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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
2.
Gene ; 718: 144018, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454543

RESUMO

Cytosine DNA methylation (5mC) is an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression in plant responses to environmental stresses. Zinc-finger protein (ZFP) is the largest family of DNA-binding transcription factors that also plays an essential role in eukaryote. In plant we have already identified and characterized different useful ZFP-genes. While, the main objective of this research was to observe and identify more targeted stress responsive genes of ZFPs epigenetically throughout genome in rice for the first time. A comprehensive correlation analysis was performed through methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP)-chip hybridization in rice under salt and osmotic stresses. High salinity and drought are two major abiotic hazards that are destroying the crop world-wide. As a result, Through-out genome 14 unique stress responsive transcription factors of ZFP-genes with varying level of methylation and expression under two conditions (control vs. stress) were isolated. All the identified genes were confirmed from different databases for their specific structure, cis-regulatory elements, phylogenetic analysis, and synteny analysis. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression patterns, and expression under abiotic and phytohormones stresses were also investigated. Phylogenetically all the genes were divided into 6 distinct subgroups with Arabidopsis and orthologous proteins were find-out through synteny analysis. Available RNA-seq data in response to various phytohormones provided hormone inducible gene expression profile. Through Reverse Transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR) analysis tissue-specific expression in shoot and root over various time points against salt and osmotic stresses exhibited the diverse expression patterns of identified genes. Overall, the present study providing a foundation for in-depth characterization of identified genes and to further understand the epigenetic role of DNA methylation for genes expression and environmental stresses regulation in higher plant.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , DNA de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 1-8, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400771

RESUMO

We examined the molecular regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis and protective responses in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) expressing Bradyrhizobium japonicum Fe-chelatase (BjFeCh) after treatment with acifluorfen (AF). During the photodynamic stress imposed by AF, transcript levels of BjFeCh in transgenic plants increased greatly; moreover, transcript levels of OsFeCh2 remained almost constant, whereas in wild type (WT) plants they were considerably down-regulated. In the heme branch, transgenic plants exhibited greater levels of OsFC and HO transcripts than WT plants in the untreated stems as well as in the AF-treated leaves and stems. Both WT and transgenic plants treated with AF substantially decreased transcript levels for all the genes in the chlorophyll branch, with less decline in transgenic plants. After AF treatment, ascorbate (Asc) content and the redox Asc state greatly decreased in leaves of WT plants; however, in transgenic plants both parameters remained constant in leaves and the Asc redox state increased by 20% in stems. In response to AF, the leaves of WT plants greatly up-regulated CatA, CatB, and GST compared to those of transgenic plants, whereas, in the stems, transgenic plants showed higher levels of CatA, CatC, APXb, BCH, and VDE. Photochemical quenching, qP, was considerably dropped by 31% and 18% in WT and transgenic plants, respectively in response to AF, whereas non-radiative energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching increased by 77% and 38% in WT and transgenic plants, respectively. Transgenic plants treated with AF exhibited higher transcript levels of nucleus-encoded photosynthetic genes, Lhcb1 and Lhcb6, as well as levels of Lhcb6 protein compared to those of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that expression of BjFeCh in transgenic plants influences not only the regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis through maintaining higher levels of gene expression in the heme branch, but also the Asc redox function during photodynamic stress caused by AF.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bradyrhizobium/enzimologia , Ferroquelatase/metabolismo , Nitrobenzoatos/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Porfirinas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ferroquelatase/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 352, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice plants show yellowing, stunting, withering, reduced tillering and utimately low productivity in susceptible varieties under low temperature stress. Comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify novel transcripts, gain new insights into different gene expression and pathways involved in cold tolerance in rice. RESULTS: Comparative transcriptome analyses of 5 treatments based on chilling stress exposure revealed more down regulated genes in susceptible and higher up regulated genes in tolerant genotypes. A total of 13930 and 10599 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in cold susceptible variety (CSV) and cold tolerant variety (CTV), respectively. A continuous increase in DEGs at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h exposure of cold stress was detected in both the genotypes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 18 CSV and 28 CTV term significantly involved in molecular function, cellular component and biological process. GO classification showed a significant role of transcription regulation, oxygen, lipid binding, catalytic and hydrolase activity for tolerance response. Absence of photosynthesis related genes, storage products like starch and synthesis of other classes of molecules like fatty acids and terpenes during the stress were noticed in susceptible genotype. However, biological regulations, generation of precursor metabolites, signal transduction, photosynthesis, regulation of cellular process, energy and carbohydrate metabolism were seen in tolerant genotype during the stress. KEGG pathway annotation revealed more number of genes regulating different pathways resulting in more tolerant. During early response phase, 24 and 11 DEGs were enriched in CTV and CSV, respectively in energy metabolism pathways. Among the 1583 DEG transcription factors (TF) genes, 69 WRKY, 46 bZIP, 41 NAC, 40 ERF, 31/14 MYB/MYB-related, 22 bHLH, 17 Nin-like 7 HSF and 4C3H were involved during early response phase. Late response phase showed 30 bHLH, 65 NAC, 30 ERF, 26/20 MYB/MYB-related, 11 C3H, 12 HSF, 86 Nin-like, 41 AP2/ERF, 55 bZIP and 98 WRKY members TF genes. The recovery phase included 18 bHLH, 50 NAC, 31 ERF, 24/13 MYB/MYB-related, 4 C3H, 4 HSF, 14 Nin-like, 31 bZIP and 114 WRKY TF genes. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome analysis of contrasting genotypes for cold tolerance detected the genes, pathways and transcription factors involved in the stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 351, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rubisco activase (RCA) regulates the activity of Rubisco and is a key enzyme of photosynthesis. RCA expression was widely reported to affect plant photosynthesis and crop yield, but the molecular basis of natural variation in RCA expression in a wide range of maize materials has not been fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, correlation analysis in approximately 200 maize inbred lines revealed a significantly positive correlation between the expression of maize RCA gene ZmRCAß and grain yield. A genome-wide association study revealed both cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) and trans-eQTLs underlying the expression of ZmRCAß, with the latter playing a more important role. Further allele mining and genetic transformation analysis showed that a 2-bp insertion and a 14-bp insertion in the promoter of ZmRCAß conferred increased gene expression. Because rice is reported to have higher RCA gene expression than does maize, we subsequently compared the genetic factors underlying RCA gene expression between maize and rice. The promoter activity of the rice RCA gene was shown to be stronger than that of the maize RCA gene, suggesting that replacing the maize RCA gene promoter with that of the rice RCA gene would improve the expression of RCA in maize. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed two DNA polymorphisms regulating maize RCA gene ZmRCAß expression, and the RCA gene promoter activity of rice was stronger than that of maize. This work increased understanding of the genetic mechanism that underlies RCA gene expression and identify new targets for both genetic engineering and selection for maize yield improvement.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9877-9884, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398030

RESUMO

Heavy metal contaminants and nutrient deficiencies in soil negatively affect crop growth and human health. The plant cadmium resistance (PCR) protein transports heavy metals. The abundance of PCR is correlated with that of cell number regulator (CNR) protein, and the two proteins have similar conserved domains. Hence, CNR might also participate in heavy metal transport. We isolated and analyzed TaCNR5 from wheat (Triticum aestivum). The expression level of TaCNR5 in the shoots of wheat increased under cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), or manganese (Mn) treatments. Transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5 showed enhanced tolerance to Zn and Mn. Overexpression of TaCNR5 in Arabidopsis increased Cd, Zn, and Mn translocation from roots to shoots. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in rice grains were increased in transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5. These roles of TaCNR5 in the translocation and distribution of heavy metals mean that it has potential as a genetic biofortification tool to fortify cereal grains with micronutrients.


Assuntos
Manganês/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Zinco/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9738-9748, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411877

RESUMO

The presence of chromium (Cr) in cultivated fields affects carbohydrate metabolism of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and weakens its productivity. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of sucrose metabolism underlying Cr stress response in rice plants. In the present study, the transcriptome map of sucrose metabolism in rice seedlings exposed to both trivalent and hexavalent chromium was investigated using Agilent 4 × 44K rice microarray analysis. Results indicated that Cr exposure (3 days) significantly (p < 0.05) improved sucrose accumulation, and altered the activities of sucrose synthetase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase, and amylosynthease in rice tissues. We identified 119 differentially regulated genes involved in 17 sucrose metabolizing enzymes and found that gene responses in roots were significantly (p < 0.05) stronger than in shoots under both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) treatment. The network maps of gene regulation responsible for sucrose metabolism in rice plants provide a theoretical basis for further cultivating Cr-resistant rice cultivars through molecular genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Cromo/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109422, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301594

RESUMO

Breeding the rice cultivar with high cadmium (Cd) accumulation in straw but with low Cd in brown rice using marker-assisted selection (MAS) based on quantitative trait loci (QTL) is meaningful for phytoremediation as well as safety in production. A restorer rice line, YaHui2816, steadily showed low Cd translocation from straw to brown rice and carried alleles for reducing Cd concentration in brown rice (BRCdC). In this study, one F2 population (C268A/YaHui2816) was used to identify the QTLs for BRCdC in 2016, and other two different F2 populations (Lu98A/YaHui2816 and 5406A/YaHui2816) were used to furtherly validate the QTLs in 2017. Furthermore, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the relative expression of predicted genes in the regions of these QTLs for BRCdC. Here 4 QTLs for BRCdC were identified, among which, 2 novel QTLs (qBRCdC-9 and qBRCdC-12) were identified on chromosomes 9 and 12 in rice. The YaHui2816 alleles in the QTLs qBRCdC-9 and qBRCdC-12 could effectively reduce BRCdC under different genetic backgrounds. Importantly, the QTL qBRCdC-12 was simultaneously associated with the Cd translocation from shoot to brown rice (T-s-b), genetically explaining that the low T-s-b of the YaHui2816 resulted in its low BRCdC. The interval length of the QTL qBRCdC-12 was only narrowed to 0.28 cM, making it possible to develop molecular markers and excavate genes for reducing BRCdC. It is worth noting that genes existed in these QTL regions have not been reported for regulating the Cd translocation in rice. 6 candidate genes (OS05G0198400, OS05G0178300, OS09G0544400, OS12G0161100, OS12G0162100 and OS12G0165200) up-regulated expressed in nodeⅡof the YaHui2816 in response to Cd treatment, and encoded ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) 4, the protein similar to glutathione transferase (GSTs) 16, heat shock protein Hsp20 domain containing protein, MAP kinase-like protein and Cd tolerant protein 5, respectively.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9032-9038, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334646

RESUMO

It is estimated that approximately 200 million people are exposed to arsenic levels above the World Health Organization provisional guideline value, and various agencies have indicated the need to reduce this exposure. In view of the difficulty of removing arsenic from water and food, one alternative is to reduce its bioavailability (the amount that reaches the systemic circulation after ingestion). In this study, dietary components [glutathione, tannic acid, and Fe(III)] were used to achieve this goal. As(III) or As(V) (1 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily to BALB/c mice, along with the dietary components, for 15 days. The results confirm the efficacy of Fe(III) and glutathione as reducers of arsenic bioavailability and tissue accumulation. Also, these treatments did not result in reductions of Ca, K, P, and Fe contents in the liver. These data suggest that use of these two compounds could be part of valid strategies for reducing inorganic arsenic exposure in chronically exposed populations.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/química , Glutationa/química , Animais , Arsenicais/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8766-8772, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313921

RESUMO

In decades of hybrid rice breeding, the combining ability has been successfully used to evaluate excellent parental lines and predict heterosis. However, previous studies for the combining ability mainly focused on cultivated rice and rarely involved wild rice. In this study, for the first time, we identified 20 new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the combining ability in wild rice using a North Carolina II mating design. Among them, qGCA1, one of the major QTLs that can significantly improve the general combining ability of the plant height, spikelet number, and yield per plant, was delimited to an interval of about 72 kb on chromosome 1. qSCA8, another major QTL, which can significantly improve the specific combining ability of the seed-setting rate and yield per plant, was located in an interval of about 90 kb on chromosome 8. These QTLs discovered from wild rice will provide new ideas to explain the genetic mechanism of the combining ability and establish the basis for breeding of high-combining-ability rice.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8107-8118, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260291

RESUMO

Humic substances (HS) are vital to soil fertility and carbon sequestration. Using multiple cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (multiCP/MAS) NMR combined with dipolar dephasing, we quantitatively characterized humic fractions, i.e., fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA), and humin (HM), isolated from two representative soils (upland and paddy soils) in China under six long-term (>20 years) fertilizer treatments. Results indicate that each humic fraction showed chemical distinction between the upland and paddy soils, especially with much greater aromaticity of upland HMs than of paddy HMs. Fertilizer treatment exerted greater influence on chemical natures of upland HS than of paddy HS, although the effect was less than that of soil type. Organic manure application especially decreased the percentages of aromatic C in the upland HAs and HMs compared with the control. We concluded that humic fractions responded in chemical nature to environmental conditions, i.e., soil type/cropping system/soil aeration and fertilizer treatments.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121692, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265963

RESUMO

Pleurotus sapidus monokaryotic strains (Mk) were screened as a novel source of mycelia to valorize rice straw (RS), rice husks (RH) and sunflower seed hulls (SSH) into value-added products through solid-state fermentation (SSF). P. sapidus Dk3174 basidiospores were cultured in the presence of Remazol Brillant Blue R for strain selection, revealing the ligninolytic ability of emerging colonies. Further screening demonstrated the intraspecific variability in dye degradation and enzyme production of 63 strains. Growth rate, biomass and enzyme production in plates containing RS, RH or SSH pointed at MkP6 as a suitable strain for pilot-scale SSF. MkP6 presented a similar laccase profile as the parental Dk3174, being greater in pasteurized substrates (300-1200 U/Kg) than in sterilized substrates (30-250 U/Kg). Peroxidase represented 25% of the total ligninolytic activity measured. The SSH fermented biomass with MkP6 obtained good yields of nanocellulose (67%) and the saccharide release for ethanol production increased by 3-4 times.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Helianthus/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Lacase/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7986-7994, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282158

RESUMO

Compositional analyses were performed on samples of rice grain, straw, and derived bran obtained from golden rice event GR2E and near-isogenic control PSBRc82 rice grown at four locations in the Philippines during 2015 and 2016. Grain samples were analyzed for key nutritional components, including proximates, fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients. Samples of straw and bran were analyzed for proximates and minerals. The only biologically meaningful difference between GR2E and control rice was in levels of ß-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids in the grain. Except for ß-carotene and related carotenoids, the compositional parameters of GR2E rice were within the range of natural variability of those components in conventional rice varieties with a history of safe consumption. Mean provitamin A concentrations in milled rice of GR2E can contribute up to 89-113% and 57-99% of the estimated average requirement for vitamin A for preschool children in Bangladesh and the Philippines, respectively.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 295, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the major storage protein in rice seeds, glutelins are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as proglutelins and transported to protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) called PBIIs (Protein body IIs), where they are cleaved into mature forms by the vacuolar processing enzymes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glutelin trafficking are largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we report a rice mutant, named glutelin precursor accumulation6 (gpa6), which abnormally accumulates massive proglutelins. Cytological analyses revealed that in gpa6 endosperm cells, proglutelins were mis-sorted, leading to the presence of dense vesicles (DVs) and the formation paramural bodies (PMBs) at the apoplast, consequently, smaller PBII were observed. Mutated gene in gpa6 was found to encode a Na+/H+ antiporter, OsNHX5. OsNHX5 is expressed in all tissues analyzed, and its expression level is much higher than its closest paralog OsNHX6. The OsNHX5 protein colocalizes to the Golgi, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) in tobacco leaf epidermal cells. In vivo pH measurements indicated that the lumens of Golgi, TGN and PVC became more acidic in gpa6. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated an important role of OsNHX5 in regulating endomembrane luminal pH, which is essential for seed storage protein trafficking in rice.


Assuntos
Glutens/metabolismo , Homeostase , Oryza/metabolismo , Endosperma/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Transporte Proteico , Vacúolos/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 298, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors play important roles in the growth, development and stress responses of plants, including (presumably) physic nut (Jatropha curcas), which has high drought and salinity tolerance. However, although physic nut's genome has been released, there is little knowledge of the functions, expression profiles and evolutionary histories of the species' HD-ZIP genes. RESULTS: In this study, 32 HD-ZIP genes were identified in the physic nut genome (JcHDZs) and divided into four groups (I-IV) based on phylogenetic analysis with homologs from rice, maize and Arabidopsis. The analysis also showed that most of the JcHDZ genes were closer to members from Arabidopsis than to members from rice and maize. Of the 32 JcHDZ genes, most showed differential expression patterns among four tissues (root, stem cortex, leaf, and seed). Expression profile analysis based on RNA-seq data indicated that 15 of the JcHDZ genes respond to at least one abiotic stressor (drought and/or salinity) in leaves at least at one time point. Transient expression of a JcHDZ16-YFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts cells showed that JcHDZ16 is localized in the nucleus. In addition, rice seedlings transgenically expressing JcHDZ16 had lower proline contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) together with higher relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents under salt stress conditions (indicating higher sensitivity) than wild-type plants. The transgenic seedlings also showed increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA, and increases in the transcriptional abundance of several salt stress-responsive genes were impaired in their responses to salt stress. Further data on JcHDZ16-overexpressing plants subjected to salt stress treatment verified the putative role of JcHDZ genes in salt stress responses. CONCLUSION: Our results may provide foundations for further investigation of functions of JcHDZ genes in responses to abiotic stress, and promote application of JcHDZ genes in physic nut breeding.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Jatropha/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Plant Sci ; 286: 1-6, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300135

RESUMO

The excessive and harmful light energy absorbed by the photosystem (PS) II of higher plants is dissipated as heat through a protective mechanism termed non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. PsbS-knock-out (KO) mutants lack the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH)-dependent part of NPQ. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of NPQ, we investigated its dependency on oxygen. The development of NPQ in wild-type (WT) rice under low-oxygen (LO) conditions was reduced to more than 50% of its original value. However, under high-oxygen (HO) conditions, the NPQ of both WT and PsbS-KO mutants recovered. Moreover, WT and PsbS-KO mutant leaves infiltrated with the ΔpH dissipating uncoupler nigericin showed increased NPQ values under HO conditions. The experiments using intact chloroplasts and protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana supported that the LO effects observed in rice leaves were not due to carbon dioxide deficiency. There was a noticeable 90% reduction in the half-time of P700 oxidation rate in LO-treated leaves compared with that of WT control leaves, but the HO treatment did not significantly change the half-time of P700 oxidation rate. Overall, the results obtained here indicate that the stroma of the PsbS-KO plants could be potentially under O2 deficiency. Because the functions of PsbS in rice leaves are likely to be similar to those in other higher plants, our findings offer novel insights into the role of oxygen in the development of NPQ.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Protoplastos/efeitos da radiação
17.
Plant Sci ; 286: 118-133, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300137

RESUMO

The rhizomicrobiome helps the host plant to better adapt to environmental stresses. In contrast, plant-derived metabolic substances, including phytohormones, play an active role in structuring rhizomicrobiome. Although strigolactones (SLs), a group of phytohormones, serve as potential rhizosphere signaling molecules, their contributions in shaping the rice (Oryza sativa) rhizomicrobiome remain elusive. To address this issue, we compared the rhizomicrobiome of rice mutants defective in either SL biosynthesis or signaling and wild-type (WT) plants. To understand whether SL-regulated metabolic pathways shape the rhizomicrobiome, a correlation network analysis was conducted among the metabolic pathway-related genes and the rhizomicrobiome of rice. Compared to WT, higher bacterial richness (evidenced by the operational taxonomic unit richness) and lower fungal diversity (evidenced by the Shannon index) were observed in both SL deficient dwarf17 (d17) and signaling (d14) mutants. Additionally, remarkable differences were observed in the composition of a large number of bacterial communities than the fungal communities in the d17 and d14 mutants with respect to the WT. The abundance of certain beneficial bacterial taxa, including Nitrosomonadaceae and Rhodanobacter, were significantly decreased in both mutants relative to the WT. Correlation network analysis between SL-regulated metabolic pathway-associated genes and rhizomicrobiome proposed a role for SL-dependent metabolic pathways in shaping rhizomicrobiome composition. Taken together, our study suggests that SL biosynthesis and signaling play a key role in determining the rice rhizomicrobiome, directly or indirectly, through the mediation of distinct metabolic pathways. Based on our findings, the genetic modulation of rice SL biosynthesis and/or signaling pathways may help to recruit/increase the abundance of the desired rhizomicrobiome, which may assist in the stress resilience of rice.


Assuntos
Lactonas/metabolismo , Microbiota , Oryza/metabolismo , Rizoma/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Phytochemistry ; 166: 112057, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306913

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) leaves accumulate phytoalexins in response to pathogen attack. The major phytoalexins in rice are diterpenoids such as oryzalexins, momilactones, and phytocassanes. We measured the amount of oryzalexin A in leaves irradiated by UV light, treated with jasmonic acid, or inoculated with conidia of Bipolaris oryzae in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar Kasalath. Nipponbare leaves accumulated oryzalexin A at a high concentration, but Kasalath leaves did not. The locus responsible for this difference was mapped using backcrossed inbred lines and chromosome substitution lines. A region on Chr. 12 containing the KSL10 gene was responsible for the deficiency in oryzalexin A in the Kasalath cultivar. The amount of KSL10 transcript increased in Nipponbare leaves but not in Kasalath leaves in response to UV light irradiation, indicating that the suppressed expression of KSL10 caused the deficiency of oryzalexin A in Kasalath. We analyzed oryzalexin A accumulation in UV light-irradiated leaves of cultivars in the world rice core collection. There were cultivars that accumulated oryzalexin A and those that did not, and both of these chemotypes were found in japonica and indica subspecies. Furthermore, these chemotypes were found in the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon. The phylogenetic relationship of KSL10 sequences was not correlated to oryzalexin A chemotypes. These findings suggested that the biosynthesis of oryzalexin A was acquired by a common ancestor of O. rufipogon and was lost multiple times during the evolutionary process.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Cruzamento
19.
Food Chem ; 298: 124949, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260990

RESUMO

Starch digestibility and polyphenol content were investigated in six (white, red and purple) Thai rice varieties. Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), amylose content, gelatinization parameters and in vitro digestibility were determined. Purple and red rice varieties were found to have the highest levels of TPC, TAC and amylose content. TAC was not detected in white rice, while purple rice had the highest values. Gelatinization parameters were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Red rice (Sung Yod) showed the highest gelatinization enthalpy. Non-pigmented rice (Hom Mali) in both purified starch and flour showed the highest starch digestibility, with a total starch digestibility of 76.85% and a digestion rate of 0.25 min-1. In contrast pigmented rice varieties showed lower starch digestibility. These results suggest that pigmented rice varieties are a source of phenolics and anthocyanin and also a possible good source of low digestible starch to develop as functional food products.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Oryza , Amido/química , Amilose/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentação , Amido/farmacocinética , Tailândia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 952-960, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234262

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) tends to mobilize in flooded paddy soil due to the reductive dissolution of the iron (oxyhydr)oxides to which As sorbs, resulting in elevated As accumulation in rice that poses a potential risk to the food safety and human health. Microbial sulfate reduction is an important biogeochemical process in paddy soils, but its impact on As mobilization remains poorly understood. In this study, we incubated eight As-contaminated paddy soils under flooded conditions to investigate the effect of sulfate addition on As mobility. Porewater Fe and As concentrations and As species were determined. Among the eight soils, an addition of 50 mg S kg-1 as sodium sulfate decreased porewater arsenite only in two soils, which also showed a high mobilization of Fe2+. Further experiments showed that the addition of sulfate to these two soils stimulated microbial sulfate reduction but decreased porewater concentrations of both arsenite and Fe2+. Additionally, the supply of sulfate increased the fractions of As associated with acid volatile sulfides in the solid phase and decreased As uptake by rice in pot experiments under similar conditions. The effect of sulfate addition on porewater As was diminished by the addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reducing bacteria. These results suggest the formation of secondary FeS minerals which co-precipitate or sorb arsenite as a likely mechanism of As immobilization, which was also supported by thermodynamic modeling of the pore water. Thus, sulfate additions can immobilize As and reduce its availability to rice plants in paddy soils containing a high potential for microbial Fe reduction, providing an efficient way to mitigate the As transfer to the food chain.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenitos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Ferro/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfatos/química , Inundações , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Óxidos , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
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