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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126881, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957288

RESUMO

Application of biochar (BC) derived from rice straw has generated increasing interest in long-term storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), however its carbon (C) sequestration potential vary widely among agricultural soils despite the same BC dose used. These discrepancies in the ability of soils to sequester C after BC application are poorly understood. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) is a reflection of "microbial efficiency" and linked to SOC turnover across ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the SOC sequestration and qCO2 in a Yellow River alluvium paddy soil (YP) and a quaternary red clay paddy soil (QP) under rice-wheat annual rotation following 4-year of BC application rate of 11.3 Mg ha-1 per cropping season. BC application consistently brought 65.3 Mg C ha-1 into the soils over 4-year experimental period but increased SOC by 57.6 Mg C ha-1 in YP and 64.5 Mg C ha-1 in QP. Calculating SOC mass balance showed 11.7% of BC-C losses from YP and only 1.16% from QP. BC application stimulated the G+ bacterial, fungi, and actinomycetes by increasing O-alkyl C content in YP, while decreased the same microorganisms by decreasing anomeric C-H content in QP. Importantly, higher clay and amorphous Fe (Feo) contents in QP after BC application protected SOC from further decomposition, which in turn decreased microorganisms and resulted in higher SOC sequestration than YP. Our results indicated that soil properties controlled the extent of SOC sequestration after BC application and site-specific soil properties must be carefully considered to maximize long-term SOC sequestration after BC application.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Sequestro de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Argila , Ecossistema , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111372, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977281

RESUMO

The production of natural selenium (Se)-rich food by using a high-Se crop cultivar is beneficial to human health and environmental safety; however, the underlying mechanism of different Se-accumulation ability between high- and low-Se rice cultivars remains unclear. A low-grain-Se cultivar and high-grain-Se cultivar of rice were used as test materials, and two levels of Se (0 and 0.5 mg kg-1) were arranged in a randomized design containing twelve replicates. The dynamic changes of shoot Se concentration and accumulation, xylem sap Se concentration, shoot and grain Se distribution, Se transporters genes (OsPT2, Sultr1;2, NRT1.1B) expression of the high- and low-Se rice cultivars were determined. The shoot Se concentration and accumulation of the high-Se rice showed a greater degree of reduction than those of the low-Se rice during grain filling stage, indicating that leaves of high-Se rice served as a Se source and supplied more Se for the growth centre grain. The expression levels of OsPT2, NRT1.1B and Sultr1;2 in the high-Se rice cultivar were significantly higher than those in the low-Se rice cultivar, which indicated that the high-Se rice cultivar possessed better transport carriers. The distribution of Se in grain of the high-Se rice cultivar was more uniform, whereas the low-Se cultivar tended to accumulate Se in embryo end. The stronger reutilization of Se from shoots to grains promoted by increased transporters genes expression and optimized grain storage space may explain how the high-Se rice cultivar is able to accumulate more Se in grain.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Xilema/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881942

RESUMO

Small fructans improve plant tolerance for cold stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that the small fructan tetrasaccharide nystose improves the cold stress tolerance of primary rice roots. Roots developed from seeds soaked in nystose showed lower browning rate, higher root activity, and faster growth compared to seeds soaked in water under chilling stress. Comparative proteomics analysis of nystose-treated and control roots identified a total of 497 differentially expressed proteins. GO classification and KEGG pathway analysis documented that some of the upregulated differentially expressed proteins were implicated in the regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity, abscisic acid-activated signaling, removal of superoxide radicals, and the response to oxidative stress and defense responses. Western blot analysis indicated that nystose promotes the growth of primary rice roots by increasing the level of RSOsPR10, and the cold stress-induced change in RSOsPR10levelis regulated by jasmonate, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid signaling pathways in rice roots. Furthermore, OsMKK4-dependentmitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades may be involved in the nystose-induced cold tolerance of primary rice roots. Together, these results indicate that nystose acts as an immunostimulator of the response to cold stress by multiple signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008801, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866183

RESUMO

Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of the most destructive viral diseases affecting rice production. However, so far, only one RSV resistance gene has been cloned, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-RSV interaction are still poorly understood. Here, we show that increasing levels or signaling of brassinosteroids (BR) and jasmonic acid (JA) can significantly enhance the resistance against RSV. On the contrary, plants impaired in BR or JA signaling are more susceptible to RSV. Moreover, the enhancement of RSV resistance conferred by BR is impaired in OsMYC2 (a key positive regulator of JA response) knockout plants, suggesting that BR-mediated RSV resistance requires active JA pathway. In addition, we found that RSV infection suppresses the endogenous BR levels to increase the accumulation of OsGSK2, a key negative regulator of BR signaling. OsGSK2 physically interacts with OsMYC2, resulting in the degradation of OsMYC2 by phosphorylation and reduces JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection. These findings not only reveal a novel molecular mechanism mediating the crosstalk between BR and JA in response to virus infection and deepen our understanding about the interaction of virus and plants, but also suggest new effective means of breeding RSV resistant crops using genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oryza , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais , Tenuivirus , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Tenuivirus/genética , Tenuivirus/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111054, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888616

RESUMO

Quinclorac (3,7-dichloroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid, QNC) is a highly selective auxin herbicide that is typically applied to paddy rice fields. Its residue is a serious problem in crop rotations. In this study, Oryza sativa L. seedlings was used as a model plant to explore its biochemical response to abiotic stress caused by QNC and nZVI coexposure, as well as the interactions between QNC and nZVI treatments. Exposure to 5 and 10 mg/L QNC reduced the fresh biomass by 26.6% and 33.9%, respectively, compared to the control. The presence of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the QNC toxicity, but the nZVI toxicity was aggravated by the coexist of QNC. Root length was enhanced upon exposure to low or medium doses of both QNC and nZVI, whereas root length was inhibited under high-dose coexposure. Both nZVI and QNC, either alone or in combination, significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, and the inhibition rate increased with elevated nZVI and QNC concentration. It was indicated that nZVI or QNC can affect the plant photosynthesis, and there was a significant interaction between the two treatments. Effects of QNC on the antioxidant response of Oryza sativa L. differed in the shoots and roots; generally, the introduction of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the oxidative stress (POD in shoots, SOD and MDA in roots) induced by QNC. However, 750 mg/kg nZVI seriously damaged Oryza sativa L. seedlings, which likely resulted from active iron deficiency. QNC could be removed from the culture solution by nZVI; as a result, nZVI suppressed QNC uptake by 20%-30%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111323, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956864

RESUMO

Using an ideal parental line to breed hybrid rice with low cadmium (Cd) accumulation in grain is an environmental-friendly approach to reduce the risk of Cd contamination in field. A grain low-Cd rice line YaHui2816 has stably low Cd in grain but strong Cd accumulation in straw, revealing specific pattern of its straw-grain Cd remobilization is beneficial to effectively breed hybrid rice for safe production as well as phytoremediation. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate Cd partitioning of YaHui2816 at different stages by comparison with a common rice C268A. The Cd from lower nodes and leaves was restricted in nodeⅡ, this Cd retention led to weak Cd transport from straw to ear in YaHui2816. Cd concentration in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816 was 1.56-fold and 7.36-fold higher than C268A at filling and mature stages. Thus, glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatin (PC) concentration, PC synthase (OsPCS1), GSH S-Transferase (OsGST) and Cd-remobilization associated genes were measured at filling stage. OsHMA2 and OsCCX2 were up-regulated in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816, relative expression of them were significantly higher than C268A. PCs participated in Cd remobilization process, remarkable PC increase in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816 was found in response to Cd treatment under regulation of OsPCS1 and OsGST of which PC2 was dominant form. Taken as a whole, the Cd retention in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816 acts as a 'firewall' to restrain Cd transport to grain. This work provides more insight to understand possible function of alleles for reducing Cd concentration in grain as well as strengthening Cd accumulation in straw of YaHui2816.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Aminoaciltransferases , Grão Comestível/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 650-655, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889604

RESUMO

Biochar (char-product), generated by pyrolyzing organic materials, is produced for the intended use of land application to promote carbon sequestration, soil improvement and crop-yield. Despite the benefits biochar applications offers, scientific probing on impacts that may result from amendments with biochar is still fragmented. In this study, impact of biochar on Eudrilus eugeniae DNA was investigated. Rice-husk biochar was applied to soil at rates up to 80% d/w and earthworms were exposed for 35-day. Impact on DNA was measured using electrophoresis-gel-extraction-method. Data obtained showed that biochar application over 25% resulted in decreased survival. Electrophoresis-gel-analysis showed that DNA decreased from 450 to 300 bp in biochar soils (p = 0.002). Biochar rates (5%-25%) induced DNA damage. The DNA showed smeared bands or tail; indicating DNA degradation and/or damage. DNA damage is a clear evidence of negative impact of biochar(s) to soil-biota; suggesting that loading of soil with biochar could have serious consequences on soil-fauna.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Biota , Carvão Vegetal/química , Dano ao DNA , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853293

RESUMO

Damage to grasses and cereals by phloem-feeding herbivores is manifest as nutrient and chlorophyll loss, desiccation, and a gradual decline in host vigour. Chlorophyll loss in particular leads to a succession of colour changes before eventual host death. Depending on the attacking herbivore species, colour changes can be difficult to detect with the human eye. This study used digital images to examine colour changes of rice seedlings during feeding by the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). Values for red (580 nm), green (540 nm) and blue (550 nm) reflectance for 39 rice varieties during seedling seed-box tests were derived from images captured with a digital camera. Red and blue reflectance gradually increased as herbivore damage progressed until final plant death. Red reflectance was greater from plants attacked by the brown planthopper than plants attacked by the whitebacked planthopper, which had proportionately more green and blue reflectance, indicating distinct impacts by the two planthoppers on their hosts. Analysis of digital images was used to discriminate variety responses to the two planthoppers. Ordination methods based on red-green-blue reflectance and vegetation indices such as the Green Leaf Index (GLI) that included blue reflectance were more successful than two-colour indices or indices based on hue, saturation and brightness in discriminating between damage responses among varieties. We make recommendations to advance seed-box screening methods for cereal resistance to phloem feeders and demonstrate how images from digital cameras can be used to improve the quality of data captured during high-throughput phenotyping.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Oryza/parasitologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Plântula/parasitologia , Animais , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hemípteros/patogenicidade , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Floema/metabolismo , Floema/parasitologia , Floema/fisiologia , Plântula/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110908, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800243

RESUMO

Chinese milk vetch is an efficient approach to reduce Cd accumulation in rice, nevertheless, its reduction mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the rice grain Cd, soil properties and microbial community in a Cd-polluted paddy field amended with milk vetch residue (MV) or without (CK) during rice growth period. We found that milk vetch residue averagely decreased the Cd content in rice grain by 45%. Decrease of Cd in rice mainly attributed to the inhibition of Cd activation by milk vetch residue at heading stage probably by the formation of HA-Cd (Humic Acid) and CdS. Increased pH and organic matter (OM) promoted the reduction of available Cd. In addition, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis revealed that microbial community structure was significantly different between MV and CK treatment (r = 0.187, p = 0.002), and the core functions of differentially abundant genera were mainly associated with N-cycling, organic matter degradation and sulfate-reducing. The application of milk vetch residue increased the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by 8-112% during the rice growth period, which may involve in promoting the transformation of Cd to a more stably residual Cd (CdS). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and mantel test analysis indicated that available K (p = 0.004) and available N (p = 0.005) were the key environmental factors of shaping the SRB. Altogether, changes in soil properties affected microbial structure and functional characteristics, especially the response of SRB in MV treatment would provide valuable insights into reducing the bioavailability of Cd in soil.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Animais , Astrágalo (Planta)/microbiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Grão Comestível/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Resíduos Industriais , Microbiota , Leite , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110916, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800251

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) at low concentration is considered benefit element to plants. The range between optimal and toxic concentration of Se is narrow and varies among plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic, physiological and biochemical responses of four rice genotypes (BRS Esmeralda, BRSMG Relâmpago, BRS Bonança and Bico Ganga) grown hydroponically treated with sodium selenate (1.5 mM L-1). Selenium treated plants showed a dramatically decrease of soluble proteins, chlorophylls, and carotenoids concentration, resulting in the visual symptoms of toxicity characterized as leaf chlorosis and necrosis. Selenium toxicity caused a decrease on shoot and root dry weight of rice plants. Excess Se increased the oxidative stress monitored by the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation. The enzymatic antioxidant system (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase) increased in response to Se supply. Interestingly, primary metabolism compounds such as sucrose, total sugars, nitrate, ammonia and amino acids increased in Se-treated plants. The increase in these metabolites may indicate a defense mechanism for the osmotic readjustment of rice plants to mitigate the toxicity caused by Se. However, these metabolites were not effective to minimize the damages on phenotypic traits such as leaf chlorosis and reduced shoot and root dry weight in response to excess Se. Increased sugars profile combined with antioxidant enzymes activities can be an effective biomarkers to indicate stress induced by Se in rice plants. This study shows the physiological attributes that must be taken into account for success in the sustainable cultivation of rice in environments containing excess Se.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Selênio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oryza/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110950, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800226

RESUMO

Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) through rice consumption is raising health concerns. It has long been recognized that MeHg found in rice grain predominately originated from paddy soil. Anaerobic conditions in paddy fields promote Hg methylation, potentially leading to high MeHg concentrations in rice grain. Understanding the transformation and migration of Hg in the rice paddy system, as well as the effects of farming activities, are keys to assessing risks and developing potential mitigation strategies. Therefore, this review examines the current state of knowledge on: 1) sources of Hg in paddy fields; 2) how MeHg and inorganic Hg (IHg) are transformed (including abiotic and biotic processes); 3) how IHg and MeHg enter and translocate in rice plants; and 4) how regular farming activities (including the application of fertilizer, cultivation methods, choice of cultivar), affect Hg cycling in the paddy field system. Current issues and controversies on Hg transformation and migration in the paddy field system are also discussed.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111167, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827967

RESUMO

Contamination of agricultural fields with Cadmium (Cd) due to several agricultural practices is increasing worldwide. The rice plants can easily take up Cd and accumulate it into different parts, including the grains, posing a threat to human health even at low concentration exposure. Several phytohormones, including Salicylic acid (SA) have been investigated since long for its alleviating properties under various biotic and abiotic stress conditions. In the present study, 100 µM SA application to ameliorate 25 µM Cd stress was studied for 72 h in hydroponics in Oryza sativa cv. Bandana seedlings. Pot experiments were done with same treatment condition and plants were grown till maturity. SA application to Cd exposed rice seedlings alleviated the stress condition, which was established by several physiological, biochemical, histochemical and gene expression analysis. SA treatment to Cd stressed seedlings showed elevated photosynthetic pigment content, on-protein thiol content and relieved the Cd induced growth inhibition considerably. It lowered the accumulation of ROS like, O2- and H2O2 with a regulated antioxidative enzymatic activity. SA application in Cd exposed rice seedlings had upregulated expression of OsHMA3 and OsPCS1 whereasOsNRAMP2 gene was downregulated. Co-application of SA and Cd led to higher yield and improved agronomic traits in comparison to only Cd exposed plants under pot experimentation. Daily intake of Cd and Carcinogenic risk were also reduced by 99.75% and 99.99% respectively in the SA treated Cd stressed plants. SA positively affected the growth and tolerance of rice seedlings to Cd stress. Hence, SA addition to Cd contaminated soil can ensure rice cultivation without posing health risk to consumers.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Gene ; 761: 145043, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777530

RESUMO

Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) constitute a significant class of the aquaporins. The TIPs control water trade among cytosolic and vacuolar compartments and can also transport glycerol, ammonia, urea, hydrogen peroxide, metals/metalloids, and so forth. Additionally, TIPs are engaged with different abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like leaf expansion, root elongation and seed germination. In this study, ten TIP genes in the rice genome were identified from Oryza sativa ssp indica. Among these, representative groups of TIP genes were cloned and sequenced whilst some TIP sequences showed stop codons in the coding region. The secondary structure analysis represented six conserved transmembrane helices along with the inter-helical regions having conserved motifs. The representative three-dimensional tetrameric design of protein sequence of TIP1;1 displayed key features like NPA motifs, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters, and Froger's residues. The vacuolar localization, transmembrane topological properties, and conserved motif analysis of the cloned genes altogether supported their identity as TIPs. An unrooted phylogenetic tree delineated the relatedness of TIPs from Oryza with different species and bunched them into five clades. The promoter analysis uncovered key regulons associated with administering abiotic stress responses. Gene expression studies showed thatTIPsare differentially regulated under salt and drought stress at various time points in shoots and roots of rice. Also, the pattern of expression was found to be significantly variable in five different rice tissues. The heat-map based tissue and stress- specific expression analysis supported the experimental findings. In conclusion, the identification and transcript-level expression studies of TIPs significantly contribute towards the comprehension of their utilitarian significance in the abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Água/metabolismo
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461383, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797856

RESUMO

The potential of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography to achieve enantiomeric separations is reviewed in this article. The separation principles and the most frequently employed separation strategies to achieve chiral separations by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography are described. The use of chiral micellar systems alone or combined with other micellar systems or chiral selectors, as well as of mixtures of achiral micellar systems with chiral selectors is discussed together with the effect of different additives present in the separation medium. Indirect methods based on the derivatization of analytes with chiral derivatizing reagents and the use of achiral micelles are also considered. Preconcentration techniques employed to improve sensitivity and the main approaches developed to facilitate the coupling with Mass Spectrometry are included. The most recent and relevant methodologies developed by chiral Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography and their applications in different fields are presented.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Aminoácidos/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Vinho/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 331: 127216, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650230

RESUMO

The effects of ultrasound working modes using multi-mode S-type ultrasound on the preparation of bioactive peptide from rice protein (RP) were studied with the ACE inhibitory activity of protein-hydrolysate after gastrointestinal simulated digestion as the index. The structure characterizations of protein and enzymolysis products were also studied. Results showed that all the ultrasound working modes pretreatment increased the ACE inhibitory activity significantly (p < 0.05) and 20/40 kHz dual-frequency ultrasound showed the most significant impact, which increased by 38.28% and 27.47% compared to control and ultrasound cleaning machine, respectively. After pretreated by 20/40 kHz dual-frequency ultrasound, the soluble and hydrophobic protein contents, free sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity of RP increased. And the peptide content and hydrophobic amino acid content of protein-hydrolysate after gastrointestinal simulated digestion showed higher value (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the multi-mode S-type ultrasound pretreatment is an effective way in preparation of ACE inhibitory peptide from RP.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Peptídeos/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Ligação Proteica , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Sonicação , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656654

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) being a signaling molecule inside the plant cells, play significant role in signaling cascades and protection against environmental stresses. However, the protective role of NO in alleviating As toxicity in rice plants is currently not available. In the present study, the level of NO, nitrogen (N), inorganic N (nitrate, ammonium), thiols {TT (Total thiols), NPT (Nonprotein thiol)} and AAs contents along with N assimilating enzymes (NR, GDH, GOGAT) were analyzed after exposure of AsIII/NO treatment alone, and in combination. NO supplementation enhanced the content of N, inorganic N & thiol contents, NR, GOGAT activities, when compared with AsIII exposure alone. In AsIII exposed rice seedlings, content of AAs (except His, Arg, Met) reduced over the control, while supplementation of SNP improved AAs contents, compared to AsIII treatment alone. In conclusion, rice seedlings supplemented with NO tolerate the AsIII toxicity by reducing the N related parameters, thiol contents, altering the AA profile and enhanced the nutritional quality by increasing EAAs (essential amino acids) and NEAAs (non-essential amino acids).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 249-261, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715397

RESUMO

Secondary cell wall not only provides rigidity and mechanical resistance to plants, but also has a large impact on plant growth and adaptation to environments. Biosynthesis of secondary cell wall is regulated by a complicated signaling transduction network; however, it is still unclear how the transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis works at the molecular level. Here, we report in rice that OVATE family proteins 6 (OsOFP6) is a positive regulator in modulating expression of the genes related to biosynthesis of the secondary cell wall. Transgenic plants with knock-down of OsOFP6 by RNA interference showed increased leaf angle, which resulted from the thinner secondary cell wall with reduced amounts of cellulose and lignin, whilst overexpression of OsOFP6 in rice led to the thinker secondary cell wall with increased lignin content. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that OsOFP6 interacts with Oryza sativa homeobox 15 (OSH15), a class I KNOX protein. The interaction of OsOFP6 and OSH15 enhanced the transcriptional activity of OSH15 which binds to the promoter of OsIRX9 (Oryza sativa IRREGULAR XYLEM 9). Taken together, our study provides insights into the function of OsOFP6 in regulating leaf angle and the control of biosynthesis of secondary cell wall.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Celulose/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Xilema/metabolismo
18.
Nature ; 584(7819): 109-114, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669710

RESUMO

The size of plants is largely determined by growth of the stem. Stem elongation is stimulated by gibberellic acid1-3. Here we show that internode stem elongation in rice is regulated antagonistically by an 'accelerator' and a 'decelerator' in concert with gibberellic acid. Expression of a gene we name ACCELERATOR OF INTERNODE ELONGATION 1 (ACE1), which encodes a protein of unknown function, confers cells of the intercalary meristematic region with the competence for cell division, leading to internode elongation in the presence of gibberellic acid. By contrast, upregulation of DECELERATOR OF INTERNODE ELONGATION 1 (DEC1), which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor, suppresses internode elongation, whereas downregulation of DEC1 allows internode elongation. We also show that the mechanism of internode elongation that is mediated by ACE1 and DEC1 is conserved in the Gramineae family. Furthermore, an analysis of genetic diversity suggests that mutations in ACE1 and DEC1 have historically contributed to the selection of shorter plants in domesticated populations of rice to increase their resistance to lodging, and of taller plants in wild species of rice for adaptation to growth in deep water. Our identification of these antagonistic regulatory factors enhances our understanding of the gibberellic acid response as an additional mechanism that regulates internode elongation and environmental fitness, beyond biosynthesis and gibberellic acid signal transduction.


Assuntos
Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 137-150, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623622

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGhd7 gene was discovered by screening our rice activation tagging population. CRISPR-Cas9 created knockouts of OsGhd7 conferred early flowering and early maturity in rice varieties across multiple geographical locations in China. Our research shows that OsGhd7 is a good target for breeding early maturity rice varieties, and an excellent example of the advantages of applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology for trait improvement. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop cultivation and yield. In this study, we discovered a late flowering gene OsGhd7 by screening our rice activation tagging population, and demonstrated that overexpression of OsGhd7 delayed flowering time in rice, and the delay in flowering time depended on the transgene expression level. OsGhd7 is a functional allele of the Ghd7 gene family; knockouts of OsGhd7 generated by CRISPR-Cas9 significantly accelerated flowering time and the earliness of the flowering time depended on field location. The homozygous OsGhd7 knockout lines showed approximately 8, 10, and 20 days earlier flowering than controls at three different locations in China (Changsha City, Sanya City, and Beijing City, respectively) that varied from 18.25° N to 39.90° N. Furthermore, knockouts of OsGhd7 also showed an early flowering phenotype in different rice varieties, indicating OsGhd7 can be used as a common target gene for using the CRISPR technology to modulate rice flowering time. The importance of OsGhd7 and CRISPR technology for breeding early maturity rice varieties are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Flores/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reprodução , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 97-112, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643113

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: By integrating genetics and genomics data, reproductive tissues-specific and heat stress responsive 35 meta-QTLs and 45 candidate genes were identified, which could be exploited through marker-assisted breeding for fast-track development of heat-tolerant rice cultivars. Rice holds the key to future food security. In rice-growing areas, temperature has already reached an optimum level for growth, hence, any further increase due to global climate change could significantly reduce rice yield. Several mapping studies have identified a plethora of reproductive tissue-specific and heat stress associated inconsistent quantitative trait loci (QTL), which could be exploited for improvement of heat tolerance. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on previously reported QTLs and identified 35 most consistent meta-QTLs (MQTLs) across diverse genetic backgrounds and environments. Genetic and physical intervals of nearly 66% MQTLs were narrower than 5 cM and 2 Mb respectively, indicating hotspot genomic regions for heat tolerance. Comparative analyses of MQTLs underlying genes with microarray and RNA-seq based transcriptomic data sets revealed a core set of 45 heat-responsive genes, among which 24 were reproductive tissue-specific and have not been studied in detail before. Remarkably, all these genes corresponded to various stress associated functions, ranging from abiotic stress sensing to regulating plant stress responses, and included heat-shock genes (OsBiP2, OsMed37_1), transcription factors (OsNAS3, OsTEF1, OsWRKY10, OsWRKY21), transmembrane transporters (OsAAP7A, OsAMT2;1), sugar metabolizing (OsSUS4, α-Gal III) and abiotic stress (OsRCI2-7, SRWD1) genes. Functional data evidences from Arabidopsis heat-shock genes also suggest that OsBIP2 may be associated with thermotolerance of pollen tubes under heat stress conditions. Furthermore, promoters of identified genes were enriched with heat, dehydration, pollen and sugar responsive cis-acting regulatory elements, proposing a common regulatory mechanism might exist in rice for mitigating reproductive stage heat stress. These findings strongly support our results and provide new candidate genes for fast-track development of heat-tolerant rice cultivars.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/fisiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genômica , Temperatura Alta , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reprodução , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Termotolerância
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