accumulation of Cd by Oryza sativa L.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Biomassa , China , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Metais Pesados/química , Óxido de Zinco/química
20.
Plant Sci ; 284: 192-202, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084872

RESUMO

In rice, OsBBX14, a B-box (BBX) transcription factor, reportedly delays heading. Here, we revealed that OsBBX14 positively regulates rice photomorphogenesis. The OsBBX14-overexpressing (OsBBX14-OX) seedlings were hypersensitive to light, especially blue light, and exhibited dwarfism, while the OsBBX14 knock-out plants (osbbx14) were taller than wild-type plants under blue light. Histological analyses indicated that the observed dwarfism was mainly due to decreased cell length. Additionally, OsBBX14 abundance (mRNA and protein levels) was influenced by different light wavelengths in a time-dependent manner. The expression levels of HY5Ls (LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 LIKE) and ELIPs (EARLY LIGHT-INDUCIBLE PROTEIN) genes, whose Arabidopsis thaliana homologs function as positive regulators in the light signaling pathway, were significantly upregulated in OsBBX14-OX lines. In contrast, the expression of genes related to cell wall organization and dwarfism was downregulated in OsBBX14-OX lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that OsBBX14 binds to the T/G-box of HY5L1 (LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 LIKE 1) promoter. LUC complementation imaging (LCI) results suggested that OsBBX14 had physical interaction with OsCRY2 protein. Collectively, in response to blue light, OsBBX14 promotes photomorphogenesis, probably by directly or indirectly regulating the expression of HY5L1 or other genes related to cell wall organization and dwarfism.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tabaco , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
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