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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923241

RESUMO

The strains of inbred laboratory mice are isogenic and homogeneous for over 98.6% of their genomes. However, geometric morphometric studies have demonstrated clear differences among the skull shapes of various mice strains. The question now arises: why are skull shapes different among the mice strains? Epigenetic processes, such as morphological interaction between the muscles and bones, may cause differences in the skull shapes among various mice strains. To test these predictions, the objective of this study is to examine the morphological association between a specific part of the skull and its adjacent muscle. We examined C57BL6J, BALB/cA, and ICR mice on embryonic days (E) 12.5 and 16.5 as well as on postnatal days (P) 0, 10, and 90. As a result, we found morphological differences between C57BL6J and BALB/cA mice with respect to the inferior spine of the hypophyseal cartilage or basisphenoid (SP) and the tensor veli palatini muscle (TVP) during the prenatal and postnatal periods. There was a morphological correlation between the SP and the TVP in the C57BL6J, BALB/cA, and ICR mice during E15 and P0. However, there were not correlation between the TVP and the SP during P10. After discectomy, bone deformation was associated with a change in the shape of the adjacent muscle. Therefore, epigenetic modifications linked to the interaction between the muscles and bones might occur easily during the prenatal period, and inflammation seems to allow epigenetic modifications between the two to occur.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada/métodos , Músculos Palatinos/embriologia , Músculos Palatinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Músculos Palatinos/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Osso Esfenoide/anatomia & histologia
2.
Angle Orthod ; 89(3): 470-479, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the time and pattern of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis in patients with skeletal Class I and Class III malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 262 CBCT images were collected: 140 skeletal Class I (0° < ANB < 4°; 71 males, 69 females) and 122 skeletal Class III (ANB ≤ 0°; 61 males and 61 females). The fusion stages were identified using CBCT images of a six-stage system defined by the appearance of osseous cores and ossifying vestige in the synchondrosis. The age distributions of each stage and the pattern of fusion were evaluated. RESULTS: The stages of fusion progressed with increasing age (P < .05, r = .824), and the age distributions in the female groups were generally 1 to 3 years younger than those in the male groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the skeletal Class I and Class III groups regarding the time of ossification of the synchondrosis. The osseous cores appeared most frequently in the supero-center part, followed by the mid-center part of the synchondrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The time and pattern of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis are not apparently different between patients with Class I malocclusion and those with Class III malocclusion. The osseous cores appear frequently in the supero-center and mid-center of the synchondrosis with various patterns before the end of the pubertal growth spurt period.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe I , Osso Occipital , Osso Esfenoide , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
J Craniofac Surg ; 29(5): 1174-1180, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762326

RESUMO

AIM: This study chronicles skull base and face development in nonsyndromic unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) during infancy, to characterize the mechanistic progression of facial dysmorphology. METHODS: Computed tomography scans from 51 subjects were reviewed (26 UCS, 25 controls) and data were reconstructed. Patients were stratified into 5 age groups. A series of measurements were taken from the reconstructions. RESULTS: All patients had a unilaterally fused coronal suture at the time of analysis. Asymmetry of the sphenoid wings was present across all age groups. The sphenoid wing ipsilateral to the fused suture consistently had a more acute angle from the midline. At 19 days of age, ipsilateral nasal root and cribriform plate deviation are noted, as well as increased contralateral zygoma antero-posterior length. Patients younger than 2 months also had elongated posterior cranial bases. At 2 to 3 months of age, the cranial base widens in the anterior portion of the middle cranial fossa with an increased ipsilateral pterion to sella distance. The most delayed change observed was the increase in contralateral orbital rim angle at 7 to 12 months of age compared to normal. CONCLUSION: After suture fusion, sphenoid wing changes are among the earliest restructural malformations to take place. This suggests that the cascade of dysmorphology in UCS originates in the cranial vault, then progresses to the skull base, and lastly to the facial structures. Ipsilateral orbital changes are early facial changes in UCS that begin before 2 months of age. This is then followed by changes in the contralateral face later in development.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Craniossinostoses/patologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crânio/patologia , Animais , Osso Etmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Etmoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Etmoide/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Órbita/diagnóstico por imagem , Órbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Órbita/patologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Base do Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Base do Crânio/patologia , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Zigoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Zigoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zigoma/patologia
4.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 301(8): 1442-1453, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669195

RESUMO

The otic and pterygopalatine ganglia are located close to the greater wing (alisphenoid) of the sphenoid bone and many researchers have noted nerves connecting these ganglia in human embryos. The greater wing (alisphenoid) arises from the cartilaginous ala temporalis independently of the lesser wing, but no topographical changes between this cartilage and nerve elements have been demonstrated. We examined histological sections of 20 human embryos and fetuses from 6 to 15 weeks of development (WD). At 6 WD, the ala temporalis, the alar process and ganglia were all identified as a single, undifferentiated cell mass. Subsequently, the two ganglia became identifiable, but were continuous on the superior side of the initial ala temporalis. The temporal, superior spine of the ala temporalis was surrounded by the part that connected the ganglia. At 7 WD, the superior spine of the ala temporalis was reduced in size and the continuity of these ganglia was lost. At this point, a secondarily-formed communicating branch between the ganglia, the nervus sphenoidalis was first identifiable. At 9 WD, the ala temporalis and the alar process had clearly become cartilages, and the anterior end of the otic ganglion was separated from the ala temporalis. The nervus sphenoidalis became longer. At 15 WD, the otic and pterygopalatine ganglia were clear separated from the alisphenoid, which consisted of the cartilaginous ala temporalis and membranous bone. Consequently, the separation between the otic and pterygopalatine ganglia seemed to be due to the developing ala temporalis. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Gânglios Parassimpáticos/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia , Gânglios Parassimpáticos/citologia , Gânglios Parassimpáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Osso Esfenoide/citologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Arch Oral Biol ; 89: 84-92, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Secondary cartilage develops from osteochondral progenitor cells. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in secondary cartilage increase within a very short time and then ossify rapidly. In the present study, we investigated the sequential development process of osteochondral progenitor cells, and the morphology and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in secondary cartilage. DESIGN: ICR mice at embryonic days (E) 14.5-17.5 were used. The mandibular condyle and the medial pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone were observed as secondary cartilage, and the cranial base and the lateral pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, which is primary cartilage, were observed as a control. Thin sections were subjected to immunostaining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Using a confocal laser microscope, 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of hypertrophic cells was performed. To evaluate the size of hypertrophic chondrocytes objectively, the cell size was measured in each cartilage. RESULTS: Hypertrophic chondrocytes of secondary cartilage first expressed type X collagen (Col X) at E15.5. SRY-box 9 (Sox 9) and ALP were co-expressed in the fibroblastic/polymorphic tissue layer of secondary cartilage. This layer was very thick at E15.5, and then rapidly became thin. Hypertrophic cells in secondary cartilage were markedly smaller than those in primary cartilage. CONCLUSIONS: The small hypertrophic cells present in secondary cartilage may have been a characteristic acquired in order for the cartilage to smoothly promote a marked increase in hypertrophic cells and rapid calcification.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/citologia , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Côndilo Mandibular/citologia , Côndilo Mandibular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/citologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Condrócitos/citologia , Colágeno Tipo X/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Maxila , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Osteogênese , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9
6.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 54: 39-43, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310017

RESUMO

The spheno occipital suture synchondrosis is a vital contributor to adolescent and adult age estimation in that it can provide an upper or lower age bound depending on its state of fusion. The present study evaluates the utility of the spheno-occipital suture fusion in age estimation of the Central Indian population. The sample includes 198 (117 males and 81 females) cadavers aged between 8 to 26 years. Grading was done using Mitra-Akhlaghi Scale as - Open, Semi closed and Closed. Our study demonstrates that a significant linear correlation exists between the age of an individual and spheno-occipital suture closure for both the sexes and observation of the degree of fusion of this single suture allows the prediction of age in mature individuals.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osteogênese , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 284: 78-84, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353220

RESUMO

Timing of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is correlated with age. Previous research, however, has demonstrated variation in the timing of closure among different global populations. The present study aims to quantify the timing of SOS fusion in Malaysian individuals as visualised in multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scans and to thereafter formulate age estimation models based on fusion status. Anonymised cranial CT scans of 336 males and 164 females, aged 5-25 years, were acquired from the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Sultanah Aminah. The scans were received in DICOM format and reconstructed into three-dimensional images using OsiriX. The SOS is scored as open, fusing endocranially, fusing ectocranially or completely fused. Statistical analyses are performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 24. Transition analysis (Nphases2) is then utilised to calculate age ranges for each stage. To assess the reliability of an observation, intra- and inter-observer agreement is quantified using Fleiss Kappa and was found to be excellent (κ=0.785-0.907 and 0.812). The mean (SD) age for complete fusion is 20.84 (2.84) years in males and 19.78 (3.35) years in females. Transition ages between Stages 0 and 1, 1 and 2, and 2 and 3 in males are 12.52, 13.98 and 15.52 years, respectively (SD 1.37); in females, the corresponding data are 10.47, 12.26 and 13.80 years (SD 1.72). Complete fusion of the SOS was observed in all individuals above the age of 18 years. SOS fusion status provides upper and lower age boundaries for forensic age estimation in the Malaysian sample.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Osso Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteogênese , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 28(6): 1635-1637, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749845

RESUMO

The spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) in cranial base is an important growth center for the craniofacial skeleton, and also is a guide rail for development of the maxilla, midface, and mandible. Previous studies showed that SOS may be a treatment target for youngsters with midfacial hypoplasia and small cranial vault secondary to craniosynostosis. However, most of studies about the SOS are based on imaging data. In this study, we try to explore the characteristics of postnatal development of the mouse SOS based on histological analysis. Our findings showed that the width of the SOS in mice were gradually decreased from newborn mice to adult mice, and the SOS cartilage was gradually became small, then almost completely ossificated in adult mice. The resting and proliferative layers in SOS cartilage were gradually decreased, and almost only hypertrophic chondrocytes while no resting and proliferative layer chondrocytes in adult mice. The proliferative ability of SOS chondrocytes also gradually decreased. These findings will be of benefit for the further clinical treatment for patients with midfacial hypoplasia or small cranial vault secondary to craniosynostosis. Further evidence-based research about the clinical implication is necessary in future.


Assuntos
Cartilagem , Osso Occipital , Osso Esfenoide , Animais , Cartilagem/anatomia & histologia , Cartilagem/citologia , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Condrócitos/citologia , Craniossinostoses , Humanos , Camundongos , Osso Occipital/anatomia & histologia , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 300(12): 2115-2137, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667704

RESUMO

Integration of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones during early postnatal development is poorly described in the literature. A uniquely prolonged patency of sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis or prespheno-septal synchondrosis (PSept) has been attributed to humans. However, the sphenoethmoidal junction has not been studied using a comparative primate sample. Here, we examined development of the sphenoethmoidal interface using ontogenetic samples of Old and New World monkeys, strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises), and a comparative sample of other mammals. Specimens ranging from late fetal to 1 month postnatal age were studied using histology, immunohistochemistry, and micro-computed tomography methods. Our results demonstrate that humans are not unique in anterior cranial base growth at PSept, as it is patent in all newborn primates. We found two distinctions within our sample. First, nearly all primates exhibit an earlier breakdown of the nasal capsule cartilage that abuts the orbitosphenoid when compared to nonprimates. This may facilitate earlier postnatal integration of the basicranium and midface and may enhance morphological plasticity in the region. Second, the PSept exhibits a basic dichotomy between strepsirrhines and monkeys. In strepsirrhines, the PSept has proliferating chondrocytes that are primarily oriented in a longitudinal plane, as in other mammals. In contrast, monkeys have a convex anterior end of the presphenoid with a radial boundary of cartilaginous growth at PSept. Our findings suggest that the PSept acts as a "pacemaker" of longitudinal facial growth in mammals with relatively long snouts, but may also contribute to facial height and produce a relatively taller midface in anthropoid primates. Anat Rec, 300:2115-2137, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Osso Etmoide/embriologia , Osso Etmoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cercopithecidae , Osso Etmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Platirrinos , Primatas , Especificidade da Espécie , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 278: 408.e1-408.e5, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693912

RESUMO

Estimating age-at-death is one of the many biological demographics that a forensic anthropologist needs to determine for a set of unknown skeletal remains. A useful skeletal developmental marker, which can aid in estimating age in sub-adult remains, is the state of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. This study aimed to determine the repeatability of a three-stage scoring method and the age at which the spheno-occipital synchondrosis begins and completes fusion in a Black South African sample. A total of 147 male and female skeletal individuals aged between 12-30 years from the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons were included. The mean age-at-death noted for the commencement of fusion at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was 16.2 (±2.9) years in females and 16.7 (±1.2) years in males, with females displaying signs of fusion taking place approximately three years before their male counterparts. Complete fusion of this skeletal developmental marker was observed in 100% of the sample over the age of 20 years, regardless of sex. A Kappa value of 1.0 was achieved when the repeatability and reproducibility of the three-stage scoring method was tested. Complete fusion of this synchondrosis occurred slightly later in this South African sample than that noted in previous literature. This finding may be attributed to the differences in health and socio-economic statuses between these different population groups, reiterating the need for population-specific data to be developed. The importance of noting the state of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis during the examination of relevant forensic cases may aid in the formation of a narrower age-at-death range for sub-adult and young adult skeletal remains.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osteogênese , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Criança , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
11.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 18: 13-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832370

RESUMO

The spheno-occipital synchondrosis has a relatively late ossification in comparison with other cranial base synchondroses, which makes it a point of interest for forensic age determination studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of spheno-occipital synchondrosis development in age determination in a Turkish population and to evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an evaluation of the fusion stages of spheno-occipital synchondrosis. CBCT mid-sagittal images of 238 (90 males and 148 females) patients between the ages of 7 and 25, with a mean age of 15.45±0.26 and 16.43±0.37, respectively, were examined by three Oral and Maxillofacial Radiologists who evaluated the degree of synchondrosis fusion using a four-stage system. A reevaluation of 50 cases was conducted for intraobserver assessment. Multiple statistical analyses were used to assess the correlation between age and the fusion stage, to compare gender and age according to stages, and to evaluate the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The mean ages for complete fusion (Stage 3) were 18 and 20 for females and males, respectively. The interobserver agreement ranged between substantial and perfect, while the intraobserver agreement was substantial for all three observers. Based on these results, CBCT, when available, might be the method of choice for age estimation using the spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion stages. Evaluating spheno-occipital synchondrosis has a value for age estimation around the age of 18 years, which affects the legal decisions in Turkey.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Osso Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/instrumentação , Criança , Feminino , Antropologia Forense/instrumentação , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(11): 584-90, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26360873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, autosomal dominant tumor-predisposition disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Cephalometry is an inexpensive, readily available and non-invasive technique that is under-utilized in studying the NF1 craniofacial phenotype. An analysis of NF1 cephalometry was first published by Heervä et al. in 2011. We expand here on that first investigation with a larger cohort of adult and pediatric patients affected with NF1 and sought objective insight into the NF1 facies, said to feature hypertelorism and a broad nasal base, from cephalometric analysis. METHODS: We obtained cephalograms from 101 patients with NF1 (78 adults and 23 children) from two NF1 protocols at the National Institutes of Health. Each subject had an age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched control. We used Dolphin software to make the cephalometric measurements. We assessed the normality of differences between paired samples using the Shapiro-Wilk test and evaluated the significance of mean differences using paired t-tests and adjusted for multiple testing. We explored the relationship between the cephalometric measurements and height, head circumference and interpupillary distance. RESULTS: In this dataset of American whites with NF1, we confirmed in a modestly larger sample many of the findings found by Heerva et al. in an NF1 Finnish cohort. We found a shorter maxilla, mandible, cranial base, (especially anteriorly, p = 0.0001) and diminished facial height in adults, but not children, with NF1. Only one adult exhibited hypertelorism. CONCLUSIONS: The cephalometric differences in adults arise in part from cranial base shortening and thus result in a shorter face, mid-face hypoplasia, reduced facial projection, smaller jaw, and increased braincase globularity. In addition, we suggest that NF1 sphenoid bone shortening, a common event, is consistent with an intrinsic NF1 bone cell defect, which renders the bone more vulnerable to a random "second hit" in NF1, leading to sphenoid wing dysplasia, a rare event.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Osso Esfenoide/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria , Criança , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 157(1): 42-57, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25546173

RESUMO

Due to disparity regarding the age at which skeletal maturation of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis occurs in forensic and biological literature, this study provides recalibrated multislice computed tomography (MSCT) age standards for the Australian (Queensland) population, using a Bayesian statistical approach. The sample comprises retrospective cranial/cervical MSCT scans obtained from 448 males and 416 females aged birth to 20 years from the Skeletal Biology and Forensic Anthropology Research Osteological Database. Fusion status of the synchondrosis was scored using a modified six-stage scoring tier on an MSCT platform, with negligible observer error (κ = 0.911 ± 0.04, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.994). Bayesian transition analysis indicates that females are most likely to transition to complete fusion at 13.1 years and males at 15.6 years. Posterior densities were derived for each morphological stage, with complete fusion of the synchondrosis attained in all Queensland males over 16.3 years of age and females aged 13.8 years and older. The results demonstrate significant sexual dimorphism in synchondrosis fusion and are suggestive of intrapopulation variation between major geographic regions in Australia. This study contributes to the growing repository of contemporary anthropological standards calibrated for the Queensland milieu to improve the efficacy of the coronial process for medicolegal death investigation. As a stand-alone age indicator, the basicranial synchondrosis may be consulted as an exclusion criterion when determining the age of majority that constitutes 17 years in Queensland forensic practice.


Assuntos
Artrografia , Articulações/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Occipital , Osso Esfenoide , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Osso Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queensland/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 156(1): 135-40, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25293964

RESUMO

The degree of spheno-occipital fusion has been used to assign a relative age to dentally mature hominoid cranial specimens. However, a recent study of captive individuals (Poe: Am J Phys Anthropol 144 (2011) 162­165) concluded that fusion of the spheno-occipital suture in great ape taxa is of little utility for aging dentally mature individuals. In this contribution, I use dentally mature samples of extant hominoid taxa (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Hylobates lar) to investigate a) the temporal relationship between spheno-occipital fusion and dental maturity, b) whether there is an association between the degree of spheno-occipital fusion and relative age, c) whether there are differences in relative timing of spheno-occipital fusion between taxa, and d) whether there are sex differences in the relative timing of spheno-occipital fusion. Results suggest that a) a substantial proportion of dentally mature wild-shot chimpanzee, gorilla and orang-utans have unfused or partially fused spheno-occipital synchondoses, b) there is an association between the degree of spheno-occipital fusion and age, c) there are interspecific differences in the timing of spheno-occipital fusion, and d) there are significant sex differences in spheno-occipital fusion in chimpanzees, orang-utans and gibbons. Thus, contrary to previous work, degree of spheno-occipital fusion is a potentially useful indicator of relative maturity, especially in great ape taxa.


Assuntos
Osso Occipital/anatomia & histologia , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Suturas Cranianas , Feminino , Hominidae , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 134(3): 504-10, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25158708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is an important driver of facial and cranial base growth. The current study characterizes its fusion in patients with Apert, Crouzon, and Pfeiffer syndromes and correlates early fusion with the presence, and degree, of midface hypoplasia. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed of all syndromic patients treated between 1996 and 2012. Case computed tomographic scans and age- and sex-matched control scans were analyzed as demonstrating either open, partially fused, or completely fused synchondroses, and patient age at each scan was recorded. Midface hypoplasia as determined by sella-nasion-A point angle measurement at the time of midface surgery was correlated to fusion status. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with 206 computed tomographic scans met inclusion criteria. Two hundred six age- and sex-matched control scans were also identified. Average age at computed tomographic scanning was 6.1 years. The earliest ages of partial and complete fusion were 1.1 and 7.0 years, respectively, among cases; and 6.2 and 12.7 years, respectively, among controls. The odds of synchondrosis fusion in case computed tomographic scans was 66.0 times that of controls (95 percent CI, 9.2 to 475.5 times that of controls; p < 0.000001). Average age of synchondrosis fusion was 3.5 years (range, 0.5 to 6.0 years). Average sella-nasion-A point angle at the time of midface surgery was 67.5 degrees (range, 58 to 76 degrees), with a positive correlation between earlier age of fusion and more severe midface hypoplasia (p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: The spheno-occipital synchondrosis fuses earlier in syndromic patients compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between earlier fusion and degree of midface hypoplasia, although definitive causality cannot be concluded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a correlation in human subjects. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, II.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia/fisiopatologia , Disostose Craniofacial/fisiopatologia , Face/anormalidades , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Acrocefalossindactilia/patologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico por imagem , Disostose Craniofacial/patologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 99(12): E2702-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25140394

RESUMO

CONTEXT: SOX3 is an early developmental transcription factor involved in pituitary development. In humans, over- and underdosage of SOX3 is associated with X-linked hypopituitarism with variable phenotypes ranging from isolated GH deficiency (GHD) to panhypopituitarism, with or without mental retardation and, in most cases, with reported pituitary imaging, an ectopic/undescended posterior pituitary. PATIENT: We present a young patient with hemophilia B and developmental delay who had a 2.31-Mb deletion on Xq27 including SOX3, F9, and eight other contiguous genes. He developed GH and gonadotropin deficiency, whilst his thyroid function was in the low normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a eutopic posterior pituitary and the unusual finding of a persistent craniopharyngeal canal that has not previously been described in patients with congenital hypopituitarism. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To establish whether loss of SOX3 can account for the human phenotype, we examined in detail the hypothalamo-pituitary region of neonatal Sox3 null mice. RESULTS: Consistent with the patient's phenotype, Sox3 null mice exhibit a ventral extension of the anterior pituitary that penetrates, and generates a mass beneath, the sphenoid bone. This suggests that the defect results from abnormal induction of Rathke's pouch, leading to a persistent connection between Rathke's pouch and the oral ectoderm. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations expand the spectrum of phenotypes observed in association with altered SOX3 dosage and may affect the approach to genetic screening. Screening for SOX3 should be advised not only for hypopituitary patients with an ectopic posterior pituitary, but also for those with a structurally normal pituitary and additional findings, including clefts and a persistent craniopharyngeal canal, with or without mental retardation.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Osso Esfenoide/anormalidades , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Hemofilia B/genética , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/genética , Hipopituitarismo/patologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/anormalidades , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hipófise/patologia , Osso Esfenoide/patologia
17.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 146(1): 21-32.e6, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24974995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The anterior cranial base has long been considered a stable reference structure for superimposing radiographs. However, some studies have questioned its stability. Therefore, the purposes of this systematic review were to give an overview of the studies evaluating growth and development of the anterior cranial base, assess their methodologic quality, and evaluate their validity and accuracy. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched without limitations up to June 2013. Additionally, the bibliographies of the finally selected articles were hand searched to identify any relevant publications that were not identified before. The lowest levels of evidence accepted for inclusion were cohort and cross-sectional studies. RESULTS: A total of 11 articles met all inclusion criteria. They were published between 1955 and 2009. The sample sizes of these studies ranged from 28 to 464 subjects. Their methodologic quality ranged from moderate to low. CONCLUSIONS: Sella turcica remodels backward and downward, and nasion moves forward because of the increase in size of the frontal sinus. These events lead to a continuous increase in the length of the cranial base until adulthood. The presphenoid and cribriform plate regions can be considered stable after age 7, making them the best cranial-base superimposition areas.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Base do Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seio Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Osso Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Nasal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 72(6): 1173-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24480760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) has been associated with midface hypoplasia in animal models and patients with specific forms of syndromic craniosynostosis. The present study aimed to characterize SOS fusion in patients with Crouzon syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed in patients with Crouzon syndrome treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 1984 to 2012. The cases included patients with Crouzon syndrome and at least 1 high-quality computed tomography (CT) scan in which SOS patency could be assessed. Age- and gender-matched control CT scans were identified for comparison. The patient age at the CT scan was evaluated as the predictor, with SOS patency identified as the outcome variable. Three independent reviewers with high inter-rater reliability graded the SOS patency as open, partially fused, or completely fused. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the Crouzon group and the controls. RESULTS: During the study period, 30 patients were identified with Crouzon syndrome. A total of 24 patients, all with midface hypoplasia and with 112 cranial CT scans, met the inclusion criteria. Accordingly, 112 age- and gender-matched control CT scans were assessed. No patient in the control group had midface hypoplasia. Within the Crouzon group, the average age at complete closure (14.0 ± 3.4 years) evident on the CT scan was significantly younger than that in the control group (16.6 ± 2.2 years; P = .0152). The average age when the scans showed complete patency of the SOS in the Crouzon group (1.3 ± 1.1 years) was significantly younger than that in the control group (3.2 ± 2.3 years; P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The SOS closes significantly earlier in patients with Crouzon syndrome compared with age- and gender-matched controls. The strong statistical correlation supports premature closure of the SOS as a possible mechanistic contributor to midface hypoplasia.


Assuntos
Suturas Cranianas/anormalidades , Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Osso Occipital/anormalidades , Osso Esfenoide/anormalidades , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Suturas Cranianas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disostose Craniofacial/fisiopatologia , Ossos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Faciais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Osso Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 153(1): 132-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24318947

RESUMO

The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is a craniofacial growth centre between the occipital and sphenoid bones-its ossification persists into adolescence, which for the skeletal biologist, means it has potential application for estimating subadult age. Based on previous research the timing of spheno-occipital fusion is widely variable between and within populations, with reports of complete fusion in individuals as young as 11 years of age and nonfusion in adults. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine this structure in a mixed sex sample of Western Australian individuals that developmentally span late childhood to adulthood. The objective is to develop statistically quantified age estimation standards based on scoring the degree of spheno-occipital fusion. The sample comprises multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of 312 individuals (169 male; 143 female) between 5 and 25 years of age. Each MDCT scan is visualized in a standardized sagittal plane using three-dimensional oblique multiplanar reformatting. Fusion status is scored according to a four-stage system. Transition analysis is used to calculate age ranges for each defined stage and determine the mean age for transition between an unfused, fusing and fused status. The maximum likelihood estimates for the transition from open to fusing in the endocranial half is 14.44 years (male) and 11.42 years (female); transition from fusion in the ectocranial half to complete fusion is 16.16 years (male) and 13.62 years (female). This study affirms the potential value of assessing the degree of fusion in the spheno-occipital synchondrosis as an indicator of skeletal age.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Osso Occipital/anatomia & histologia , Osso Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Orthod ; 35(6): 826-31, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23172577

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the flavonoid naringin on the growth of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis by quantifying the levels of expression of Sox9 and PTHrP in an in vitro mouse model. Fifty 1-day-old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, and each group equally divided into five time frames (6, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours). The mice were sacrificed with phenobarbitone sodium, and the spheno-occipital synchondroses dissected and cultured in control or experimental medium, with the experimental medium supplemented with 0.1 µm naringin. Sections of the specimens underwent immunohistochemical staining for Sox9 and PTHrP, and the amount of expression was quantified using true-colour RGB (red-green-blue) computer-assisted image-analysing system with digital imaging. Data analysis showed there was a significant increase of expression of Sox9 at 6 and 24 hours (P < 0.001) between experimental and control groups, however, there was no significant difference between the levels of expression of PTHrP between experimental and control groups at any of the time frames. There was a very weak correlation found in this study between the expression of PTHrP and Sox9. In conclusion, naringin enhances the growth of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis through over expression of Sox9. This is a successful in vitro model to study factors regulating the growth of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/farmacologia , Osso Occipital/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Osso Esfenoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osso Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Occipital/metabolismo , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/metabolismo
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