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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(2): 330-338, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941174

RESUMO

Nitrogen removal in osmosis membrane bioreactor (OMBR) is important to its applications but remains a challenge. In this study, a bioelectrochemically-assisted (BEA) operation was integrated into the feed side of OMBRs to enhance nitrogen removal, and sodium acetate was served as a draw solute and supplementary carbon source for the growth of denitrifying bacteria due to reversed-solute. The effects of operation mode and influent ammonium (NH4+) concentration were systematically examined. Compared to a conventional OMBR, the integrated BEA-OMBR achieved higher total nitrogen removal efficiency of 98.13%, and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.83% with the influent NH4+-N concentration of 39 mg L-1. The sequencing analyses revealed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (0-0.04%), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (0-0.16%), and denitrifying bacteria (1.98-8.65%) were in abundance of the microbial community in the feed/anode side of integrated BEA-OMBR, and thus BEA operation increased the diversity of the microbial community in OMBR. Future research will focus on improving nitrogen removal from a high ammonium strength wastewater by looping anolyte effluent to the cathode. These findings have demonstrated that BEA operation can be an effective approach to improve nitrogen removal in OMBRs toward sustainable wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Reatores Biológicos , Osmose , Águas Residuárias
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(12): 2674-2684, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857752

RESUMO

Coal chemical industry (CCI) generally utilizes reverse osmosis (RO) for water reclamation, which generates a highly concentrated stream containing refractory organic substances and high-concentration total dissolved solids (TDS). To address this issue, the present work focuses on volume reduction of RO concentrate (ROC) produced from CCI by forward osmosis (FO). We investigated the effects of membrane orientation and draw solution (DS) concentration on FO performance. Foulant removal was tested by using chemical cleaning, physical cleaning and osmotic backwash (OB). AL-FS (active layer facing feed solution) mode outcompeted AL-DS (active layer facing draw solution) mode, achieving a flux of 26.4 LMH, 92.5% water reclamation and energy consumption of 0.050 kWh·m-3 with 4 M NaCl as DS. The FO process was able to reject >98% SO42-, Mg2+and Ca2+, 92-98% Si and 33-55% total organic carbon (TOC). Ten-cycle (10 × 20 h) accelerated fouling test demonstrated approximately 30% flux decline in association with Si-containing foulants, which could be removed almost completely through OB with 97.1% flux recovery. This study provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of FO for volume reduction and water reclamation of ROC produced from CCI, making the treatment of ROC more efficient and more energy effective.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Purificação da Água , Indústria Química , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0234892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817668

RESUMO

The mosquito Aedes aegypti vectors the arboviral diseases yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Larvae are usually found developing in freshwater; however, more recently they have been increasingly found in brackish water, potential habitats which are traditionally ignored by mosquito control programs. Aedes aegypti larvae are osmo-regulators maintaining their hemolymph osmolarity in a range of ~ 250 to 300 mOsmol l-1. In freshwater, the larvae must excrete excess water while conserving ions while in brackish water, they must alleviate an accumulation of salts. The compensatory physiological mechanisms must involve the transport of ions and water but little is known about the water transport mechanisms in the osmoregulatory organs of these larvae. Water traverses cellular membranes predominantly through transmembrane proteins named aquaporins (AQPs) and Aedes aegypti possesses 6 AQP homologues (AaAQP1 to 6). The objective of this study was to determine if larvae that develop in freshwater or brackish water have differential aquaporin expression in osmoregulatory organs, which could inform us about the relative importance and function of aquaporins to mosquito survival under these different osmotic conditions. We found that AaAQP transcript abundance was similar in organs of freshwater and brackish water mosquito larvae. Furthermore, in the Malpighian tubules and hindgut AaAQP protein abundance was unaffected by the rearing conditions, but in the gastric caeca the protein level of one aquaporin, AaAQP1 was elevated in brackish water. We found that AaAQP1 was expressed apically while AaAQP4 and AaAQP5 were found to be apical and/or basal in the epithelia of osmoregulatory organs. Overall, the results suggest that aquaporin expression in the osmoregulatory organs is mostly consistent between larvae that are developing in freshwater and brackish water. This suggests that aquaporins may not have major roles in adapting to longterm survival in brackish water or that aquaporin function may be regulated by other mechanisms like post-translational modifications.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Aquaporinas/genética , Osmorregulação/genética , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Arbovirus , Transporte Biológico , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Osmorregulação/fisiologia , Osmose , Águas Salinas , Salinidade , Água/metabolismo
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(11): 2291-2299, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784274

RESUMO

This work reports on efforts to develop an integrated continuous forward osmosis system for the recovery of water from wastewater streams, highlighting critical process parameters to minimize energy consumption. Forward osmosis experiments were performed using NaCl draw solutions of various concentrations and the intrinsic membrane parameters (water permeability, draw solution permeability, and structural parameter) were then determined via nonlinear regression using MATLAB. The experimental data were then used to validate a theoretical water flux model, which was subsequently applied to simulate the forward osmosis performance under different hydrodynamic conditions using both NaCl and TMA-CO2-H2O (TMA: trimethylamine) draw solutions. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the TMA-CO2 draw solution regeneration stage revealed that the draw solution flow rate has a significant impact on energy consumption. Also, increasing the feed flow rate was found to slightly enhance the water flux up to 2.5%, while having a negligible impact on the downstream regeneration process energy consumption.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Águas Residuárias
5.
Water Res ; 183: 116064, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745671

RESUMO

In this article, we present a critical review of the reported performance of reverse osmosis (RO) and capacitive deionization (CDI) for brackish water (salinity < 5.0 g/L) desalination from the aspects of engineering, energy, economy and environment. We first illustrate the criteria and the key performance indicators to evaluate the performance of brackish water desalination. We then systematically summarize technological information of RO and CDI, focusing on the effect of key parameters on desalination performance, as well as energy-water efficiency, economic costs and environmental impacts (including carbon footprint). We provide in-depth discussion on the interconnectivity between desalination and energy, and the trade-off between kinetics and energetics for RO and CDI as critical factors for comparison. We also critique the results of technical-economic assessment for RO and CDI plants in the context of large-scale deployment, with focus on lifetime-oriented consideration to total costs, balance between energy efficiency and clean water production, and pretreatment/post-treatment requirements. Finally, we illustrate the challenges and opportunities for future brackish water desalination, including hybridization for energy-efficient brackish water desalination, co-removal of specific components in brackish water, and sustainable brine management with innovative utilization. Our study reveals that both RO and CDI should play important roles in water reclamation and resource recovery from brackish water, especially for inland cities or rural regions.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água , Filtração , Osmose , Águas Salinas
6.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127581, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758787

RESUMO

Forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) is an integrated physical-biological treatment process that has received increased awareness in treating municipal wastewater for its potential to produce high effluent quality coupled with its low propensity for fouling formation. However, reverse salt diffusion (RSD) is a major issue and so far limited studies have reported long-term FOMBR operation under the elevated salinity conditions induced by RSD. This study investigated the performance of a FOMBR in treating municipal wastewater under a controlled saline environment (6-8 g L-1 NaCl) using two separate sodium chloride draw solution (NaCl DS) concentrations (35 and 70 g L-1) over 243 days. At 35 g L-1 NaCl DS, the water flux performance dropped from 6.75 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) to 2.07 LMH after 72 days of operation in the first experimental stage, when no cleaning procedure was implemented. In the subsequent stage, the DS concentration was increased to 70 g L-1 and a weekly physical cleaning regime introduced. Under stable operation, the water flux performance recovery was 67% after 21 cycles of physical cleaning. For the first time in FOMBR studies, a shortcut nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was also achieved under the elevated salinity conditions. At the end of operation (day 243), the ammonia-oxidising bacteria (Nitrosomonas sp.) was the only nitrifier species in the system and no nitrite oxidising bacteria was detected. The above study proves that a FOMBR system is a feasible process for treating municipal wastewater.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Aerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Desenho de Equipamento , Nitrificação , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrosomonas/metabolismo , Osmose , Salinidade , Águas Residuárias/química
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790719

RESUMO

Melatonin is effective in enhancing various abiotic stress resistances of plants. However, its underlying mechanisms in drought-resistance in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not clear. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of melatonin on seed germination and to evaluate leaf antioxidant physiology for two wheat varieties. Experiments included 20% PEG, melatonin plus 20% PEG and a control using two contrasting wheat varieties (JM22- drought sensitive and HG35- drought resistant). Melatonin levels were 0, 1, 10, 100 and 300 µmol L-1. Results revealed that 300 µmol L-1 of melatonin alleviated the negative effect of water stress on germination and increased radicle length, radicle number, and plumule length of the germinated seeds. Principal component analysis showed a significant change in amino acid content during germination and this change was dependent on melatonin concentration and the variety. Lysine (Lys) content in wheat seeds under the PEG plus 300 µmol L-1 melatonin treatment increased compared with that of the seeds under PEG alone. There was a significant and positive correlation between Lys content and morphological index of germination. During seedling growth, soluble protein was involved in osmotic adjustment and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased to mitigate the damage in the cytomembrane of JM 22 leaf under 300 µmol L-1 melatonin plus PEG treatment. The effect of melatonin was dependent on SOD activity increasing significantly for HG35-a drought resistant variety. The results of this work lays a foundation for further studies to determine if melatonin can be economically used to mitigate the impact of dry planting conditions on wheat productivity in North China Plain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Osmose , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127625, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758776

RESUMO

Ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are widely used in drinking water treatment and wastewater recycling. However, limited information was available regarding their performance in removing trihalomethanes (THMs). The present study investigated the effect of feed solution characteristics and membrane fouling on THM removal by UF/NF/RO membranes. The results indicated that THMs were poorly removed by UF membrane, and the removal was dominated by hydrophobic adsorption. In contrast, high removal of THMs was observed for NF/RO membranes, which was contributed by both size exclusion and hydrophobic adsorption. By comparing the adsorption of THMs on NF/RO membranes at different feed concentration, it was found that the role of hydrophobic adsorption was more important at lower feed concentration. The removal of THMs by UF/NF/RO membranes increased with increasing feed concentration, which can be ascribed to the enhanced diffusion at higher concentration gradient. With increasing ionic strength, THM removal was decreased significantly for UF membrane, but the removal by NF/RO membranes remained largely unchanged. By comparing THM removal by clean and fouled membranes, the effect of membrane fouling was examined. The removal of most THMs (except trichloromethane) decreased after fouling for UF membrane, whereas decreased removal was only observed for iodinated THMs for fouled NF/RO membranes.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Filtração , Halogenação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Reciclagem , Trialometanos , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Águas Residuárias
9.
Water Res ; 182: 116038, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619685

RESUMO

Forward osmosis (FO) has great potential for low energy consumption wastewater reuse provided there is no requirement for draw solutes (DS) regeneration. Reverse solute flux (RSF) can lead to DS build-up in the feed solution. This remains a key challenge because it can cause significant water flux reduction and lead to additional water quality problems. Herein, an osmotic photobioreactor (OsPBR) system was developed to employ fast-growing microalgae to consume the RSF nutrients. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) was used as a fertilizer DS, and algal biomass was a byproduct. The addition of microalgae into the OsPBR proved to maintain water flux while reducing the concentrations of NH4+-N, PO43--P and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the OsPBR feed solution by 44.4%, 85.6%, and 77.5%, respectively. Due to the forward cation flux and precipitation, intermittent supplements of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and SO42- salts further stimulated algal growth and culture densities by 58.7%. With an optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.33 d, the OsPBR overcame NH4+-N overloading and stabilized key nutrients NH4+-N at âˆ¼ 2.0 mg L-1, PO43--P < 0.6 mg L-1, and COD < 30 mg L-1. A moderate nitrogen reduction stress resulted in a high carbohydrate content (51.3 ± 0.1%) among microalgal cells. A solids retention time (SRT) of 17.82 d was found to increase high-density microalgae by 3-fold with a high yield of both lipids (9.07 g m-3 d-1) and carbohydrates (16.66 g m-3 d-1). This study encourages further exploration of the OsPBR technology for simultaneous recovery of high-quality water and production of algal biomass for value-added products.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Biomassa , Membranas Artificiais , Nutrientes , Osmose , Fotobiorreatores , Águas Residuárias
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110945, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684517

RESUMO

The high-concentration wastewater produced in the industrial reverse osmosis (RO) process contains a large amount of refractory organic matters, which will have serious impacts on the natural environment and human health. Among them, contaminants can be transformed by humus-reducing bacteria based on humus. In this study, O3- assisted UV-Fenton method was applied as pretreatment. Biological activated carbon (BAC) technology in which humus-reducing bacteria were the dominant bacteria, enhanced by electron donor and Fe3+, was used to dispose of RO concentrate (ROC). The results showed that water treatment process combining oxidation with biological filtration had a positive effect on the removal of stubborn contaminants in ROC. The system was strengthened by adding electron donor and Fe3+, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was up to 80.1%. However, when the removal efficiency of UV254 absorbing pollutants reached optimal value (87.3%), that means only Fe3+ was added.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/análise , Compostos Férricos/química , Substâncias Húmicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Filtração/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/microbiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Osmose , Oxirredução , Ozônio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35703-35711, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601869

RESUMO

This paper shows the possibility of using steam pretreatment to improve the efficiency of membrane recovery chemical cleaning. Before applying chemicals to clean a fouled membrane, steam pretreatment was employed to loosen the structure of the foulant layer and weaken the attachment of those foulants on the membrane. Although longer steam contact times would lead to even better cleaning efficiency, the steam pretreatment duration was limited to less than 2 min to maintain membrane integrity. When cleaning fouled membranes with 1 mol/L HCl, the cleaning efficiency without steam pretreatment went from 83.3 to 90.2% as cleaning time increased from 30 to 180 min. As for 90-s steam pretreatment, the cleaning efficiency showed high values of more than 93% regardless of cleaning time. When the concentration of HCl was decreased to 0.2 mol/L, the cleaning efficiencies with a 90-s steam pretreatment was 78.6% and 92.6% for relatively short cleaning times of 30 and 60 min, respectively; this is much higher than the 62.2% and 76.7% achieved when cleaning without steam pretreatment. In addition, when using alkaline solution as the cleaning chemical, similar results were obtained. This implies that the application of steam before chemical cleaning is effective in improving cleaning efficiency, and so, this technique has the potential to reduce the amount of cleaning chemical required for membrane recovery cleaning.


Assuntos
Vapor , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Ultrafiltração
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730292

RESUMO

Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Vitis/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osmose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
13.
Water Res ; 183: 115985, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619802

RESUMO

Reverse osmosis (RO) plays an important role in freshwater production. Mineral scaling is an inevitable problem in the RO desalination process. Various methods, including the pretreatment of feed water, the optimization of operational processes, the development of novel membrane materials, and the addition of antiscalants, have been developed to mitigate scale formation in RO systems. Among these methods, the addition of antiscalants is a relatively cost-effective and convenient technique for membrane scaling control. In the current work, various kinds of antiscalants, scale inhibition mechanisms, and their applications to RO membrane scaling control are reviewed. Weakness of existing antiscalants and challenge arising from their practical applications, such as membrane fouling caused by antiscalants, increased bacterial growth, dosing control, and the disposal of resultant concentrates, are also presented. To effectively alleviate scaling on RO membrane by using antiscalants, the development of novel, high-performance, and environment-friendly antiscalants on the basis of an in-depth study of the inhibition mechanisms and well-established structure-activity relationships is urgently necessary. The optimization of antiscalants and their combinations with other pretreatments in practical RO operations are essential in efficient scaling control.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água
14.
Water Res ; 183: 116051, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622233

RESUMO

Nutrient limitation is a biofouling control strategy in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In seawater, the assimilable organic carbon content available for bacterial growth ranges from about 50 to 400 µg C·L-1, while the phosphorus concentration ranges from 3 to 11 µg P·L-1. Several studies monitored biofouling development, limiting either carbon or phosphorus. The effect of carbon to phosphorus ratio and the restriction of both nutrients on membrane system performance have not yet been investigated. This study examines the impact of reduced phosphorus concentration (from 25 µg P·L-1 and 3 µg P·L-1, to a low concentration of ≤0.3 µg P·L-1), combined with two different carbon concentrations (250 C L-1 and 30 µg C·L-1), on biofilm development in an RO system. Feed channel pressure drop was measured to determine the effect of the developed biofilm on system performance. The morphology of the accumulated biomass for both carbon concentrations was characterized by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the biomass amount and composition was quantified by measuring total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), total cell counts (TCC), and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration for the developed biofilms under phosphorus restricted (P-restricted) and dosed (P-dosed) conditions. For both carbon concentrations, P-restricted conditions (≤0.3 µg P·L-1) limited bacterial growth (lower values of ATP, TCC). A faster pressure drop increase was observed for P-restricted conditions compared to P-dosed conditions when 250 µg C·L-1 was dosed. This faster pressure drop increase can be explained by a higher area covered by biofilm in the flow channel and a higher amount of produced EPS. Conversely, a slower pressure drop increase was observed for P-restricted conditions compared to P-dosed conditions when 30 µg C·L-1 was dosed. Results of this study demonstrate that P-limitation delayed biofilm formation effectively when combined with low assimilable organic carbon concentration and thereby, lengthening the overall membrane system performance.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Carbono , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Fósforo
15.
Water Res ; 183: 116119, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663698

RESUMO

Fluidized bed reactor Fenton (FBR-Fenton) process was adopted for reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) treatment with three types of carriers, including sand, zeolite and granular activated carbon (GAC). Adsorption studies demonstrated that GAC achieved the best adsorption performance (maximum COD removal of 78% in 15 h) among the three carriers, and the adsorption of ROC organic matters followed a two-stage adsorption model. Fenton oxidations were carried out in three fluidized beds after column saturation, and FBR-Fenton/GAC process achieved highest COD removal (72%) and most BOD5/COD ratio enhancement (from 0.03 to 0.3) in ROC. Long-term operation data demonstrated good performance stability of GAC as the carrier. In addition, GAC fluidized bed obtained highest total iron removal rate via iron crystallization process. Continuous in-situ GAC regeneration with more than 90% recoveries of surface area, pore volume and adsorption capacity were observed along the ROC treatment with FBR-Fenton/GAC process. Mechanism studies revealed that better COD removal performance in FBR-Fenton/GAC process was attributed to the combining effects of homogenous Fenton reaction, GAC adsorption and GAC/H2O2 catalytic reaction.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Filtração , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Osmose
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140716, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731063

RESUMO

Community-based reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment plants are employed as an interim solution for producing safe drinking water for the endemic areas of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in the rural dry zone of Sri Lanka. It is recognized that RO-treated groundwater diminishes the progression of CKDu; thus, proper maintenance of these RO plants would be indispensable to protect public health. The present study broadly investigated the quality of groundwater in CKDu-endemic areas, and the performance, operations, and maintenance of the RO plants which purified this groundwater. The feedwater (i.e., groundwater) and treated water from 32 RO plants in Anuradhapura District, comprising 27 in the CKDu high-risk (HR) region and 5 in the low-risk (LR) region, were analyzed for major chemical and biological water quality parameters. Alkalinity, hardness, and microbiological parameters in groundwaters exceeded the maximum allowable levels (MALs) for drinking in all study areas. Additionally, TDS and magnesium exceeded the MALs, exclusively in the HR areas. Elevated occurrence of magnesium-predominant hardness and ionicity in groundwater showed significant relations with the incidence of CKDu. All RO plants achieved high removal rates (>95%) for excessive chemical constituents in groundwater, but the recovery rates were fairly low (~46%). The current disinfection practices in RO plants were insufficient to ensure the microbial safety of the product water. Low demand for product water, scarcity of groundwater, lack of technical capacity of the local communities, poor maintenance practices and unplanned brine removal were the key issues related to RO plant O&M. Unless properly handled, the lack of rules and regulations for RO water treatment in the CKDu-endemic region could lead to numerous environmental and public health issues in the future.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Água Subterrânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Osmose , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123732, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629375

RESUMO

A submerged forward osmotic membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) was used to reveal the removal and degradation mechanism of carbamazepine (CBZ) from wastewater. The results showed that the removal mechanism consisted of the rejection of the forward osmotic (FO) membrane and biodegradation of the activated sludge. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+-N, and CBZ by the FOMBR were approximately 94.77%-97.45%, 93.56%-99.28%, and 88.20%-94.45%, respectively. Moreover, the COD and NH4+-N removal efficiencies were positively correlated with the increased CBZ concentrations. The results of the soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) tests illustrated that the membrane fouling potential of EPS may be higher than that of SMP. According to the identified 14 degradation products, oxidation, hydroxylation, and decarboxylation were defined as the primary CBZ degradation mechanism. In addition, the RNA results showed that Delftia could be the characteristic bacteria in the CBZ degradation process.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Carbamazepina , Osmose , Esgotos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2804, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499540

RESUMO

Toward the development of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for biosensors and diagnostic biochip assays, a local integration of low-concentration target materials into the sensing region of interest is essential to improve the sensitivity and reliability of the devices. As a result, the dynamic process of sorting and accurate positioning the nanoparticulate biomolecules within pre-defined micro/nanostructures is critical, however, it remains a huge hurdle for the realization of practical surface-sensitive biosensors and biochips. A scalable, massive, and non-destructive trapping methodology based on dielectrophoretic forces is highly demanded for assembling nanoparticles and biosensing tools. Herein, we propose a vertical nanogap architecture with an electrode-insulator-electrode stack structure, facilitating the generation of strong dielectrophoretic forces at low voltages, to precisely capture and spatiotemporally manipulate nanoparticles and molecular assemblies, including lipid vesicles and amyloid-beta protofibrils/oligomers. Our vertical nanogap platform, allowing low-voltage nanoparticle captures on optical metasurface designs, provides new opportunities for constructing advanced surface-sensitive optoelectronic sensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Bacillus subtilis , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Simulação por Computador , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Fungos , Cinética , Lipídeos/química , Teste de Materiais , Osmose , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139757, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516674

RESUMO

This study systematically investigated the impact of dissolved organic matters (DOM) fractions, Ca2+, membrane orientation and real water matrix on the membrane fouling and the subsequent pharmaceutical retention in forward osmosis (FO). Ca2+ increased the removal of carbamazepine (CBZ) through steric effect, while it reduced sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) removal due to reduced electrostatic repulsion and enhanced external concentration polarization for three organic foulants. The study of operating mode showed that the pharmaceutical removal in pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were lower than those in FO mode for both the baseline and HA fouling, which was attributed to the concentrative internal concentration polarization caused by long-term accumulation of pharmaceuticals or HA in support layer. In terms of the real water tests, the secondary effluent used as feed solution caused higher hydrophilicity and negative charge of fouled FO membrane, leading to increased removal of pharmaceuticals. Seawater used as draw solution also caused severe fouling in the support layer of FO with humic acid-like material as major foulants, increasing the removal of SMZ because of enhanced steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion. However, the combined effects of increased adsorption and steric effect resulted in little change for the CBZ removal. This study gave implications on the practical application of FO process for pharmaceutical removal.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Águas Residuárias , Água
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139500, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479964

RESUMO

The polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was modified with graphene oxide (GO), followed by polymerization of acrylic acid (used as an antiscalant) for the reduction of both biofouling and mineral scaling. After functionalization, the water contact angle reduced from 41.7 ± 4.5° for unmodified RO membrane to 24.4 ± 1.3° for the modified RO membranes, which showed that membrane hydrophilicity was significantly enhanced, in addition to the improvement in surface smoothness. The modified membranes were tested for their anti-scaling and anti-biofouling characteristics. When the mineral scaling test was performed using CaSO4 solution as feedwater, the permeate flux was reduced by only 3% as compared to the unmodified RO membrane which encountered up to 22% decline in flux by the end of the experiment. After the scaling test, the membrane surface was characterized by Scanning electron microscopy - energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results showed that the unmodified RO membrane was fully covered with gypsum precipitates. Whereas, the precipitates were detected only at the highly saturated zones of the water channel i.e. towards the exit of water flow. Additionally, the anti-bacterial test was performed through bacteriostasis rate determination, which showed that the modified membranes inhibited the growth of nearly 95% of the bacterial cells. Further experiments were also performed to investigate the inhibition of both scaling and biofouling by modified RO membranes. Thus, it was found that the polymer-modified GO coated RO membranes were able to diminish both gypsum scaling and biofilm formation demonstrating their potential to control different types of membrane fouling.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Purificação da Água , Resinas Acrílicas , Grafite , Membranas Artificiais , Minerais , Osmose
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