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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111054, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888616

RESUMO

Quinclorac (3,7-dichloroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid, QNC) is a highly selective auxin herbicide that is typically applied to paddy rice fields. Its residue is a serious problem in crop rotations. In this study, Oryza sativa L. seedlings was used as a model plant to explore its biochemical response to abiotic stress caused by QNC and nZVI coexposure, as well as the interactions between QNC and nZVI treatments. Exposure to 5 and 10 mg/L QNC reduced the fresh biomass by 26.6% and 33.9%, respectively, compared to the control. The presence of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the QNC toxicity, but the nZVI toxicity was aggravated by the coexist of QNC. Root length was enhanced upon exposure to low or medium doses of both QNC and nZVI, whereas root length was inhibited under high-dose coexposure. Both nZVI and QNC, either alone or in combination, significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, and the inhibition rate increased with elevated nZVI and QNC concentration. It was indicated that nZVI or QNC can affect the plant photosynthesis, and there was a significant interaction between the two treatments. Effects of QNC on the antioxidant response of Oryza sativa L. differed in the shoots and roots; generally, the introduction of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the oxidative stress (POD in shoots, SOD and MDA in roots) induced by QNC. However, 750 mg/kg nZVI seriously damaged Oryza sativa L. seedlings, which likely resulted from active iron deficiency. QNC could be removed from the culture solution by nZVI; as a result, nZVI suppressed QNC uptake by 20%-30%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111104, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791360

RESUMO

Since development of antioxidant defence system is high energy demanding event, innate defence system and stress tolerance of plant is strictly governed by plant age. This study is aimed towards evaluating variation of tolerance in germinating seeds and seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv. Swarna against nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). A comparative study of several physiological and biochemical parameters have been carried out among 2 distinct plant groups, Group I treated with variable concentrations of nZVI (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1) during germination and Group II treated with similar nZVI doses on 7th day after germination. Upon treatment with higher nZVI concentrations, Group I seedlings showed susceptibility towards oxidative stress while Group II seedlings showed tolerance against these higher doses of nZVI. Significant growth enhancement was observed upon treatment with 50-150 mg L-1 nZVI, since up-regulation of plant's endogenous antioxidant system protected relatively aged Group II seedlings from oxidative damages. Hierarchical clustering based on overall physiological, biochemical and stress parameters confirmed that in Group I seedlings 100-200 mg L-1 nZVI treatments were toxic where as in Group II seedlings 50-150 mg L-1 nZVI treatments showed growth promoting effects. This differential response is due to developmental stage related resistance in plants.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 428-432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740744

RESUMO

The accumulation of Cd and Pb in rice grains poses a potential threat to human health, which is a subject of increasing concern across the globe. We examined the effect that foliar spraying of Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) during the early-grain filling stage has on rice grain yield and Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe contents in rice tissues via a field experiment. The grain yield significantly decreased with the foliar application of 0.5% Zn-EDTA. In rice grain, foliar spraying of 0.5% Zn-EDTA significantly decreased the Cd and Pb contents, but increased the Zn and Fe contents. The main reasons for the decrease in the Cd and Pb content in grain were the inhibition of Cd and Pb by roots and the increased Fe content in grain via Zn-EDTA application. The foliar spraying of Zn-EDTA decreased the grain yield and Cd and Pb contents, while increased the Zn and Fe contents in grains.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Ácido Edético/química , Chumbo/análise , Oryza/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Zinco/análise
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110950, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800226

RESUMO

Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) through rice consumption is raising health concerns. It has long been recognized that MeHg found in rice grain predominately originated from paddy soil. Anaerobic conditions in paddy fields promote Hg methylation, potentially leading to high MeHg concentrations in rice grain. Understanding the transformation and migration of Hg in the rice paddy system, as well as the effects of farming activities, are keys to assessing risks and developing potential mitigation strategies. Therefore, this review examines the current state of knowledge on: 1) sources of Hg in paddy fields; 2) how MeHg and inorganic Hg (IHg) are transformed (including abiotic and biotic processes); 3) how IHg and MeHg enter and translocate in rice plants; and 4) how regular farming activities (including the application of fertilizer, cultivation methods, choice of cultivar), affect Hg cycling in the paddy field system. Current issues and controversies on Hg transformation and migration in the paddy field system are also discussed.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111063, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791358

RESUMO

The lipocalins genes have been assigned for involving in the responses of organisms to various stress factors. The function of lipocalins under PCB18 stress was addressed by pathway complementation in the Oryza sativa L. OsTIL-silenced mutant. The growth of wild type (WT) and OsTIL-silenced mutant (MT) callus were suppressed by PCB18, and MT varieties were inhibited more seriously than WT varieties. Meanwhile, only WT varieties showed "Hormesis" effect. Compared with WT (3 day > 90.0%, 6 day ≤45.5%), MT varieties kept high removing efficiency by HPLC analysis. Varied gene transcription after OsTIL silencing was demonstrated between two varieties, especially obvious under PCB stress. Silenced OsTIL induced more protective gene transcriptions by qPCR analysis, OsVDE at 3 day, OsCHL, OsZEP1, OsZEP2 and OsUN at 6 day and OsZEP2 at 9 day. PCB18 stress further irritated these genes transcription in MT varieties. The defense stagy in WT varieties was that the transcriptions of lipocalins were inhibited to reduce PCB18 accumulation and toxicity. OsTIL could effectively limit PCB18 accumulation and toxicity. After TIL lacking, OsCHL, OsZEP1, OsZEP2 and OsUN in mutant were strongly evoked to against PCB stress. Remarkably, OsUN and OsZEP2 gene expressions were responded to PCB18 stress in both two varieties.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Lipocalinas/genética , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 237-243, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651610

RESUMO

We assessed the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209, 0, 3 and 30 mg/kg) on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Wuyunjing) in field free-air CO2 enrichment system. Rice at elevated (580 ppm) CO2 had increased net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, shoot biomass, yield and phosphorus content in grains. However, there were no significant changes in such parameters observed on rice at elevated CO2 combined with BDE-209 (3 and 30 mg/kg). Elevated CO2 alone had no significant effects on sugar or starch content in rice grains, whereas its combination with BDE-209 (3 mg/kg) significantly decreased grain sugar and starch content. In conclusion, rice reared in soil polluted by BDE-209 under elevated CO2 modulates the effects in grain feature.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Mudança Climática , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Oryza/química , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656654

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) being a signaling molecule inside the plant cells, play significant role in signaling cascades and protection against environmental stresses. However, the protective role of NO in alleviating As toxicity in rice plants is currently not available. In the present study, the level of NO, nitrogen (N), inorganic N (nitrate, ammonium), thiols {TT (Total thiols), NPT (Nonprotein thiol)} and AAs contents along with N assimilating enzymes (NR, GDH, GOGAT) were analyzed after exposure of AsIII/NO treatment alone, and in combination. NO supplementation enhanced the content of N, inorganic N & thiol contents, NR, GOGAT activities, when compared with AsIII exposure alone. In AsIII exposed rice seedlings, content of AAs (except His, Arg, Met) reduced over the control, while supplementation of SNP improved AAs contents, compared to AsIII treatment alone. In conclusion, rice seedlings supplemented with NO tolerate the AsIII toxicity by reducing the N related parameters, thiol contents, altering the AA profile and enhanced the nutritional quality by increasing EAAs (essential amino acids) and NEAAs (non-essential amino acids).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110735, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480163

RESUMO

Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) is a plant growth regulator known for modulating plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The unavoidable arsenic (As) contamination in rice (Oryza sativa) results in reduced crop yield and greater carcinogenic risk to humans. The present work examines the significance of Me-JA induced molecular signaling and tolerance towards arsenic toxicity in rice. The arsenite (AsIII; 25 µM) stress hampered the overall growth and development of the rice seedling. However, the co-application (25 µM AsIII+0.25 µM Me-JA) resulted in increased biomass, chlorophyll content, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities as compared to AsIII treated plants. The co-application also demonstrated a marked decrease in malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and accumulation of total AsIII content (root + shoot) as compared to AsIII treated plants. The co-application also modulated the expression of genes involved in downstream JA signaling pathway (OsCOI, OsJAZ3, OsMYC2), AsIII uptake (OsLsi1, OsLsi2, OsNIP1;1, OsNIP3;1), translocation (OsLsi6, and OsINT5) and detoxification (OsNRAMP1, OsPCS2, and OsABCC2) which revealed the probable adaptive response of the rice plant to cope up arsenic stress. Our findings reveal that Me-JA alleviates AsIII toxicity by modulating signaling components involved in As uptake, translocation, and detoxification and JA signaling in rice. This study augments our knowledge for the future use of Me-JA in improving tolerance against AsIII stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594380

RESUMO

Influence of arsenic (As) in As tolerant and sensitive rice genotypes based chloroplastic pigments, leaf gas exchange attributes and their influence on carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in the present study. As retards growth of crop plants and increase several health ailments by contaminating food chain. Photosynthetic inhibition is known to be the prime target of As toxicity due to over-production of ROS. Hydroponically grown rice seedlings of twelve cultivars were exposed to 25, 50, and 75 µM arsenate (AsV) that exerted negative impact on plastidial pigments content and resulted into inhibition of Hill activity. Internal CO2 concentration lowered gradually due to interference of As with stomatal conductance and transpiration rate that subsequently led to drop in net photosynthesis. Twelve contrasting rice genotypes responded differentially to As(V) stress. Present study evaluated As tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars with respect to As(V) imposed alterations in pigments content, photosynthetic attributes along with sugar metabolism. Starch contents, the principle carbohydrate storage declined differentially among As(V) stressed test cultivars, being more pronounced in cvs. Swarnadhan, Tulaipanji, Pusa basmati, Badshabhog, Tulsibhog and IR-20 compared to cvs. Bhutmuri, Kumargore, Binni, Vijaya, TN-1 and IR-64. Therefore, the six former cultivars tried to adapt defensive mechanisms by accumulating higher levels of reducing and non-reducing sugars to carry out basal metabolism to withstand As(V) induced alterations in photosynthesis. This study could help to screen As tolerant and sensitive rice genotypes based on their photosynthetic efficiency in As polluted agricultural fields to reduce As contamination assisted ecotoxicological risk.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127135, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535432

RESUMO

Excessive cadmium (Cd) in rice grain has become a major global public health problem. Here, the effect of foliar glycerol application on Cd accumulation in brown rice was examined. Various spraying concentrations of glycerol between 0.4mM and 50mM were investigated and the results showed that 0.8 mM was the best application concentration for decreasing Cd content in brown rice. After different application period experiment, filling stage was considered as the optimal spraying time. 0.4mM-5mM glycerol application one time at the filling stage could significantly reduce Cd concentration in brown rice by 28.5%-60.4%. Cd transport factors (the ratio of brown rice and flag leaf/node) were decreased by 48.5% and 27.3%, respectively, with glycerol application. Glycerol application also significantly increased Cd concentration in soluble fraction in flag leaf while reduced inorganic Cd and water-soluble Cd in both flag leaf and stem. Our results showed foliar spraying glycerol inhibited Cd transport to brown rice through Cd compartmentalisation in the vacuole and transformation of cadmium chemical form. This study may provide a new method to effectively alleviate the problem of excessive Cd in rice.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Grão Comestível/química , Glicerol/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Agricultura/métodos , China , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110746, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450439

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a worldwide concern due to its biotoxicity. Because Cd and Fe are closely associated during plant photosynthesis, this study aims at investigating the mechanism governing Cd toxicity during photosynthetic primary reaction in rice by adjusting Fe concentration. The results show that moderate Fe concentration (1.0 g kg-1) added to soil can increase the stomatal conductance (Gs) and SPAD value by stimulating the stomatal opening and chlorophyll synthesis. Moderate Fe concentration can also improve the maximum fluorescence (Fm) and the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) to keep the high reaction center activity and electronic transfer efficiency in photosystems I and II. Thus, moderate Fe can eliminate Cd-induced decrease in Gs, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) as well as the disorder of antioxidative system under Cd concentration of 2.0 mg kg-1 in the soil. When its application is increased to 2.0 g kg-1, Fe can notably decrease Pn, and result in remarkable decrease in the biomass of shoots and grains. Decrease in Pn can be mainly attributed to high Fe concentration which can greatly destroy chloroplast structure and, meanwhile, inhibit the electron transfer between acceptor and donator in photosynthetic chain especially from quinone A (QA) to quinone B (QB). Unlike the situation under moderate Fe concentration, the high Fe application cannot mitigate the Cd-induced decrease in photosynthetic index. Our results indicate that the moderate Fe application is necessary to promote rice performance and production and, in the meantime, to inhibit Cd toxicity in the extensively polluted soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Ferro/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12017-12028, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434917

RESUMO

Synthetic chemical elicitors, so called plant strengtheners, can protect plants from pests and pathogens. Most plant strengtheners act by modifying defense signaling pathways, and little is known about other mechanisms by which they may increase plant resistance. Moreover, whether plant strengtheners that enhance insect resistance actually enhance crop yields is often unclear. Here, we uncover how a mechanism by which 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FPA) protects cereals from piercing-sucking insects and thereby increases rice yield in the field. Four-FPA does not stimulate hormonal signaling, but modulates the production of peroxidases, H2O2, and flavonoids and directly triggers the formation of flavonoid polymers. The increased deposition of phenolic polymers in rice parenchyma cells of 4-FPA-treated plants is associated with a decreased capacity of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera to reach the plant phloem. We demonstrate that application of 4-PFA in the field enhances rice yield by reducing the abundance of, and damage caused by, insect pests. We demonstrate that 4-FPA also increases the resistance of other major cereals such as wheat and barley to piercing-sucking insect pests. This study unravels a mode of action by which plant strengtheners can suppress herbivores and increase crop yield. We postulate that this represents a conserved defense mechanism of plants against piercing-sucking insect pests, at least in cereals.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides , Hemípteros , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/análise , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353678

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) has signalling roles in plant stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) soil pollutants alter plant development, mainly the root-system, by increasing NO-content, triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), and forming peroxynitrite by NO-reaction with the superoxide anion. Interactions of NO with ROS and peroxynitrite seem important for plant tolerance to heavy metal(oid)s, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Our goal was to investigate NO-involvement in rice (Oryza sativa L.) root-system after exposure to Cd or As, to highlight possible differences in NO-behaviour between the two pollutants. To the aim, morpho-histological, chemical and epifluorescence analyses were carried out on roots of different origin in the root-system, under exposure to Cd or As, combined or not with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO-donor compound. Results show that increased intracellular NO levels alleviate the root-system alterations induced by Cd, i.e., inhibition of adventitious root elongation and lateral root formation, increment in lignin deposition in the sclerenchyma/endodermis cell-walls, but, even if reducing As-induced endodermis lignification, do not recover the majority of the As-damages, i.e., enhancement of AR-elongation, reduction of LR-formation, anomalous tissue-proliferation. However, NO decreases both Cd and As uptake, without affecting the pollutants translocation-capability from roots to shoots. Moreover, NO reduces the Cd-induced, but not the As-induced, ROS levels by triggering peroxynitrite production. Altogether, results highlight a different behaviour of NO in modulating rice root-system response to the toxicity of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, which depends by the NO-interaction with the specific pollutant.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Cádmio , Óxido Nítrico , Oryza , Raízes de Plantas , Arsênico/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 770-777, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328666

RESUMO

The increasing utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) and their release into the environment has made it imperative to elucidate their impact on the ecological system including plants. However, their potential toxic impact and mechanisms on plant growth are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CuO NPs and released Cu ions on seed germination and early seedling growth, as well as physiological and biochemical parameters of Oryza sativa. The results showed that CuO NPs at high concentration significantly inhibited seed germination and early seedling growth. The toxicity of CuO NPs originated from the particulate NPs rather than the released Cu2+. The phytotoxicity of CuO NPs to rice seed germination and seedling growth probably induced by high Cu accumulation along with the lignification and oxidative damage. The work presented here will increase our knowledge of phytotoxicity of CuO NPs.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Cobre/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lignina/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110525, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224370

RESUMO

Fragrant rice is a high-valued quality rice type which is gaining much popularity over the globe due to its better cooking qualities and special aromatic characteristics. Selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) could improve the growth and yield of rice; however, the combine effects of Se and Si (Se-Si treatments) on rice grain quality, aroma and lodging in fragrant rice were rarely investigated. The pot and field experiments were conducted with two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Xiangyaxiangzhan and Yuxiangyouzhan, grown under three Se levels i.e., 0, 120, and 240 mg kg-1 of soil (for pot experiment) and 0, 300, and 600 kg ha-1 (for field experiment) regarded as LSe, MSe and HSe, respectively and two Si levels i.e., 0 and 60 mg kg-1 of soil (for pot experiment) and 0 and 150 kg ha-1 (for field experiment) regarded as -Si and +Si, respectively. Results depicted that the Se-Si treatments regulated head rice yield, grain yield and yield related traits and the HSe+Si treatment sustainably improved the grain yield and head rice yield by regulating plant growth, antioxidant response and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in fragrant rice. The Se-Si treatments also improved the grain 2AP contents owing to regulation in the proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents. Besides, Se-Si treatments also regulated the grain quality attributes and influenced the plant Se contents. Moreover, the Si mitigated Se-induced lodging resulted from changes in the lodging parameters i.e., lodging index, fresh weight per tiller, pushing resistance force, plant height and bending moment. Overall, the Se and Si application improved the grain yield and regulated the dry weight accumulation, antioxidant attributes and quality attributes. Meanwhile, the Si application mitigated the negative effect of Se-induced lodging in fragrant rice.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Odorantes/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malondialdeído/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prolina/análise , Pirróis/análise , Solo/química
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 429-437, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289636

RESUMO

Potassium (K+) has been reported to alleviate ammonium (NH4+) toxicity in rice through some underlying mechanisms, but it still not clear. In addition, K+ is an important cation for activation of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase activity. Here, we hypothesized that K+ alleviated NH4+ toxicity by mediating PM H+-ATPase function in rice root. In this study, rice plants were cultivated in hydroponic solution with various concentrations of K+ and NH4+. By concurrently supplying K+ with NH4+ or re-supplying K+ after NH4+ toxicity, we found that high K+ concentration reduced the NH4+ uptake rate, enhanced the H+ extrusion rate by the roots, and alleviated rice NH4+ toxicity. The gene expression levels of PM H+-ATPase members (OsA1, 3, 7, 8, and 9) were upregulated by application of increasing concentrations of K+ under NH4+ toxicity. The PM H+-ATPase activity and protein expression in rice roots were also enhanced. Furthermore, the enhancement of PM H+-ATPase activity by a specific stimulator (fusicoccin) rescued rice seedlings from NH4+ toxicity. Taken together, these results indicate that K+ can alleviate NH4+ toxicity, possibly by activating PM H+-ATPase to extrude more H+ and inhibit NH4+ uptake by root. Our results may enhance understanding of the strategy of applying K+ fertilizer to mitigate crop NH4+ toxicity in agriculture.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Oryza , Potássio , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/toxicidade , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Potássio/farmacologia , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126337, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135442

RESUMO

Nitrate reductase is a nitric oxide (NO) induced enzyme in plants, NO acts as a signaling molecule under ZnO NPs-induced stress whereas melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) could improve morpho-physiological attributes of plants under adverse conditions. In present study, seedlings of two rice genotypes differed regarding nitrate reductase activities i.e., transgenic 'NR' and wild type 'WT' were applied with two melatonin levels i.e., 0, 10 µΜ regarded as M0, M10, respectively and three levels of ZnO NPs i.e., 0, 50, 500 mg L-1 regarded as ZnO NPs0, ZnO NPs50 and ZnO NPs500, respectively. Results revealed that melatonin application substantially increased the dry biomass accumulation of both rice genotypes under all ZnO NPs levels. The root growth, mineral absorption as well as the antioxidant responses were also improved by melatonin application under ZnO NPs stress. The interactive effects of melatonin and genotype on plant growth, antioxidant responses and mineral contents i.e., Zn, Na, Fe and Mn were also found significant under different ZnO NPs stress. Furthermore, total plant dry weight was significantly correlated with the leaf dry weight, root volume, catalase (CAT) activity in leaves, Na accumulation in stem sheath and Fe accumulation in root under both M0 and M10 treatments. Moreover, the comparative transcriptome analysis identified key genes which were responsible for melatonin and NO-induced modulations in plant growth under ZnO NPs stress. Overall, melatonin could improve the morphological growth of the rice plants by modulating root-shoot characteristics, antioxidant activities and mineral uptake in root and shoot of rice.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Genótipo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110480, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203774

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is a serious threat for environment and human health. Rice, the main staple crop is more prone to As uptake. Bioremediation strategies with heavy metal tolerant rhizobacteria are well known. The main objective of the study was to characterize arsenic-resistant yeast strains, capable of mitigating arsenic stress in rice. Three yeast strains identified as Debaryomyces hansenii (NBRI-Sh2.11), Candida tropicalis (NBRI-B3.4) and Candida dubliniensis (NBRI-3.5) were found to have As reductase activity. D. hansenii with higher As tolerance has As expulsion ability as compared to other two strains. Inoculation of D. hansenii showed improved detoxification through scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the modulation of SOD and APX activity under As stress condition in rice. Modulation of defense responsive gene (NADPH, GST, GR) along with arsR and metal cation transporter are the probable mechanism of As detoxification as evident with improved membrane (electrolyte leakage) stability. Reduced grain As (~40% reduction) due to interaction with D. hansenii (NBRI-Sh2.11) further validated it's As mitigation property in rice. To the best of our knowledge D. hansenii has been reported for the first time for arsenic stress mitigation in rice with improved growth and nutrient status of the plant.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Debaromyces/enzimologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Inoculantes Agrícolas , Arseniato Redutases/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Candida/enzimologia , Debaromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Debaromyces/genética , Debaromyces/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110471, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203773

RESUMO

Rice is the most consumed food crop and essential determinant in global food security program. Currently, arsenic (As) accumulation in rice is a critical concern in terms of both crop productivity and grain quality; therefore, it is an urgent need to reduce As accumulation. Here, we selected a glutaredoxin (OsGrx_C7) gene that plays an essential role in AsIII tolerance in rice. To explore the mechanism, we raised OsGrx_C7 overexpression (OE) rice lines, which showed improved plant AsIII tolerance and lowered its accumulation in grains. Arsenic accumulation in husk, unpolished, and polished rice reduced by ca. 65%, 67%, and 85%, respectively, in OE lines, compared to wild-type (WT) plants. To know the rationale, expression of AsIII transporters (aquaporins) in root and shoot tissues were examined, and revealed that OsGrx_C7 regulates the expression of these genes, which ultimately reduces root to shoot AsIII translocation. Additionally, OsGrx_C7 improves root growth by regulating the expression of oxidative stress-induced root expansion related genes, promote root growth and plant health. Overall, current study suggested that AsIII induced OsGrx_C7 markedly enhanced tolerance to AsIII with reduced accumulation in grains by regulating root expansion and controlling root to shoot As transport by altered expression of AsIII aquaporins.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Glutarredoxinas/genética , Oryza/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arsênico/farmacocinética , Arsênico/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146281

RESUMO

Root water uptake is strongly influenced by the morphology and anatomical structure of roots, which are regulated by nitrogen forms and environmental stimuli. To further illustrate the roles of different nitrogen forms on root water uptake under osmotic stress, a split-root system was supplied with different nitrogen forms and osmotic stress simulated by adding 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000). The local effects of nitrogen form and osmotic stress on root morphology, anatomical structure, root lignin content, and water uptake rate were investigated. Under osmotic stress conditions, ammonium markedly promoted the formation and elongation of the lateral root, whereas a significant decrease in numbers of lateral roots was observed under local nitrate supply. Under nitrate supply in split-root systems, osmotic stress significantly promoted root cell death and more aerenchyma formation, as well as accelerated the lignification of the root. However, osmotic stress had no negative effect on the root anatomical structure under ammonium supply. The root water uptake rate was significantly higher in split-root supplied with ammonium than nitrate under osmotic stress conditions. In conclusion, the high water uptake ability in local ammonium supply was associated with the more lateral roots development and the lower cell death, aerenchyma formation and lignification under osmotic stress.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Oryza , Pressão Osmótica , Raízes de Plantas , Água , Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo
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