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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 249, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the trabecular bone microstructures of anterior and posterior edentulous regions of human mandible using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro computed tomography (µCT). METHODS: Twenty volumes of interests consisting of six anterior and fourteen posterior edentulous regions were obtained from human mandibular cadavers. A CBCT system with a resolution of 80 µm (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a µCT system with a resolution of 35 µm (SkyScan 1173, Kontich, Belgium) were used to scan the mandibles. Three structural parameters namely, trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were analysed using CTAn software (v 1.11, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium). For each system, the measurements obtained from anterior and posterior regions were tested using independent sample t-test. Subsequently, all measurements between systems were tested using paired t-test. RESULTS: In CBCT, all parameters of the anterior and posterior mandible showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). However, µCT showed a significant different of Tb.Th (p = 0.023) between anterior and posterior region. Regardless of regions, the measurements obtained using both imaging systems were significantly different (p ≤ 0.021) for Tb.Th and Tb.N. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated that only the variation of Tb.Th between anterior and posterior edentulous region of mandible can be detected using µCT. In addition, CBCT is less feasible than µCT in assessing trabecular bone microstructures at both regions.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso , Mandíbula , Bélgica , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Japão , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 394, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senile osteoporosis with age-related bone loss is diagnosed depending on radiographic changes of bone and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, radiographic alterations are usually signs of medium-late stage osteoporosis. Therefore, biomarkers have been proposed as indicators of bone loss. In the current study, Galectin-1 (Gal-1) showed age-related decline in mice serum. The role of Gal-1 in osteoporosis has not been investigated so far. Hence, the current study illustrated the relationship of serum Gal-1 level with bone loss. METHODS: We employed 6- and 18-month-old mice to establish an animal model of age-related trabecular bone loss, whose bone density and microstructure were investigated by micro-CT. ELISA was used to measure the levels of Gal-1 in serum. The correlation analysis was performed to illustrate the relationship between serum Gal-1 levels and trabecular bone loss. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the abundance of Gal-1 in bone marrow of mice. ELISA and western blot were performed to measure the secretion ability and protein expression of Gal-1 in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC), hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and myeloid progenitor (MP) respectively. Flow cytometry was used to measure BMSC number in bone marrow. Finally, male volunteers with age-related BMD decrease were recruited and the relationship between serum Gal-1 and BMD was analyzed. RESULTS: Gal-1 showed age-related decline in mice serum. Serum Gal-1 was positively associated with BV/TV of femur, tibia and L1 vertebrae in mice. BMSC secreted more Gal-1 compared with HSC and MP. BMSC number in bone marrow was significantly lower in aged mice compared with young mice. Significant attenuation of Gal-1 protein expression was observed in BMSC and HSC from aged mice compared with young mice. Further, we found a decline in serum Gal-1 levels in men with age-related BMD decrease. There was positive correlation between BMD and serum Gal-1 levels in these men. CONCLUSIONS: Age-related trabecular bone loss is associated with a decline in serum Gal-1 level in mice and men. Our study suggested Gal-1 had great potential to be a biomarker for discovering BMSC senescence, diagnosing early osteoporosis and monitoring trabecular bone loss.


Assuntos
Galectina 1 , Osteoporose , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802646

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during pregnancy on postpartum bone tissue quality by assessing changes in trabecular and compact bone as well as in hyaline and epiphyseal cartilage. The experiment was carried out on adult 6-month-old female spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) divided into three groups: pregnant control (PregCont), pregnant HMB-treated (supplemented with 0.02 g/kg b.w of HMB during the second trimester of pregnancy, PregHMB), and non-pregnant females (NonPreg). Cross-sectional area and cortical index of the femoral mid-shaft, stiffness, and Young modulus were significantly greater in the PregHMB group. Whole-bone mineral density was similar in all groups, and HMB supplementation increased trabecular number. Growth plate cartilage was the thinnest, while the articular cartilage was the thickest in the PregHMB group. HMB supplementation increased the content of proteoglycans in the articular cartilage and the percentage of immature collagen content in metaphyseal trabeculae and compact bone. In summary, dietary HMB supplementation during the second trimester of pregnancy intensifies bone metabolic processes and prevents bone loss during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Valeratos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Epífises/efeitos dos fármacos , Epífises/patologia , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/patologia , Murinae , Gravidez , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Valeratos/farmacologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 119: 104506, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865068

RESUMO

An abnormal remodelling process of bones can lead to various bone disorders, such as osteoporosis, making them prone to fracture. Simulations of load-induced remodelling of trabecular bone were used to investigate its response to mechanical signal. However, the role of mechanostat in trabecular-bone remodelling has not yet been investigated in simulations underpinned by a longitudinal in-vivo study in humans. In this work, a finite-element model based on a 6-month longitudinal in-vivo HR-pQCT study was developed and validated to investigate the effect of mechanical stimuli on bone remodelling. The simulated changes in microstructural parameters and density of trabecular bone were compared with respective experimental results. A maximum principal strain (MPS) and a maximum principal strain gradient (∇MPS) were used as mechanical signals to drive a five-stage mechanostat remodelling model, including additional over-strain and damage stages. It was found that the density distribution varied with the studied mechanical signals, along with decreasing with time levels of bone volume fraction BV/TV, trabecular thickness Tb.Th and bone surface area Tb.BS as well as increased trabecular separation Tb.Sp. Among these parameters, BV/TV and Tb.Th together with the bone-remodelling parameters from the MPS model demonstrated a significant correlation with the experimental data. The developed model provides a good foundation for further development and investigation of the relationships between mechanical loading and human-bone microarchitecture.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Tíbia , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 546: 185-191, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601314

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia manifesting as insufficient insulin. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) has been implicated in diabetic osteoporosis. We established streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model and examined the relevant osteoporosis factors in different experimental groups, the WT-CON group, WT-STZ group, KO-CON group and KO-STZ group, respectively. No obvious protection of TLR4 deletion was shown in mice with diabetes. There was no obvious difference in the body weight or blood glucose concentration between WT-STZ group and KO-STZ group. However, TLR4 deletion reduced the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, TLR4 knockout attenuated STZ-induced diabetic osteoporosis via inhibiting osteoblasts and pre-inflammation factors mediated by the NF-κB pathway. TLR4 deletion ameliorated STZ-induced diabetic osteoporosis in mice, and TLR4 may be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/genética , Estreptozocina , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Osso Esponjoso/citologia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/patologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Tíbia/citologia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
6.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(1): 6-10, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522168

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is one of the common metabolic diseases, which can easily lead to osteoporotic fractures. Accurate prediction of bone biomechanical properties is of great significance for the early prevention and diagnosis of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density measurement is currently used clinically as the gold standard for assessing bone strength and diagnosing osteoporosis, but studies have shown that bone mineral density can only explain 60% to 70% of bone strength changes, and trabecular bone microstructure is an important factor affecting bone strength. In order to establish the connection between trabecular bone microstructure and bone strength, this paper proposes a prediction method of trabecular bone modulus based on SE-DenseVoxNet. This method takes three-dimensional binary images of trabecular bone as input and predicts its elastic modulus in the z-axis direction. Experiments show that the error and bias between the predicted value of the method and the true value of the sample are small and have good consistency.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 41, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624129

RESUMO

This is the first 5-year analysis among persons with HIV (PWH) that reports both trabecular bone score (TBS), which is a novel index that estimates bone microarchitecture, and bone mineral density (BMD) over time to evaluate the long-term impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on bone health. PURPOSE: HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). This study aims to evaluate long-term changes in trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel index that estimates bone microarchitecture, and BMD among Chinese persons with HIV (PWH) treated with ART. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult PWH at a large tertiary care hospital in China. Patients who had a DXA scan prior to ART and at least one follow-up DXA after ART initiation were included. Subgroup analyses examined the TBS and BMD changes in patients who switch from a non-TDF-containing regimen to one containing TDF, as compared to those who did not switch. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-nine PWH were included. Among 68 patients ≥ 50 years, 13 patients (19.1%) had a normal BMD but partially degraded or degraded TBS. The mean percent decrease in lumbar spine (LS) BMD nadired at 48 weeks after ART initiation and then gradually improved. Percent decrease in femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) BMD nadired at 96 weeks and remained stably low thereafter. After switch to a TDF-containing regimen, only percent change in TH BMD was significant (-3.2%, p = 0.006). In the regression analyses, switch to a TDF-containing regimen was not associated with long-term change in TBS or BMD. CONCLUSION: This is the first study among PWH to evaluate the long-term impact of ART on TBS and BMD. At baseline, approximately 20% of patients had a normal BMD but impaired bone microstructure based upon TBS. For patients with 5 years of exposure to ART, there is a stabilization of TBS and BMD after initial nadir in the first 144 weeks. However, FN BMD, TH BMD, and TBS remained low at 5 years relative to baseline.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Infecções por HIV , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 108, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. Menopausal women represent the population with the highest risk of early osteoporosis onset, often accompanied by vertebral fractures (VF). Bone mineral density (BMD) is commonly assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for osteoporosis diagnosis; however, BMD alone does not represent a significant predictor of fracture risk. Bone microarchitecture, instead, arises as a determinant of bone fragility independent of BMD. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an effective noninvasive/nonionizing tool for in vivo characterisation of trabecular bone microarchitecture (TBA). We have previously set up an MRI method able to characterise TBA changes in aging and osteoporosis by one parameter, trabecular bone lacunarity parameter ß (TBLß). Fractal lacunarity was used for TBA texture analysis as it describes discontinuity of bone network and size of bone marrow spaces, changes of which increase the risk of bone fracture. This study aims to assess the potential of TBLß method as a tool for osteoporotic fracture risk. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional, and prospective study on over-50s women at risk for VF was designed. TBLß, our index of osteoporotic fracture risk, is the main outcome measure. It was calculated on lumbar vertebra axial images, acquired by 1.5 T MRI spin-echo technique, from 279 osteopenic/osteoporotic women with/without prior VF. Diagnostic power of TBLß method, by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve and other diagnostic accuracy measurements were compared with lumbar spine DXA-BMD. RESULTS: Baseline results show that TBLß is able to discriminate patients with/without prevalent VF (p = 0.003). AUC (area under the curve from ROC) is 0.63 for TBLß, statistically higher (p = 0.012) than BMD one (0.53). Contribution of TBLß to prevalent VF is statistically higher (p < 0.001) than BMD (sensitivity: 66% vs. 52% respectively; OR: 3.20, p < 0.0001 for TBLß vs. 1.31, p = 0.297 for BMD). Preliminary 1-year prospective results suggest that TBA contribution to incident VF is even higher (sensitivity: 73% for TBLß vs. 55% for BMD; RR: 3.00, p = 0.002 for TBLß vs. 1.31, p = 0.380 for BMD). CONCLUSION: Results from this study further highlight the usefulness of TBLß as a biomarker of TBA degeneration and an index of osteoporotic fracture risk.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fractais , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
9.
Magn Reson Med ; 85(6): 3353-3369, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349979

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Single-sided 1 H-NMR is proposed for the estimation of morphological parameters of trabecular bone, and potentially the detection of pathophysiological alterations of bone structure. In this study, a new methodology was used to estimate such parameters without using an external reference signal, and to study intratrabecular and intertrabecular porosities, with a view to eventually scanning patients. METHODS: Animal trabecular bone samples were analyzed by a single-sided device. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence of 1 H nuclei of fluids, including marrow, confined inside the bone, was analyzed by quasi-continuous T2 distributions and separated into two 1 H pools: short and long T2 components. The NMR parameters were estimated using models of trabecular bone structure, and compared with the corresponding micro-CT. RESULTS: Without any further assumptions, the internal reference parameter (short T2 signal intensity fraction) enabled prediction of the micro-CT parameters BV/TV (volume of the trabeculae/total sample volume) and BS/TV (external surface of the trabeculae/total sample volume) with linear correlation coefficient >0.80. The assignment of the two pools to intratrabecular and intertrabecular components yielded an estimate of average intratrabecular porosity (33 ± 5)%. Using the proposed models, the NMR-estimated BV/TV and BS/TV were found to be linearly related to the corresponding micro-CT values with high correlation (>0.90 for BV/TV; >0.80 for BS/TV) and agreement coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low-field, low-cost portable devices that rely on intrinsic magnetic field gradients and do not use ionizing radiation are viable tools for in vitro preclinical studies of pathophysiological structural alterations of trabecular bone.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Osso Esponjoso , Animais , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Porosidade , Microtomografia por Raio-X
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322479

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess trabecular bone morphology via magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) using microcomputed tomography (µCT) as the control group. Porcine bone samples were scanned with T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequence imaging, using TR 25 ms, TE 3.5 ms, FOV 100 × 100 × 90, voxel size 0.22 × 0.22 × 0.50 mm, and scan time of 11:18. µCT was used as the control group with 80 kV, 125 mA, and a voxel size of 16 µm. The trabecular bone was segmented on the basis of a reference threshold value and morphological parameters. Bone volume (BV), Bone-volume fraction (BvTv), Bone specific surface (BsBv), trabecular thickness (TbTh), and trabecular separation (TbSp) were evaluated. Paired t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed at p = 0.05. MRI overestimated BV, BvTv, TbTh, and TbSp values. BsBv was the only parameter that was underestimated by MRI. High statistical correlation (r = 0.826; p < 0.05) was found for BV measurements. Within the limitations of this study, MRI overestimated trabecular bone parameters, but with a statistically significant fixed linear offset.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso , Imageamento Tridimensional , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Projetos Piloto , Suínos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e385-e392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marginal bone loss (MBL) represents an important indicator of peri-implant health and the measure of its level is considered a determining factor in the evaluation of the quality of survival. Aim of this study is to compare radiographic changes in the fractal and mesial/distal vertical dimensions of peri-implant trabecular bone of dental implants with a laser-ablated micron-scale modication (LAM) of collar surface after a 5-year follow-up period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four implants with LAM of collar surface (test group = TG) and 31 implants without LAM of collar surface (control group = CG) were placed in 45 non-smoking, periodontally healthy patients. Fractal and vertical dimensions of peri-implant trabecular bone were measured by comparing radiographs taken immediately after prosthesis delivery with those taken 3 years and 5 years after functional loading. RESULT: At the end of the 5-year follow-up, the MBL in the TG was 0.87±0.21 and 0.75±0.25 mm at the mesial and distal aspects, respectively, while a MBL of 2.05±0.25 mm at the mesial aspect and 2.01±0.34 mm at the distal site was recorded in the CG. A statistically significant difference was noted. In the TG the mean fractal dimension before loading was 1.4213±0.0525. It increased significantly to 1.4329±0.0479 at 3 years after loading and remained almost stable at 5 years after loading (1.4327±0.0291). In the CG the mean fractal dimension before loading was 1.4119±0.0414. It increased significantly to 1.4282±0.0324 at 3 years after loading and decreased significantly to 1.4111±0.0624 at 5 years after loading. At the end of the follow-up, differences between both study groups were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The increased fractal dimension and the reduced MBL around TG implants after 5 years of functional loading indicates a positive effect of a laser-ablated micron-scale modication of collar surface on peri-implant trabecular bone remodeling.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/cirurgia , Implantes Dentários , Terapia a Laser , Adulto , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fractais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 102, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627100

RESUMO

In this study, we compared patients using the anticoagulant warfarin for more than a year with a control group with similar characteristics but without using the drug. We demonstrated worse BMD and bone quality by trabecular bone score (TBS) in patients using warfarin for more than 1 year. PURPOSE: Evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and the trabecular bone score (TBS) of patients taking warfarin for more than 1 year compared with a control group. METHODS: Male patients aged 25-65 years in warfarin use for more than 1 year were included. Patients answered a questionnaire regarding lifestyle habits and realized a dual X-ray densitometry (DXA) (lumbar spine and hip), and TBS was evaluated. RESULTS: From the 96 patients invited, 33 patients accepted to participate and comprised the warfarin group (WG), and 3 were excluded. The control group (CG) was composed of 21 individuals matched by age and race. The mean age of WG was 57.0 ± 7.6 and in the CG 54.0 ± 10.6 years (p = 0.095). The BMD in WG was lower than that in the CG in all sites (spine p < 0.001, total hip p = 0.001, and femoral neck p = 0.005). A longer time of warfarin use increased the likelihood of having low BMD (OR = 1.239, CI 1.064-1.674, p = 0.01), whereas high BMI decreased it (OR = 0.732, CI 0.533-0.918, p = 0.03). The TBS was lower in WG than the CG (p = 0.04). Lower TBS was associated with hypertension in both groups and to the hip BMD (neck and total) (p < 0.005) in the WG. In the multivariate analysis, only hypertension (- 0.10, CI - 0.17 to - 0.03, p = 0.008) and total hip BMD ( 0.26, CI 0.07-0.46, p = 0.009) influenced TBS. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated an association between worsening of BMD and bone quality in patients taking warfarin for more than 1 year.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
13.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 100, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621253

RESUMO

The bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the femoral neck and total hip, and the lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS), tended to decrease with age in both men and women, whereas the lumbar spine BMD tended to increase. Lumbar spine BMD is thus inappropriate for evaluating longitudinal changes in bone loss; the lumbar spine TBS is an alternative measure. PURPOSE: Aging is associated with a decrease in bone mass and quality. This community-based prospective cohort study investigated longitudinal changes in bone phenotype in Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective community-based cohort study, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Postmenopausal women and men who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at least twice from 2007 to 2014 were included. Longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) over 6 years were analyzed by sex, age, and body mass index. RESULTS: A total of 1895 subjects were enrolled (men 965; postmenopausal women 929). The femoral neck (FN) BMD, total hip (TH) BMD, and lumbar spine (LS) TBS decreased significantly over time, but the LS BMD increased significantly. In men, the average annual changes were 0.3% in LS BMD (p < 0.001), - 0.33% in FN BMD (p < 0.001), - 0.26% in TH BMD (p = 0.001), and - 0.27% in LS TBS (p < 0.001). In women, the average annual changes were 0.27% in LS BMD (p < 0.001), - 0.67% in FN BMD (p < 0.001), - 0.66% in TH BMD (p < 0.001), and - 0.27% in LS TBS (p < 0.001). The longitudinal decrease in TH BMD over time was significantly greater in women (versus men) and those who were older (versus younger). CONCLUSION: The FN and TH BMDs decreased with aging. But, the LS BMD was inappropriate to evaluate longitudinal changes of bone loss. The LS TBS could be alterative.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
14.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 562-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to study the association of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: Spine BMD was evaluated in a subset of 2028 participants from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort who were NSAID users (including aspirin) and underwent both lumbar and thoracic imaging. Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study that includes 4 ethnic groups (white, Asian, African American, and Hispanic). Trabecular BMD was evaluated by quantitative computed tomography based on cardiac computed tomography images, which were obtained during coronary calcium scans. The analyses were cross sectional using baseline examination data for exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, race, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a small association between trabecular BMD and baseline use of COX-2-selective NSAID was observed. COX-2-selective NSAID use was associated with 7.4 mg/cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.3; P = 0. 013) higher trabecular BMD in thoracic spine and 10.6 mg/cm higher at lumbar spine (95% CI, 5.1-16.1; P < 0.001). Among regular aspirin users, there was no association between drug use and trabecular BMD. Considering all spine fractures together, the prevalence ratio of fractures among aspirin users was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.3) among COX-2-selective NSAID users. CONCLUSIONS: Regular use of aspirin has no significant association with trabecular BMD in either the thoracic or lumbar spine and no association with fracture prevalence. COX-2-selective NSAIDs may have modest positive association with BMD, but the mechanisms were not assessed and the observational study design makes residual confounding a possible alternate explanation. Potential pathological mechanisms warrant further longitudinal exploration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/etnologia
15.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(6): 826-838, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Second-generation high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has provide higher quality of bone images with a voxel size of 61 µm, enabling direct measurements of trabecular thickness. In addition to the standard parameters, the non-metric trabecular parameters such as trabecular morphology (plate to rod-like structures), connectivity, and anisotropy can also be analyzed. The purpose of this study is to investigate deterioration of bone microstructure in healthy Japanese women by measuring standard and non-metric parameters using HR-pQCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants were 61 healthy Japanese women (31-70 years). The distal radius and tibia were scanned using second-generation HR-pQCT, and microstructures of trabecular and cortical bone were measured. Non-metric trabecular parameters included structure model index (SMI), trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf), connectivity density (Conn.D), number of nodes (N.Nd/TV), degree of anisotropy (DA), and star volume of marrow space (V*ms). Estimated bone strength was evaluated by micro finite element analysis. Associations between bone microstructure, estimated bone strength, age, and menopause were analyzed. RESULTS: Trabecular number declined with age, and trabecular separation increased. SMI and TBPf increased, Conn.D and N.Nd/TV declined, and V*ms increased. Cortical BMD and thickness declined with age, and porosity increased. Stiffness and failure load decreased with age. Cortical thickness and estimated bone strength were affected by menopause. Cortical thickness was most associated with estimated bone strength. CONCLUSIONS: Trabecular and cortical bone microstructure were deteriorated markedly with age. Cortical thickness decreased after menopause and was most related to bone strength. Non-metric parameters give additional information about osteoporotic changes of trabecular bone.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Menopausa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/patologia , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porosidade
16.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 70, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394003

RESUMO

Patients that sustain "osteoporosis-related" fractures may have normal BMD at the hips and spine, but rarely have normal bone when other clinically available studies are considered. Such data often exist and can inform clinical decisions regarding osteoporosis therapy. PURPOSE: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis. However, patients that sustain "osteoporosis-related" fractures often have normal BMD at these sites. The aim of this study was to explore whether older adults with fracture, but normal reported hip and spine BMD, also have normal bone using additional clinically available assessments. METHODS: This retrospective electronic medical record study included 387 patients evaluated by a university-based fracture liaison service with spine and hip DXA; 32 (8.3%) had normal spine/hip BMD reported. In this cohort, clinically available bone data including 0.3 and ultradistal radius T-scores, trochanteric T-scores, lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS), L1 opportunistic CT Hounsfield units (HU), and femoral cortical index (FCI) were assessed. RESULTS: One or more of the above noted studies were available in 30/32 patients. UD and 0.3 radius results were available in 21 patients, and 18 (85.7%) had T-scores < - 1.0. Trochanteric values were available in 16; T-scores were < - 1.0 in 18.8%. TBS data were available in 24; partially degraded or degraded values were present in 41.7%. L1 opportunistic CT was available in 25 patients, 80% were below normal, and < 150 HU. Finally, femoral cortical index (FCI) was measurable in 9 subjects; 66.7% were below < 0.4. When including all additional available data in the skeletal assessment, only 5/387 (1.3%) were identified with normal bone. CONCLUSION: Patients with normal spine/hip BMD who sustain fracture rarely have normal bone when all available data are considered.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Absorciometria de Fóton , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7786, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385316

RESUMO

Patients with ß-thalassemia have an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease which is associated with osteoporosis and periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular and femoral bone change in heterozygous ß-globin knockout (BKO) mice following 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Female and male BKO mouse blood smears demonstrated microcytic hypochromic anemia. Serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus levels were not changed in BKO mice. Nx increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen in both wild type (WT) and BKO mice and the level was much higher in BKO males. Serum level of creatinine was increased in Nx WT but not BKO mice. However, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not altered. Nx induced comparable renal fibrosis in BKO mice and WT controls. Bone loss was observed in mandibular cancellous bone but not cortical bone of both male and female BKO mice. Nx decreased cancellous bone volume and cortical thickness in WT. Interestingly, BKO mice were resistant to Nx-induced cancellous bone loss. However, cortical thickness and cortical bone mineral density were reduced in Nx male BKO mice. Nx increased mRNA levels of type I collagen, Osx and Trap in WT but not BKO mice. Similarly, Nx reduced cancellous bone volume in femurs and increased osteoblast number and osteoclast number in WT not BKO mice. Serum FGF23 and erythropoietin levels were markedly increased in BKO mice. Nx decreased serum erythropoietin but not FGF23 levels. Since WT treated with erythropoietin exhibited a significant reduction in cancellous bone volume, it was possible that lower level of erythropoietin in Nx BKO mice prevented the Nx-induced cancellous bone loss.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/patologia , Talassemia/complicações , Animais , Biomarcadores , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Fêmur , Fibrose , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrogênio/urina , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Talassemia beta/sangue , Talassemia beta/complicações , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Talassemia beta/genética
18.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(5): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399674

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes has been proposed as a risk factor for increased skeletal fragility. Visceral fat is known to yield adverse effects on bone metabolism in people with diabetes. We investigated the relationship between the change in visceral fat mass over time and TBS or BMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 690 (male: 367; female: 323) subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Visceral fat mass, lumbar and femoral neck BMD, and lumbar spine TBS were measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), including the follow-up data within a 3-year period. RESULTS: TBS significantly increased as visceral fat mass decreased in both sexes (p < 0.001), whereas lumbar BMD and femoral neck BMD showed meaningful changes only in men. The multiple regression model with adjustment for age, weight, creatinine level, lipid profile, HbA1C, and status of osteoporosis medication use revealed that TBS and femoral neck BMD were correlated with visceral fat mass. However, regarding longitudinal changes, only the change in visceral fat mass had a significant relationship with TBS (males: ß = - 0.298, p < 0.001; females: ß = - 0.216, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may suggest the beneficial effect of controlling visceral fat mass on bone health in type 2 diabetes patients. Besides, DXA-derived TBS could be a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating the bone changes according to metabolic changes in type 2 diabetes, which are not entirely achieved with BMD.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109112, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360284

RESUMO

Till now monocrotophos (MCP) has been addressed as a neurotoxic stressor. Limited studies investigate its aftermath on bone pathologies. Given the fact that MCP is a propensely used insecticide in developing countries, this study investigates its potential to mirror osteoporotic features and bone loss incurred in a rodent model. Briefly, Swiss albino mice were orally gavaged daily with varying doses of MCP for 8 weeks. Musculoskeletal changes were analyzed through micro-computed tomography and histology. A series of in vitro and ex vivo cell culture experiments were performed on MC3T3E-1 and primary osteoclast cultures. Results highlight that oral gavaging with MCP causes bone loss from the cortico-trabecular interface by decreasing the osteoblast and increasing the osteoclast number. Results from in vitro studies establish that MCP treatment increases the TRAP-positive multinucleated cell number during osteoclast differentiation. Ex-vivo experiments with MCP-treated animal sera further substantiate the in vivo claims with significant decreases seen in cell viability, proliferation, mineralization and differentiation studies. In conclusion MCP induces osteoclastogenesis (bone loss) on direct stimulation and alters the circulating factors in MCP-treated serum. Holistically, this work would be of potential significance to patients suffering from pesticide induced osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Monocrotofós/toxicidade , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 79, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458096

RESUMO

Clinicians and patients want to know if therapy is working early in their course of treatment. We found that early changes in bone turnover markers at 6 months were associated with long-term changes in bone mineral density but not trabecular bone score at 12 and 24 months. PURPOSE: We sought to examine the association between shorter-term changes in markers of bone turnover and longer-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure in a cohort of frail elderly women with multiple comorbid conditions including osteoporosis. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a 2-year zoledronic acid trial for osteoporosis in 155 women residents of long-term care communities (mean age 86.9 years). We examined the association of the 6-month change in serum C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum intact procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) with the 12- and 24-month changes in BMD at the spine and hip and the trabecular bone score (TBS), an indirect measure of bone microstructure. RESULTS: For every 0.2-ng/ml 6-month CTX decrease, the corresponding increase in spine BMD at 12 and 24 months was 0.2% (p = 0.7210) and 1.1% (p = 0.0396), respectively; total hip BMD 1.1% (p = 0.0279) and 0.9% (p = 0.0716); and femoral neck BMD 1.7% (p = 0.0079) and 0.9% (p = 0.1698). Similarly, for every 20-ng/ml 6-month PINP decrease, the corresponding increase in spine BMD at 12 and 24 months was 0.9% (p = 0.0286) and 1.4% (p = 0.0012), respectively; total hip BMD 1.4% (p = 0.0005) and 1.4% (p = 0.0006); and femoral neck BMD 2.3% (p < 0.0001) and 2.0% (p < 0.0001). Bone marker changes were not consistently associated with TBS changes. CONCLUSION: Shorter-term 6-month changes in bone turnover markers are associated with the long-term changes in BMD over 1-2 years in the spine and hip but not with TBS.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Densidade Óssea , Remodelação Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem
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