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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461383, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797856

RESUMO

The potential of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography to achieve enantiomeric separations is reviewed in this article. The separation principles and the most frequently employed separation strategies to achieve chiral separations by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography are described. The use of chiral micellar systems alone or combined with other micellar systems or chiral selectors, as well as of mixtures of achiral micellar systems with chiral selectors is discussed together with the effect of different additives present in the separation medium. Indirect methods based on the derivatization of analytes with chiral derivatizing reagents and the use of achiral micelles are also considered. Preconcentration techniques employed to improve sensitivity and the main approaches developed to facilitate the coupling with Mass Spectrometry are included. The most recent and relevant methodologies developed by chiral Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography and their applications in different fields are presented.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Aminoácidos/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Vinho/análise
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5417-5432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801697

RESUMO

Introduction: Green-based materials have been increasingly studied to circumvent off-target cytotoxicity and other side-effects from conventional chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Here, cellulose fibers (CF) were isolated from rice straw (RS) waste by using an eco-friendly alkali treatment. The CF network served as an anticancer drug carrier for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The physicochemical and thermal properties of CF, pure 5-FU drug, and the 5-FU-loaded CF (CF/5-FU) samples were evaluated. The samples were assessed for in vitro cytotoxicity assays using human colorectal cancer (HCT116) and normal (CCD112) cell lines, along with human nasopharyngeal cancer (HONE-1) and normal (NP 460) cell lines after 72-hours of treatment. Results: XRD and FTIR revealed the successful alkali treatment of RS to isolate CF with high purity and crystallinity. Compared to RS, the alkali-treated CF showed an almost fourfold increase in surface area and zeta potential of up to -33.61 mV. SEM images illustrated the CF network with a rod-shaped structure and comprised of ordered aggregated cellulose. TGA results proved that the thermal stability of 5-FU increased within the drug carrier. Based on UV-spectroscopy measurements for 5-FU loading into CF, drug loading encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 83 ±0.8%. The release media at pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 showed a maximum drug release of 79% and 46%, respectively, over 24 hours. In cytotoxicity assays, CF showed almost no damage, while pure 5-FU killed most of the both normal and cancer cells. Impressively, the drug-loaded sample of CF/5-FU at a 250 µg/mL concentration demonstrated a 58% inhibition against colorectal cancer cells, but only a 23% inhibition against normal colorectal cells. Further, a 62.50 µg/mL concentration of CF/5FU eliminated 71% and 39% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and normal nasopharyngeal cells, respectively. Discussion: This study, therefore, showed the strong potential anticancer activity of the novel CF/5-FU formulations, warranting their further investigation.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fluoruracila/farmacocinética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834013

RESUMO

The feasibility of the production of germinated rice extracts using indigenous rice from Southern Thailand, including Khemtong (KHT) and Khai Mod Rin (KMR) from a single location at the Pak Phanang River Basin in Nakhon Si Thammarat, was investigated. The nutritional composition and bioactivity of the germinated rice extracts from both cultivars were evaluated. Optimum germination time for both rices was 96 h, leading to the highest GABA, thiamine, free amino acid, total sugar, and α-amylase activity (p<0.05). Germinated KHT had a higher α-amylase activity than germinated KMR at all germination times. Mashing at 60°C/pH 5.5 rendered the extract with the highest GABA content (p<0.05) and desirable contents of other nutrients. In comparison with germinated Sungyod (local colored rice) and Jasmine (commercial Thai rice) extracts, KHT and KMR showed a higher scavenging activity against DPPH•, OH•, and H2O2 (p<0.05) with a comparable ABTS•+ inhibition. For metal chelation, reducing power and ACE inhibitory activity, the germinated Sungyod extract was greater than KHT/KMR. The results demonstrated the potential use of germinated local Thai rice for the production of functional beverages.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Picratos/química , Açúcares/análise , Tiamina/análise , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 929-939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759551

RESUMO

Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a major sphingolipid in plants and fungi, is known to have food functions, such as preventing intestinal impairment and enhancing the moisture content of skin. This study investigated the influence of fermentation on the composition and function of lipophilic components containing GlcCer in plant-based foods; we compared the effects of ethanol extracts from sake rice (SR) and sake lees (SL) on colon impairment in mice. GlcCer and ceramide (Cer) levels in SL were much higher than those in SR, and GlcCer in SL contained 9-methyl-trans-4,trans-8-sphingadienine as a fungi-specific sphingoid base. 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment markedly increased the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the levels of TNF-α and lipid oxidation in mice colons. However, dietary SR or SL significantly suppressed these DMH-induced changes, and SR demonstrated stronger effects than SL. In addition, dietary SR or SL suppressed the expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins induced by DMH treatment. This study suggests that SR or SL intake could reduce colon ACF formation via the suppression of inflammation and oxidation-induced cell cycle disturbances. When compared to SR, the weaked effects of SL rich in GlcCer may be the result of the changes in sphingolipid composition (sphingoid base and Cer) and differences in the concentration of other bioactive compounds produced or digested during fermentation.


Assuntos
Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Glucosilceramidas/análise , Glucosilceramidas/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/metabolismo , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/patologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Feminino , Fermentação , Glucosilceramidas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127540, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758786

RESUMO

This research investigates the trace metals speciation, partitioning and removal in rice straw gasification equipped with an integrated hot gas cleaning (HGC) system. The experiments were conducted by fluidized bed gasifier and controlled at 800 °C with equivalence ratio (ER) varied between 0.2 and 0.4. The experimental results indicated that the concerned trace metals Zn, Cr, Cd, and Pb partitioning in the gas phase were increased significantly with an increase in ER. This is because the exothermic reaction could enhance the trace metals reacted with chlorine and/or sulfur as well as correspondingly formed highly volatile metals compounds. However, other tested metals Cu, Na, K, Ca, Mg partitioning was obviously decreased in the gas phase with ER increasing. These tested metals tend to form oxides speciation leading the variation in their partitioning characteristics. The XRD identification and thermodynamic equilibrium simulation results were also confirmed the tested metals speciation and partitioning characteristics. The dominant gaseous species produced from rice straw gasification, such as KCl(g), NaCl(g), KO(g), K2O(g), ZnCl2(g), CrO2Cl2(g), CuCl2(g), PbCl2(g), PbO(g), and Cd(g), were predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium model. The tested metals removal by adsorbents of hot gas cleaning system was found to be adsorbed in decreasing order as: K > Cr > Ca > Pb > Mg > Cd > Na > Zn > Cu. Activated carbon was used in hot gas cleaning system and showed a good performance for adsorbing tested metals, especially for Pb, Cd, Cr, Ca, K, and Mg. In summary, HGC system is proposed as an effective way for improving the syngas quality and reducing trace contaminants emission in rice straw gasification.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Carvão Vegetal , Gases , Termodinâmica , Oligoelementos
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 237-243, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651610

RESUMO

We assessed the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209, 0, 3 and 30 mg/kg) on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Wuyunjing) in field free-air CO2 enrichment system. Rice at elevated (580 ppm) CO2 had increased net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, shoot biomass, yield and phosphorus content in grains. However, there were no significant changes in such parameters observed on rice at elevated CO2 combined with BDE-209 (3 and 30 mg/kg). Elevated CO2 alone had no significant effects on sugar or starch content in rice grains, whereas its combination with BDE-209 (3 mg/kg) significantly decreased grain sugar and starch content. In conclusion, rice reared in soil polluted by BDE-209 under elevated CO2 modulates the effects in grain feature.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Mudança Climática , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Oryza/química , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604819

RESUMO

In this study, 41 common rice varieties and 211 selenium-rich rice varieties from ten representative areas in China were collected in 2017-2019. The selenium contents of rice were analyzed with optimized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Selenium concentrations of common rice and selenium-rich rice ranges were 0.81-7.26 and 0.76-180.73 µg/100 g, respectively. The selenium contents in selenium-rich rice from different areas were significantly different (p < 0.001) while those in common rice from different areas were not. The selenium-rich rice in Harbin and Keshan showed the lowest selenium level and those from selenium-rich areas (Enshi and Ankang) were highest. Based on the estimation of the risk assessment software @risk7.0 (Palisade Corporation, New York, NY, USA), the consumption of selenium-rich rice can effectively increase dietary selenium intake for the population. However, the risk index of P95 (Percentile 95) selenium exposure at the tolerable upper intake level for children at 2-14 years old exceeded 100%, with potential risk currently. Therefore, the consumption of selenium-rich rice should be properly monitored for young children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Oryza , Selênio , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , New York , Estado Nutricional , Oryza/química , Selênio/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127356, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619939

RESUMO

This study is about the rice syrup adulteration determination in different botanical origin honey in the food product. Due to time-consuming and large risk of misdiagnosis, it is essential to establish a general model for adulteration detection regardless of the original category of honey. In this paper, infrared (IR) spectra combined with four supervised pattern recognition methods were employed to establish the general model for rice syrup adulteration detection in acacia, linden and jujube honey samples simultaneously. Moreover, Monte-Carlo sampling technology was executed to evaluate the models via the average accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The first derivative-least squares support vector machines (Der-LS-SVM) gave an outstanding performance with higher accuracy (97.09%), higher sensitivity (96.64%), higher specificity (97.58%) and lower standard deviations after fifty trials. In addition, this study makes further efforts to control the quality of the honey product in the market on rice syrup adulteration.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Oryza/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Acacia/química , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Risco
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127492, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659673

RESUMO

In this study, recombinant rice quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (rQSOX) was expressed and characterized, and its performance in flour-processing quality was further evaluated. The purified rQSOX exhibited the highest sulfhydryl oxidation activity (1.96 IU/mg) using dithiothreitol as a substrate, accompanying the production of H2O2. The optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and pH 8.0 for rQSOX catalyzing oxidation of dithiothreitol. And rQSOX retained 50% of its maximum activity after incubation at 80 °C for 1 h. Moreover, rQSOX supplementation improved the farinograph properties of dough, indicated by the increased dough stability time and decreased degree of softening, and enhanced viscoelastic properties of the dough. Addition of rQSOX (10 IU/g flour) provided remarkable improvement in specific volume (37%) and springiness (17%) of the steamed bread, and significantly reduced the hardness by half, which was attributed to the strengthened gluten network. The results provide an understanding for rQSOX using in flour-processing industry.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Oryza/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Biocatálise , Pão/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glutens/química , Dureza , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 333: 127495, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663747

RESUMO

Various pesticides employed in modern agriculture result in large amounts of pesticide residues in agricultural production, greatly threatening human health. Herein, we report a facile approach to fabricate a reduced graphene oxide/cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode (rGO/CD/GCE) for the sensitive electrochemical sensing of imidacloprid (IDP). Three different modified electrodes using CDs (α-, ß-, γ-CD) were fabricated, and their electrochemical performance was further studied. The results demonstrate that α-CD possesses the best signal amplification for IDP. Compared with wet-chemical synthesis of rGO/CDs (W-rGO/CDs), the electrochemical synthesis of rGO/CDs (E-rGO/CDs) produced sensors that showed better performance for IDP sensing. Taking advantage of prepared E-rGO/α-CD nanocomposite, the fabricated sensor offered a low detection limit (0.02 µM) with a wider linear range (0.5-40 µM) and long-term stability. The new sensor was successfully applied for the detection of IDP in brown rice, providing a new technique for efficient and convenient monitoring of pesticide residues in food.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Grafite/química , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Oryza/química , Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanocompostos/química , Oxirredução , Sementes/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127500, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688308

RESUMO

Lithium (Li+) is used in various applications involving pharmaceuticals, textile dyes, and batteries. Therefore, the demand for environmentally friendly and effective materials for Li+ uptake and recovery continues to increase. Herein, rice husk (RH) and coconut shell (CS) biomasses were used to fabricate honeycomb-networked biochar (BC) precursors via slow pyrolysis. RHBC- and CSBC-based MnO2 composites were synthesized by depositing MnO2 in various ratios onto RHBC and CSBC by varying the KMnO4 concentration (2%, 3%, and 4%), followed by simple ultrasonication and heat-treatment methodologies. The structural and physicochemical properties of all of the fabricated composites were analyzed using several different instrumental methods. The batch adsorption experiments were performed for comparative Li+-adsorption studies of RHBC-Mnx and CSBC-Mnx composites by optimizing several parameters (pH, adsorbent dose, Li+ initial concentration, and contact time). The comparative adsorption analysis revealed that the RHBC-Mnx composites exhibited stronger Li+-adsorption ability than the CSBC-Mnx composites and that increasing the MnO2 deposition to 3% in both cases led to maximum Li+ adsorption capacities (62.85 mg g-1 and 57.8 mg g-1), respectively. The kinetic studies show that Li+ adsorption proceeds through the pseudo-second-order mechanism. Li+ recovery was successfully carried out using HCl (eluting agent), thereby demonstrating the benefits of synthesized composites at the industrial scale. The current work indicates that the fabricated RHBC-Mnx and CSBC-Mnx composites may have potential for use as economical composites in eco-friendly applications such as Li+ adsorption and recovery from aqueous media.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cocos/química , Lítio/análise , Compostos de Manganês/química , Oryza/química , Óxidos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Íons , Cinética , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497128

RESUMO

Many fertilization models have been created to scientifically determine the amount of fertilization. With the same purpose, we constructed a nitrogen (N) application model, the leaf value model, which can make N fertilizer decisions in a timely, fast and nondestructive manner during rice planting. However, only one area (A1, Jiuzhou Town, Xixiu District, Guizhou Province) and one cultivar (Qyou6) were involved in the construction of the leaf value model. Its stability and applicability could not be well evaluated. Thus, we chose another area (A2, Jiuzhou Town, Huangping County, Guizhou Province) in Guizhou Province and carried out the experiment by using four cultivars (Nie5you5399, Qyou6, Yixiangyou2115 and Zhongzheyou8) for the leaf value model construction. Compared with the average value of apparent total N uptake (Nz) obtained in 2 years in the A1 area, that in the Qyou6 leaf value model in the A2 area increased by 12%, reaching 635.72 kg ha-1, whereas the corresponding target yield changed slightly, reaching 10,999.90 kg ha-1. Simultaneously, the linear relationship between several good SPAD value-derived indexes (Ys) and apparent N supply of the field (Nx) was still significant or extremely significant in the Qyou6 leaf value model. Compared with the A1 area, it slightly differed, and the R2 of SPADL1 was higher than that of SPADL3×L4/mean. In the leaf value model of the other three cultivars, the relationship between yield and Nx and that between Ys and Nx were significant or extremely significant. The Nz of Yixiangyou2115 and Zhongzheyou8 (618.33 and 617.76 kg ha-1) were close to that of Qyou6 and the corresponding target yields were 10313.36 and 10301.99 kg ha-1, respectively. The Nz and target yield of Nie5you5399 were lowest at 546.63 and 10680.24 kg ha-1, respectively. In general, this study showed that relationships used in the construction of leaf value model had certain stability and applicability to difference areas and cultivars. The leaf value model can be considered in N fertilizer decision-making of rice planting management.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Clorofila/análise , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo/química
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110887, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585488

RESUMO

Chemical immobilization of heavy metals is a simple, low-cost, and environment-friendly technology for remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. However, changes in environmental conditions, such as water management, acid deposition, temperature fluctuation, etc., might result in release of metal ions from the fixation sites, and the long-term stability of immobilization remediation is unclear. This study attempted to investigate the impact of water management strategies (wetting-drying cycle and dry cycle) on the stability of heavy metal immobilization by one-time application of biochar during 3 consecutive years of rice-wheat crop in Cu/Cd-contaminated soil. The transformation and accumulation of Cd and Cu in soil-crop system and the morphololgy and composition of biochar were analyzed. The results revealed that wetting-drying cycle and drying treatments reduced the contents of available Cd and Cu in soil by 15.9%-17.7% and 23.9%-31.5% and by 19.8%-62.7% and 16.1%-65.0%, as well as increased soil pH by 0.11-0.31 and 0.17-0.56, respectively. In the wetting-drying cycle treatment, biochar was more favorable for decrease in Cd and Cu accumulation in crop, when compared with that in dry treatment; however, the differences were insignificant in the subsequent years. Although the different water management strategies had no obvious effect on the soil total C, physicochemical analysis of the biochar collected after pot experiments indicated that the obvious structural decomposition of biochar in the drying treatment may have resulted in the release of heavy metals immobilized in biochar. These findings help in better understanding of the long-term immobilization mechanism of biochar in soil-plant system.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Rotação , Solo/química , Triticum , Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525930

RESUMO

As rice is an important staple food globally, research for development and enhancement of its nutritional value it is an imperative task. Identification of nutrient enriched rice germplasm and exploiting them for breeding programme is the easiest way to develop better quality rice. In this study, we analyzed 113 aromatic rice germplasm in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underpinning nutrition components and determined by measuring the normal frequency distribution for Fe, Zn, amylose, and protein content in those rice germplasm. Comparatively, the germplasm Radhuni pagal, Kalobakri, Thakurbhog (26.6 ppm) and Hatisail exhibited the highest mean values for Fe (16.9 ppm), Zn (34.1 ppm), amylose (26.6 ppm) and protein content (11.0 ppm), respectively. Moreover, a significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.693) was observed between Fe and Zn contents. Cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis D2 distances revealed four major clusters of 113 rice germplasm, with cluster III containing a maximum 37 germplasm and a maximum inter-cluster distance between clusters III and IV. The 45 polymorphic SSRs and four trait associations exhibited eight significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on eight different chromosomes using composite interval mapping (CIM). The highly significant QTL (variance 7.89%, LOD 2.02) for protein content (QTL.pro.1) was observed on chromosome 1 at 94.9cM position. Also, four QTLs for amylose content were observed with the highly significant QTL.amy.8 located on chromosome 8 exhibiting 7.2% variance with LOD 1.83. Only one QTL (QTL.Fe.9) for Fe content was located on chromosome 9 (LOD 1.24), and two (QTL.Zn.4 and QTL.Zn.5) for Zn on chromosome 4 (LOD 1.71) and 5 (LOD 1.18), respectively. Overall, germplasm from clusters III and IV might offer higher heterotic response with the identified QTLs playing a significant role in any rice biofortification breeding program and released with development of new varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Amilose/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Ferro/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Análise de Regressão , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Zinco/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127156, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531631

RESUMO

Rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) fermented with L. plantarum 423 had enhanced odor intensity, especially for sulfides and aromatics. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (73.28 ± 3.18%) and oxygen radical-scavenging activity (2.12 ± 0.08 mmol·TE/g) of RB fermentation broth were better than those of WB fermentation broth. Even at 2 µg/ml, the purified antioxidant fractions from the WB fermentation broth showed strong intracellular ROS-scavenging activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the purified antioxidant fractions (200 µg/ml) from the RB fermentation broth had a good antiaging effect. The dominant antioxidant components in the RB and WB fermentation broths were acids (70.21%) and ketones (10.64%), these components jointly give the RB and WB fermentation broths a variety of antioxidant properties. These results are beneficial for developing RB and WB deep-processing technology and laid the foundation for the preparation of antioxidant fractions with L. plantarum 423.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Nariz Eletrônico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Oryza/química , Triticum/química
16.
Food Chem ; 330: 127212, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526650

RESUMO

In this work, a facile solid phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the analysis of trace Pb2+ and Cd2+ by using chitosan/thiol modified metal-organic frameworks (CS/MOF-SH) composite as adsorbent followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS) detection. The potential influencing factors, such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and extraction time, were fully estimated. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits of Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 0.033 µg L-1 and 0.008 µg L-1, respectively. Compared to other studies, CS/MOF-SH not only possessed superior adsorption performance, but also had the advantages of ease of handling and recyclability. Encouragingly, the developed method was of high accuracy and could monitor trace Pb2+ and Cd2+ in various certified reference materials (rice, wheat and tea) with complicated matrices, demonstrating its practical potential for regular monitoring of trace heavy metal ions in real food samples.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Quitosana/química , Chumbo/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Cádmio/química , Cátions Bivalentes , Análise de Alimentos , Chumbo/química , Oryza/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Chá/química , Triticum/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127443, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590179

RESUMO

Rice bran, a super food or health food supplement, contains high arsenic (As) levels. However, the evaluation of relative bioavailability (RBA) or bioaccessibility (BA) is limited in the rice bran. In this study, the As-RBA in rice bran was determined based on mice model and compared to As-BA using in vitro methods. The As-BA from rice bran-amended feed in the gastric, small intestinal, and colon phases were 33.1-56.4%, 50.5-75.6%, and 35.5-71.4%, respectively. The As-BA was adversely associated with bioaccessible Ca and Fe concentrations in the gastrointestinal phases. Similarly, the As-RBA was significant negative relative with Ca, Fe, and Zn concentrations. The As-RBA values were 37.9-65.5%, 41.5-75.6% and 38.7-71.5% based on liver, kidneys, and combined endpoint (liver plus kidneys), respectively. The in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) in the gastric (R2 = 0.392) and colon (R2 = 0.362) phases were weak. While the IVIVC (R2 = 0.544) in the small intestinal phase was stronger than those of the gastric and colon phases. In addition, there was no significant difference in As speciation between colonic residual solids and faeces (p > 0.05). This work provides a better view of human health risk evaluation on rice bran As consumption in humans.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Oryza/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Intestino Delgado , Camundongos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127404, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593820

RESUMO

Immobilization of heavy metals by the application of chemical amendments is an eco-friendly, economical and effective method to remediate cadmium (Cd) -contaminated soils. Field experiments were conducted during 2016-2018 following oilseed rape-rice rotation with the application of inorganic passivators i.e., slaked lime (CaOH2>95%) and sepiolite (SiO2>50%, MgO>20%). The experimental treatments were comprised of: rice planting in winter fallow and without passivator (F-PA0); fallow with slaked lime (F-PA1); fallow with sepiolite (F-PA2); oilseed rape-rice rotation without passivator (R-PA0); rotation with slaked lime (R-PA1); and rotation with sepiolite (R-PA2). The slaked lime and sepiolite were applied after the harvest of rape at 2000 and 5000 kg ha-1, respectively. Results revealed that the Cd contents were reduced by 47.44-49.03% in brown rice for F-PA2 and 9.54-42.66% in soil for R-PA2. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased by 10.65-17.98%, the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were reduced by 28.57% whereas the proline content was decreased by 32.61% under R-PA2. In addition, the filled grain percentage was improved by 6.87% (F-PA2) and 3.70% (R-PA1), respectively. Overall, rice sown after oilseed rape gave better yields than sown after fallow fields while application of slaked lime and sepiolite as passivator could be a potential management option to grow crops in metal polluted soils.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Compostos de Cálcio , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível/química , Poluição Ambiental , Silicatos de Magnésio , Metais Pesados , Oryza/química , Óxidos , Rotação , Dióxido de Silício , Solo/química
19.
Food Chem ; 331: 127336, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569969

RESUMO

This study investigated the functional properties and structural changes associated with the complexation of rice protein (RP) with anthocyanins (ACN). Furthermore, fractions (i.e., albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) isolated from RP complexed with anthocyanins were examined. The interactions with ACN altered the structure of RP, leading to an increase in the ß-sheet and spectral shift of the amide Ⅱ band. Additionally, fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds were the dominant forces in the formation of RP-ACN complexes. It was interesting to find that the RP-ACN particles exhibited the best functional properties at pH 3, likely due to the specific conformational changes upon interaction. In addition, the combination of RP and ACN increased the antioxidant ability of RP. Overall, this research suggested that RP-ACN particles at pH 3 can be designed to form and stabilize mesostructures such as foams and emulsion, which can lead to health benefits.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Albuminas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Emulsificantes/química , Globulinas/química , Glutens/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Prolaminas/química , Conformação Proteica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Food Chem ; 330: 127313, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569932

RESUMO

Starch granule-surface proteins (SGSPs) and granule-channel proteins (SGCPs) are granule-associated proteins (SGAPs), which have been found to be distributed on the surface and channels of starch granules, respectively. To investigate the impacts of SGAPs on α-amylase hydrolysis of starch, SGCPs or SGAPs of waxy, low and high amylose rice starches were removed. Removal of SGAPs or SGCPs greatly increased hydrolysis rate of rice starches. Meanwhile, these granules incurred a greater number and size of pores on their surfaces during hydrolysis. Compared to low and high amylose starches, waxy starch before and after removing SGAPs exhibited a higher hydrolysis rate. Rice starch hydrolysis began with enlargement of cavity and channels both horizontally and vertically. XRD analysis revealed that removal of SGAPs decreased relative crystallinity (RC) of starch and advanced changes in RC during hydrolysis process. This study provides new information about the role of SGAPs in the mechanisms of α-amylase hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Amido/farmacocinética , Difração de Raios X , alfa-Amilases/química
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