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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 133926, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007446

RESUMO

Pigmented rice, particularly black rice, has attracted widespread global interest due to its high nutritional value. To obtain a better understanding of differential metabolites between pigmented rice and white rice, we used a widely-targeted metabolomics-based approach to investigate the metabolite profiling of black, red, glutinous, and common white rice. In total, 732 metabolites were identified, of which 281, 305, 241, 267, and 265 differential metabolites were screened by comparing the following group: glutinous/white vs black, glutinous/white vs red, and red vs black. Venn diagram demonstrated that 69 metabolites were shared between pigmented and non-pigmented rice, and 117 between glutinous/white/red vs black. Additionally, metabolic pathways analysis of differential metabolites in glutinous/white/red vs black revealed that the flavonoid biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis are differential enrichment metabolic pathways. As such, identifying these different metabolites contribute to a better understanding of the function and nutritional value of various rice strains.


Assuntos
Oryza , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120603, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343858

RESUMO

Polystyrene microplastics (PS) are decomposed very slowly due to their recalcitrance and inevitably interact with the changing climate. How the interaction between PS and increasing CO2 concentration affects the plant-soil system is rarely investigated. Here, a free-air CO2 enrichment system in farm fields was used to study the impacts of PS added to soil at 10 mg kg-1 on rice and soil bacterial communities at different CO2 levels (ambient∼390 ppm and elevated∼590 ppm). Results showed that single PS interfered with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake of rice, and it increased the abundances of bacteria taxa assigned to N turnover and urease activities, leading to altered soil N transformation and availability. Elevated CO2 alone enhanced rice photosynthesis, decreased the abundances of nitrogen-fixation bacteria, and induced co-occurrence patterns between bacteria simplified and decentralized. Combined PS and elevated CO2 significantly decreased rice stomatal conductance and transpiration rate by 56.70% and 29.46%, respectively, and further inhibited elements uptake. Besides, combined exposure significantly disturbed bacterial amino acid metabolism, and stimulated the adaptative responses of resistant bacteria. Overall, this study revealed that increasing CO2 concentrations may exacerbate the impacts of PS on rice performance and soil bacterial communities, providing new insights into the interaction between microplastics and climate change.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Microplásticos , Poliestirenos/farmacologia , Plásticos/farmacologia
3.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116432, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274337

RESUMO

Maintaining humidification and inhibiting nitrogen losses during vermicomposting process have emerged to be key factors for high-quality productions. Previous data have showed outstanding functions of biochar addition in improving vermicomposting quality. In this study, the influence of bamboo biochar (BB) and rice husk biochar (RHB) addition on compost maturity, humification and nitrogen loss was evaluated in the vermicomposting of cattle manure and maize straw. Results revealed that BB or RHB amendment improved organic matter decomposition, enhanced humification and maturity of compost, particularly in the 10% BB treatment, which exerted the highest humic acids content and GI value. Furthermore, BB or RHB addition significantly reduced nitrogen losses, in which the volatilization of NH3 and N2O were reduced by 24.93%-66.23% and 14.91%-55.12%. The fewest nitrogen loss was detected in the treatment of 10% BB. Biochar inhibited nirK, nirS but promoted AOB-amoA, nosZ expression; fewer N2O producing bacteria (Pseudomonas, Devosia, Luteimonas genus) were observed in the biochar treatment, and thereby decreased the N2O emission. Therefore, 10% BB addition for co-vermicomposting cattle manure and maize straw is an efficient way to increase humification, maturity, and reduce nitrogen loss, and future applications following this strategy is believed to generate better productions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Sasa , Bovinos , Animais , Esterco , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Oryza/metabolismo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159826, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374729

RESUMO

Food safety problems caused by pesticide residues have always been a concern for many people. In this study, we investigated the uptake, translocation and subcellular distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides, triazole fungicides, and sulfonylurea herbicides in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The time-dependent uptake kinetics of the three categories of pesticides with different molecular structures fit a first-order one-compartment kinetic model. The neonicotinoids (log Kow -0.66-0.8) were mainly concentrated in the leaves, and the triazoles (log Kow 3.72-4.4) were mainly concentrated in the roots. Neonicotinoid pesticides in the roots were preferentially transported across the membrane through the symplastic pathway; triazole pesticides except for triadimefon and myclobutanil preferentially passed through the symplastic pathway; and sulfonylurea pesticides (log Kow 0.034-2.89) were first transported upward through the apoplastic pathway. In the roots, neonicotinoids, triazoles, and sulfonylurea herbicides were mainly concentrated in the soluble fractions, cell wall and apoplast fractions, respectively. In addition, there was a high positive correlation between the subcellular distribution of pesticides in the roots, stems and leaves. Molecular weight and log Kow jointly affected the enrichment of triazole pesticides in the roots, stems and leaves and the transfer from stems to leaves, while water solubility and log Kow commonly affected neonicotinoids. There was a correlation between pesticide absorption and the molecular structures of pesticides. To develop pesticides with strong uptake and transport capabilities, it is necessary to consider that the electronegativity of some atoms is stronger, the sum of the topological indices of heteroatoms can be large, and the van der Waals volume increases accordingly.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Oryza , Praguicidas , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Cinética , Neonicotinoides , Herbicidas/análise , Triazóis/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134709, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323041

RESUMO

This study aimed to improve γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and sensory characteristics of brown rice (BR) cake by static magnetic field (SMF)-assisted germination. BR was pre-treated by SMF (10 mT, 60 min, 25 °C), germinated for 36 h, and then germinated BR (GBR) was used to prepare rice cake. The optimal formula was: 60 % GBR, 40 % white rice, 1 % yeast, 20 % sugar, and 55 % water. SMF significantly increased the GABA content by stimulating glutamate decarboxylase, with the values increasing from 28.17 to 32.43 mg/100 g and from 2.50 to 6.27 mg/100 g in GBR (36 h) and GBR cake, respectively. SMF also altered the swelling power and water solubility of GBR flour by promoting the hydrolysis of starch, protein, and fiber, thus improving the texture, flavor, and storage stability of GBR cake. Overall, SMF could be a prospective technique for improving the nutritional and sensory qualities of whole-grain food.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Campos Magnéticos , Germinação
6.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134574, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252372

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of vinegar treatment on the antioxidant and structural properties of whole egg proteins were investigated. The results showed that the degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of vinegar-treated egg liquid (VE) and digested VE (DVE) increased after vinegar addition. A similar trend was also found for the antioxidant activity of DVE but not for that of VE. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that vinegar treatment increased the gastrointestinal hydrolysis of whole egg protein compared with that of digested egg liquid (DEL) protein, which was in agreement with the free amino acid content results. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis results indicated that proteins from VE1:3 tended to form ß-sheet structures, whereas proteins from DVE1:3 accumulated α-helices and turns. Vinegar treatment has great potential as a nonthermal processing method for promoting gastrointestinal digestion and producing superior antioxidant peptides.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Oryza , Antioxidantes/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Ácido Acético , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Digestão
7.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104745, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220543

RESUMO

Grain length is one of the most important rice grain appearance components. To better understand the protein regulated by grain length in indica rice, the tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling combined with LC-MS/MS analysis was used for quantitative identification of differentially regulated proteins by comparing six long-grain cultivars (MeiB, LongfengB, YexiangB, FengtianB, WantaiB, and DingxiangB) to the short-grain cultivar BoB, respectively. A total of 6622 proteins were detected for quantitative analysis by comparing protein content of six long-grain cultivars to the short-grain cultivar, and 715 proteins were significantly regulated, consisting of 336 uniquely over-accumulated proteins and 355 uniquely down-accumulated proteins. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that most of accumulated proteins are involved in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Four down-accumulated proteins maybe involved in the signaling pathways for grain length regulation. LC-PRM/MS quantitative analysis was used to analyze 10 differentially expressed proteins. The results were almost consistent with the TMT quantitative analysis. qRT-PCR analysis results showed that the transcription level was not always parallel to the protein content. This study identified many novel grain length accumulated proteins through the quantitative proteomics approach, providing candidate genes for further study of grain size regulatory mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE: Rice grain length is one of the most important characteristics influencing appearance and yield. Six long-grain cultivars (MeiB, LongfengB, YexiangB, FengtianB, WantaiB, and DingxiangB obtained in Guangxi province of China from the 2000s to 2020s) and one short-grain cultivar (BoB obtained in Guangxi province of China in 1980s) were used for comparative analyses. Totally, 715 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified using TMT-base proteomic analysis. The numbers of DEPs increased as the grain length increased. 4 DEPs may be related to rice's signaling pathways for grain size regulation. A total of 85 DEPs regulated in at least four long-grain cultivars compared with the short-grain cultivar BoB, and 7 proteins were over-accumulated, and 3 proteins were down-accumulated in six long-grain cultivars. These findings provide valuable information to better understand the mechanisms of protein regulation by grain length in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , China , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Gene ; 850: 146905, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181988

RESUMO

The CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) is a multi-functional protein complex, which is involved in plant growth and abiotic stress response. However, the evolution and function of the CSN genes in land plants are still largely unclear. Here, we have identified 124 CSN genes and constructed phylogenetic trees of these CSN proteins to elucidate their feature and evolution in twelve land plants. Analysis of gene structure, protein property and protein motif composition shows the evolutional conservation and variation of the CSN proteins in land plants. These CSN genes might evolve through whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental duplication (SD) and tandem duplication (TD). Analysis of promoter cis-elements shows that the CSN genes are implicated in diverse biological processes and different signaling pathways. RT-qPCR indicates that the transcript abundance of the OsCSN genes is up-regulated or down-regulated in response to abiotic stress and treatment with various hormones in rice. These results provide new insights into the CSN gene evolution and its possible function in land plants.


Assuntos
Embriófitas , Oryza , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Embriófitas/metabolismo , Hormônios
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130186, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265381

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are macromolecules with environment beneficial properties. Currently, numerous studies focus on the absorption of heavy metals by EPS, but less attention has been paid to the effects of EPS on the plants. This study explored the effects of EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum LPC-1 on the structure and function of cell walls in rice seedling roots under cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that EPS could regulate the remodeling process of the cell walls of rice roots. EPS affects the synthesis efficiency and the content of the substances that made up the cell wall, and thus plays an essential role in limiting the uptake and transport of Cd in rice root. Furthermore, EPS could induce plant resistance to heavy metals by regulating the lignin biosynthesis pathway in rice roots. Finally, the cell wall remodeling induced by EPS likely contributes to plant stress responses by activating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137073, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332733

RESUMO

Runoff loss of nitrogen from paddy fields has received increasing attention in recent years. Duckweed is an aquatic plant frequently found in paddy fields. In this study, the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) in floodwater on aqueous nitrogen losses from paddy fields were systematically investigated. Results demonstrated that the growth of duckweed decreased total nitrogen concentrations in floodwater and nitrogen runoff loss from paddy fields by 16.7%-18.3% and 11.2%-13.6%, respectively. Moreover, compared with NO3-, NH4+ was preferentially removed by duckweed. 15N isotope tracer experiments revealed that the growth and decomposition of duckweed acted as a "buffer" against the nitrogen variation in floodwater after fertilization. During the growth of duckweed, leaves were found to be the principal organ to assimilate NH4+ and release NO3- by using non-invasive micro-test technology. Duckweed degradation increased the content of hydrophobic acids and marine humic-like substances in floodwater, which promoted the migration of nitrogen from floodwater to soil. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models further illustrated that pH and temperature variation in floodwater caused by duckweed played a greater role in aqueous nitrogen loss reduction than the nitrogen accumulation in duckweed. This study suggested that the growth of duckweed in paddy fields was an effective supplementary method for controlling aqueous nitrogen loss during agricultural production.


Assuntos
Araceae , Oryza , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Araceae/metabolismo , Água/química , Fertilização
11.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eadc9785, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417515

RESUMO

Climate change negatively affects crop yield, which hinders efforts to reach agricultural sustainability and food security. Here, we show that a previously unidentified allele of the nitrate transporter gene OsNRT2.3 is required to maintain high yield and high nitrogen use efficiency under high temperatures. We demonstrate that this tolerance to high temperatures in rice accessions harboring the HTNE-2 (high temperature resistant and nitrogen efficient-2) alleles from enhanced translation of the OsNRT2.3b mRNA isoform and the decreased abundance of a unique small RNA (sNRT2.3-1) derived from the 5' untranslated region of OsNRT2.3. sNRT2.3-1 binds to the OsNRT2.3a mRNA in a temperature-dependent manner. Our findings reveal that allelic variation in the 5' untranslated region of OsNRT2.3 leads to an increase in OsNRT2.3b protein levels and higher yield during high-temperature stress. Our results also provide a breeding strategy to produce rice varieties with higher grain yield and lower N fertilizer input suitable for a sustainable agriculture that is resilient against climate change.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions , Oryza , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Alelos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Nitratos/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362450

RESUMO

Rice is an important food crop all over the world. It can be infected by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, which results in a significant reduction in rice yield. The infection mechanism of M. oryzae has been an academic focus for a long time. It has been found that G protein, AMPK, cAMP-PKA, and MPS1-MAPK pathways play different roles in the infection process. Recently, the function of TOR signaling in regulating cell growth and autophagy by receiving nutritional signals generated by plant pathogenic fungi has been demonstrated, but its regulatory mechanism in response to the nutritional signals remains unclear. In this study, a yeast amino acid permease homologue MoGap1 was identified and a knockout mutant of MoGap1 was successfully obtained. Through a phenotypic analysis, a stress analysis, autophagy flux detection, and a TOR activity analysis, we found that the deletion of MoGap1 led to a sporulation reduction as well as increased sensitivity to cell wall stress and carbon source stress in M. oryzae. The ΔMogap1 mutant showed high sensitivity to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. A Western blot analysis further confirmed that the TOR activity significantly decreased, which improved the level of autophagy. The results suggested that MoGap1, as an upstream regulator of TOR signaling, regulated autophagy and responded to adversities such as cell wall stress by regulating the TOR activity.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430147

RESUMO

The mobilization and translocation of carbohydrates and mineral nutrients from vegetative plant parts to grains are pivotal for grain filling, often involving a whole plant senescence process. Loss of greenness is a hallmark of leaf senescence. However, the relationship between crop yield and senescence has been controversial for many years. Here, in this study, the overexpression and RNA interference lines of gene of OsNYC3 (Non-Yellow Coloring 3), a chlorophyll catabolism gene, were investigated. Furthermore, exogenous phytohormones were applied, and a treatment of alternate wetting and moderate drying (AWMD) was introduced to regulate the processes of leaf senescence. The results indicated that the delayed senescence of the "STAY-GREEN" trait of rice is undesirable for the process of grain filling, and it would cause a lower ratio of grain filling and lower grain weight of inferior grains, because of unused assimilates in the stems and leaves. Through the overexpression of OsNYC3, application of exogenous chemicals of abscisic acid (ABA), and water management of AWMD, leaf photosynthesis was less influenced, a high ratio of carbohydrate assimilates was partitioned to grains other than leaves and stems as labeled by 13C, grain filling was improved, especially for inferior spikelets, and activities of starch-synthesizing enzymes were enhanced. However, application of ethephon not only accelerated leaf senescence, but also caused seed abortion and grain weight reduction. Thus, plant senescence needs to be finely adjusted in order to make a contribution to crop productivity.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430648

RESUMO

Drought is a misfortune for agriculture and human beings. The annual crop yield reduction caused by drought exceeds the sum of all pathogens. As one of the gatekeepers of China's "granary", rice is the most important to reveal the key drought tolerance factors in rice. Rice seedlings of Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica) were subjected to simulated drought stress, and their root systems were analyzed for the non-targeted metabolome and strand-specific transcriptome. We found that both DEGs and metabolites were enriched in purine metabolism, and allantoin accumulated significantly in roots under drought stress. However, few studies on drought tolerance of exogenous allantoin in rice have been reported. We aimed to further determine whether allantoin can improve the drought tolerance of rice. Under the treatment of exogenous allantoin at different concentrations, the drought resistant metabolites of plants accumulated significantly, including proline and soluble sugar, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) decreased and reached a significant level in 100 µmol L-1. To this end, a follow-up study was identified in 100 µmol L-1 exogenous allantoin and found that exogenous allantoin improved the drought resistance of rice. At the gene level, under allantoin drought treatment, we found that genes of scavenge reactive oxygen species were significantly expressed, including peroxidase (POD), catalase (CATA), ascorbate peroxidase 8 (APX8) and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein F (RbohF). This indicates that plants treated by allantoin have better ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species to resist drought. Alternative splicing analysis revealed a total of 427 differentially expressed alternative splicing events across 320 genes. The analysis of splicing factors showed that gene alternative splicing could be divided into many different subgroups and play a regulatory role in many aspects. Through further analysis, we restated the key genes and enzymes in the allantoin synthesis and catabolism pathway, and found that the expression of synthetase and hydrolase showed a downward trend. The pathway of uric acid to allantoin is completed by uric acid oxidase (UOX). To find out the key transcription factors that regulate the expression of this gene, we identified two highly related transcription factors OsERF059 and ONAC007 through correlation analysis. They may be the key for allantoin to enhance the drought resistance of rice.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Oryza , Estresse Fisiológico , Humanos , Alantoína/metabolismo , Alantoína/farmacologia , Seguimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/genética
15.
J Adv Res ; 41: 179-190, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cereal crops are a major source of raw food and nutrition for humans worldwide. Inflorescence of cereal crops is their reproductive organ, which also contributes to crop productivity. The branching pattern in flowering plant species not only determines inflorescence architecture but also determines the grain yield. There are good reviews describing the grass inflorescence architecture contributing to the final grain yield. However, very few discuss the aspects of inflorescence branching. AIM OF REVIEW: This review aimed at systematically and comprehensively summarizing the latest progress in the field of conservation and divergence of genetic regulatory network that controls inflorescence branching in maize and rice, provide strategies to efficiently utilize the achievements in reproductive branching for crop yield improvement, and suggest a potential regulatory network underlying the inflorescence branching and vegetative branching system. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: Inflorescence branching is the consequence of a series of developmental events including the initiation, outgrowth, determinacy, and identity of reproductive axillary meristems, and it is controlled by a complex functional hierarchy of genetic networks. Initially, we compared the inflorescence architecture of maize and rice; then, we reviewed the genetic regulatory pathways controlling the inflorescence meristem size, bud initiation, and outgrowth, and the key transition steps that shape the inflorescence branching in maize and rice; additionally, we summarized strategies to effectively apply the recent advances in inflorescence branching for crop yield improvement. Finally, we discussed how the newly discovered hormones coordinate the regulation of inflorescence branching and yield traits. Furthermore, we discussed the possible reason behind distinct regulatory pathways for vegetative and inflorescence branching.


Assuntos
Oryza , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430382

RESUMO

Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is a master enzyme involved in various plant physiological processes, such as stomatal movements in leaves and nutrient uptake and transport in roots. Overexpression of Oryza sativa PM H+-ATPase 1 (OSA1) has been known to increase NH4+ uptake in rice roots. Although electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments have shown that the transport of many substances is dependent on the proton motive force provided by PM H+-ATPase, the exact role of PM H+-ATPase on the uptake of nutrients in plant roots, especially for the primary macronutrients N, P, and K, is still largely unknown. Here, we used OSA1 overexpression lines (OSA1-oxs) and gene-knockout osa1 mutants to investigate the effect of modulation of PM H+-ATPase on the absorption of N, P, and K nutrients through the use of a nutrient-exhaustive method and noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) in rice roots. Our results showed that under different concentrations of P and K, the uptake rates of P and K were enhanced in OSA1-oxs; by contrast, the uptake rates of P and K were significantly reduced in roots of osa1 mutants when compared with wild-type. In addition, the net influx rates of NH4+ and K+, as well as the efflux rate of H+, were enhanced in OSA1-oxs and suppressed in osa1 mutants under low concentration conditions. In summary, this study indicated that overexpression of OSA1 stimulated the uptake rate of N, P, and K and promoted flux rates of cations (i.e., H+, NH4+, and K+) in rice roots. These results may provide a novel insight into improving the coordinated utilization of macronutrients in crop plants.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/genética , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Nutrientes
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430436

RESUMO

INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) proteins, a family of transcription factors unique to plants, function in multiple developmental processes. Although the IDD gene family has been identified in many plants, little is known about it in moso bamboo. In this present study, we identified 32 PheIDD family genes in moso bamboo and randomly sequenced the full-length open reading frames (ORFs) of ten PheIDDs. All PheIDDs shared a highly conserved IDD domain that contained two canonical C2H2-ZFs, two C2HC-ZFs, and a nuclear localization signal. Collinearity analysis showed that segmental duplication events played an important role in expansion of the PheIDD gene family. Synteny analysis indicated that 30 PheIDD genes were orthologous to those of rice (Oryza sativa). Thirty PheIDDs were expressed at low levels, and most PheIDDs exhibited characteristic organ-specific expression patterns. Despite their diverse expression patterns in response to exogenous plant hormones, 8 and 22 PheIDDs responded rapidly to IAA and 6-BA treatments, respectively. The expression levels of 23 PheIDDs were closely related to the outgrowth of aboveground branches and 20 PheIDDs were closely related to the awakening of underground dormant buds. In addition, we found that the PheIDD21 gene generated two products by alternative splicing. Both isoforms interacted with PheDELLA and PheSCL3. Furthermore, both isoforms could bind to the cis-elements of three genes (PH02Gene17121, PH02Gene35441, PH02Gene11386). Taken together, our work provides valuable information for studying the molecular breeding mechanism of lateral organ development in moso bamboo.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430507

RESUMO

Rice blast is a worldwide fungal disease that seriously affects the yield and quality of rice. Identification of resistance genes against rice blast disease is one of the effective ways to control this disease. However, panicle blast resistance genes, which are useful in the fields, have rarely been studied due to the difficulty in phenotypic identification and the environmental influences. Here, panicle blast resistance-3 (Pb3) was identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on the panicle blast resistance phenotypes of 230 Rice Diversity Panel I (RDP-I) accessions with 700,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A total of 16 panicle blast resistance loci (PBRLs) within three years including one repeated locus PBRL3 located in chromosome 11 were identified. In addition, 7 genes in PBRL3 were identified as candidate genes by haplotype analysis, which showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties. Among them, one nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) gene Pb3 was highly conserved in multiple resistant rice cultivars, and its expression was significantly induced after rice blast inoculation. Evolutionary analysis showed that Pb3 was a typical disease resistance gene containing coiled-coil, NB-ARC, and LRR domains. T-DNA insertion mutants and CRISPR lines of Pb3 showed significantly reduced panicle blast resistance. These results indicate that Pb3 is a panicle blast resistance gene and GWAS is a rapid method for identifying panicle blast resistance in rice.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas NLR/genética , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430523

RESUMO

Water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR) has high a yield potential in drought. However, the photosynthetic adaptation mechanisms of WDR to drought and rehydration have yet to be conclusively determined. Hanyou 73 (HY73, WDR) and Huanghuazhan (HHZ, drought-sensitive cultivar) rice cultivars were subjected to drought stress and rewatering when the soil water potential was -180 KPa in the booting stage. The leaf physiological characteristics were dynamically determined at 0 KPa, -30 KPa, -70 KPa, -180 KPa, the first, the fifth, and the tenth day after rewatering. It was found that the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax) and light saturation point were decreased under drought conditions in both cultivars. The change in dark respiration rate (Rd) in HY73 was not significant, but was markedly different in HHZ. After rewatering, the photosynthetic parameters of HY73 completely returned to the initial state, while the indices in HHZ did not recover. The antioxidant enzyme activities and osmoregulatory substance levels increased with worsening drought conditions and decreased with rewatering duration. HY73 had higher peroxidase (POD) activity as well as proline levels, and lower catalase (CAT) activity, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and soluble protein (SP) content during all of the assessment periods compared with HHZ. In addition, Amax was markedly negatively correlated with superoxide dismutase (SOD), POD, CAT, and SP in HY73 (p < 0.001), while in HHZ, it was negatively correlated with SOD, CAT, APX, MDA, Pro, and SP, and positively correlated with Rd (p < 0.001). These results suggest that WDR has a more simplified adaptation mechanism to protect photosynthetic apparatus from damage in drought and rehydration compared with drought-sensitive cultivars. The high POD activity and great SP content would be considered as important physiological bases to maintain high photosynthetic production potential in WDR.


Assuntos
Secas , Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Água , Adaptação Fisiológica , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430574

RESUMO

Starch is the primary storage carbohydrate in mature pollen grains in many crop plants, including rice. Impaired starch accumulation causes male sterility because of the shortage of energy and building blocks for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Thus, starch-defective pollen is applicable for inducing male sterility and hybrid rice production. Despite the importance of pollen starch, the details of the starch biosynthesis and breakdown pathway in pollen are still largely unknown. As pollen is isolated from the maternal tissue, photoassimilate transported from leaves must pass through the apoplastic space from the anther to the filial pollen, where it is stored as starch. Several sugar transporters and enzymes are involved in this process, but many are still unknown. Thus, the current review provides possible scenarios for sucrose transport and metabolic pathways that lead to starch biosynthesis and breakdown in rice pollen.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Oryza , Masculino , Humanos , Oryza/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo
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