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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259985, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905540

RESUMO

Situated at a geographic crossroads, the eastern Tianshan Mountain region in northwest China is crucial to understanding various economic, social, and cultural developments on the Eurasian Steppes. One promising way to gain a better knowledge of ancient subsistence economy, craft production, and social change in the eastern Tianshan Mountain region is to study the artifact assemblages from archaeological contexts. Here, we present an analysis of 488 worked animal bones from the large site of Shirenzigou (ca. 1300-1 BCE), to date the largest assemblage of this kind uncovered in the eastern Tianshan Mountain region. We classified these worked bones into six categories, including "ritual objects", "ornaments", "tools", "worked astragali", "warfare and mobility", and "indeterminate". The identification of animal species and skeletal elements indicates that worked bones from Shirenzigou are characterized by a predominance of caprine products, particularly worked astragali, which is consistent with the large proportion of caprine fragments found in animal remains associated with food consumption. This demonstrates the contribution of caprine pastoralism to bone working activities at Shirenzigou. The making of most worked bones does not appear to have required advanced or specialized skills. Considering the absence of dedicated bone working space, alongside the variability in raw material selection and in dimensions of certain types of artifacts, we infer that worked bone production at Shirenzigou was not standardized. In terms of raw material selection and mode of production, Shirenzigou differed from their settled, farming counterparts in the Yellow River valley of northern China. In addition, along with the evidence for violence and horseback riding, the increasing use of bone artifacts associated with warfare and mobility during the late occupation phase of Shirenzigou reflects growing social instability and implies the likely emergence of single mounted horsemen, equipped with light armors, in the region during the late first millennium BCE. Our results provide new insights into animal resource exploitation and changing lifeways of early pastoral societies in the eastern Tianshan Mountain region, expanding our knowledge of the economic, social, and political milieu of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age eastern Eurasia.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Guerra/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Ritualístico , China , Cabras , História Antiga , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613997

RESUMO

Cremation 168 from the second half of the 8th century BCE (Pithekoussai's necropolis, Ischia Island, Italy), better known as the Tomb of Nestor's Cup, is widely considered as one of the most intriguing discoveries in the Mediterranean Pre-Classic archaeology. A drinking cup, from which the Tomb's name derives, bears one of the earliest surviving examples of written Greek, representing the oldest Homeric poetry ever recovered. According to previous osteological analyses, the Cup is associated with the cremated remains of a juvenile, aged approximately 10-14 years at death. Since then, a vast body of literature has attempted to explain the unique association between the exceptionality of the grave good complex, the symposiac and erotic evocation of the Nestor's Cup inscription with the young age of the individual buried with it. This paper reconsiders previous assessments of the remains by combining gross morphology with qualitative histology and histomorphometric analyses of the burnt bone fragments. This work reveals the commingled nature of the bone assemblage, identifying for the first time, more than one human individual mixed with faunal remains. These outcomes dramatically change previous reconstructions of the cremation deposit, rewriting the answer to the question: who was buried with Nestor's Cup?.


Assuntos
Cremação/história , Adolescente , Arqueologia/história , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Restos Mortais/ultraestrutura , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Criança , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália
3.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 83: 102253, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blast related deaths are often shrouded by diagnostic and medicolegal complexities requiring multidisciplinary expertise in order to gauge accurate identification of the victims and document scientific investigations comprehensively. In the advent of more sophisticated technology, anthropologic methods can now be applied into post mortem imaging interpretation. The traditional imaging roles of characterizing osseous fragmentation, detecting and localizing foreign bodies can be expanded to simulate and support physical anthropologic examination to assist in documentation for court proceedings. CASE PRESENTATION: An assemblage of unidentified, incomplete, highly fragmented skeletal remains were found scattered on a bare area of land in a forest. There was evidence of an explosion given the pattern of scattered evidentiary material of explosive and ballistic nature. Laboratory analysis of white powder found within the explosive material confirmed the presence of high impact C4-explosive trace containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramin [Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX)] & pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). It took meticulous multidisciplinary efforts to confirm the identity of the victim that was marred by the severe fragmentation and skeletalization of the remains. The initial radiologic interpretation focused more on identification of foreign bodies and supporting documentation of fragmentation. With the current availability of post computed tomography (PMCT) in our center, we reexamined the value and potential of PMXR and PMCT as an adjunctive tool for biological profiling. CONCLUSION: This was the first case of C4-blast related death reported in Malaysia. The multidisciplinary approach in efforts to identify the victim may serve as a guide in managing, coordinating and maximizing the expertise of different forensic specialists, with emphasis on anthropologic and radiologic collaboration.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Traumatismos por Explosões , Restos Mortais/lesões , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , Adulto , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Restos Mortais/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432814

RESUMO

A remarkably well-preserved, almost complete and articulated new specimen (GP/2E 9266) of Tupandactylus navigans is here described for the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil. The new specimen comprises an almost complete skeleton, preserving both the skull and post-cranium, associated with remarkable preservation of soft tissues, which makes it the most complete tapejarid known thus far. CT-Scanning was performed to allow the assessment of bones still covered by sediment. The specimen can be assigned to Tupa. navigans due to its vertical supra-premaxillary bony process and short and rounded parietal crest. It also bears the largest dentary crest among tapejarine pterosaurs and a notarium, which is absent in other representatives of the clade. The new specimen is here regarded as an adult individual. This is the first time that postcranial remains of Tupa. navigans are described, being also an unprecedented record of an articulated tapejarid skeleton from the Araripe Basin.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/classificação , Osteologia , Filogenia , Preservação Biológica , Animais , Brasil , Paleontologia
5.
Science ; 372(6548)2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140356

RESUMO

Echolocation is the use of reflected sound to sense features of the environment. Here, we show that soft-furred tree mice (Typhlomys) echolocate based on multiple independent lines of evidence. Behavioral experiments show that these mice can locate and avoid obstacles in darkness using hearing and ultrasonic pulses. The proximal portion of their stylohyal bone fuses with the tympanic bone, a form previously only seen in laryngeally echolocating bats. Further, we found convergence of hearing-related genes across the genome and of the echolocation-related gene prestin between soft-furred tree mice and echolocating mammals. Together, our findings suggest that soft-furred tree mice are capable of echolocation, and thus are a new lineage of echolocating mammals.


Assuntos
Ecolocação , Roedores/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Genoma , Audição/genética , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Laringe/fisiologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Roedores/genética , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12681, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135440

RESUMO

Stable isotope analyses of zooarchaeological material can be used to examine ecological variability in exploited species at centennial to millennial scales. Climate change is a notable driver of marine ecosystem change, although historical fishing is also likely to have impacted past marine systems. Fishing removes the oldest and largest individuals and may thereby result in shorter trophic pathways and reduced niche width of predatory fish species. In the current study we examine the trophic niche of Atlantic cod, haddock and Atlantic wolffish, in the last millennium using δ13C and δ15N values of bone collagen. We report a lower trophic level of Atlantic cod and haddock but higher level of wolffish in present times, following centuries at consistent and higher trophic levels of Atlantic cod. This results in a concurrent converging trophic niche of the demersal fish. We suggest that the current data set provides a valuable historical baseline facilitating interpretation of current variability in the trophic ecology of northern demersal fish.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gadus morhua , Animais , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Mudança Climática , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Gadiformes , Islândia , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 163-178, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105143

RESUMO

Developmental plasticity facilitates energetically costly but potentially fitness-enhancing adjustments to phenotypic trajectories in response to environmental stressors, and thus may significantly impact patterns of growth, morbidity, and mortality over the life course. Ongoing research into epigenetics and developmental biology indicate that the timing of stress exposures is a key factor when assessing their impact on developmental processes. Specifically, stress experienced within sensitive developmental windows (SDWs), discrete developmental periods characterized by heightened energy requirements and rapid growth, may alter the pace and tempo of growth in ways that significantly influence phenotypic development over both the short and long term. In human skeletal biology, efforts to assess how developmental environments shape health outcomes over the life course could be enhanced by incorporating the SDW concept into existing methodological approaches. The goal of this article is to outline an interpretive framework for identifying and interpreting evidence of developmental stress in the skeletal system using the SDW concept. This framework provides guidance for the identification of elements most likely to capture evidence of stress most relevant to a study's core research questions, the interpretation of developmental stress exhibited by those elements, and the relationship of skeletal indicators of stress to the demographic patterning of morbidity and mortality. Use of the SDW concept in skeletal biology has the potential to enrich traditional approaches to addressing developmental origins of health and disease hypotheses, by targeting periods in which individuals are most susceptible to stress and thus most likely to exhibit plasticity in response.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
8.
Toxicology ; 458: 152830, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097993

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that bisphenol A (BPA) has a toxic effect on bone development; however, its pathological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered BPA (10 µg/kg per day) during gestational days 14-21. Then, bone tissues were obtained from neonatal rats on postnatal day 1 for histological analysis, and the bone mass of adult rat offspring was analyzed by micro-CT at postnatal week 10. Furthermore, osteoprogenitors from neonatal rats were obtained and treated with various concentrations of BPA in vitro to clarify the associated mechanism. In vivo, we found that prenatal BPA exposure reduced body weight and body length in female neonatal rats but not in male neonatal rats. Meanwhile, BPA exposure during pregnancy delayed bone development and reduced bone mass only in female rat offspring. Moreover, BPA exposure during pregnancy inhibited osteogenic function and downregulated the transforming growth factor ß (TGF ß) signaling pathway in the bone tissue of female neonatal rats. Our in vitro findings further indicated that various concentrations of BPA suppressed the osteogenic function of osteoprogenitors by downregulating the TGFß signaling pathway. Meanwhile, BPA downregulated H3K9ac and expression levels of TGFß via the ERß/HDAC5 signaling pathway. Collectively, this research revealed that prenatal BPA exposure impairs bone development and bone mass accumulation in female rat offspring, which was attributed to inhibitory osteogenic function via the ERß/HDAC5/TGFß signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 144-151, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The statistical analysis of fossil remains is essential to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. Unfortunately, the human fossil record is straight away scarce and plagued with severe loss of information caused by taphonomic processes. The recently developed field of Virtual Anthropology helps to ameliorate this situation by using digital techniques to restore damaged and incomplete fossils. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the package Arothron, an R software suite meant to process and analyze digital models of skeletal elements. Arothron includes tools to digitally extract virtual cavities such as cranial endocasts, to statistically align disarticulated or broken bony elements, and to visualize local variations between surface meshes and landmark configurations. RESULTS: We describe the main functionalities of Arothron and illustrate their usage through reproducible case studies. We describe a tool for segmentation of skeletal cavities by showing its application on a malleus bone, a Neanderthal tooth, and a modern human cranium, reproducing their shape and calculating their volume. We illustrate how to digitally align a disarticulated model of a modern human cranium, and how to combine piecemeal shape information on individual specimens into one. In addition, we present useful visualization tools by comparing the morphological differences between the right hemisphere of the Neanderthal and the modern human brain. CONCLUSIONS: The Arothron R package is designed to study digital models of fossil specimens. By using Arothron, scientists can handle digital models with ease, investigate the inner morphology of 3D skeletal models, gain a full representation of the original shapes of damaged specimens, and compare shapes across specimens.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Software , Animais , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Homem de Neandertal , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3890, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162868

RESUMO

The transformation of the bird skull from an ancestral akinetic, heavy, and toothed dinosaurian morphology to a highly derived, lightweight, edentulous, and kinetic skull is an innovation as significant as powered flight and feathers. Our understanding of evolutionary assembly of the modern form and function of avian cranium has been impeded by the rarity of early bird fossils with well-preserved skulls. Here, we describe a new enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of China that preserves a nearly complete skull including the palatal elements, exposing the components of cranial kinesis. Our three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire enantiornithine skull demonstrates that this bird has an akinetic skull indicated by the unexpected retention of the plesiomorphic dinosaurian palate and diapsid temporal configurations, capped with a derived avialan rostrum and cranial roof, highlighting the highly modular and mosaic evolution of the avialan skull.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , China , Plumas/anatomia & histologia
11.
Nature ; 593(7857): 95-100, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953416

RESUMO

The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate1-3. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa1-6. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2.5- to 3.0-year-old child dating to 78.3 ± 4.1 thousand years ago, which was recovered in the MSA layers of Panga ya Saidi (PYS), a cave site in the tropical upland coast of Kenya7,8. Recent excavations have revealed a pit feature containing a child in a flexed position. Geochemical, granulometric and micromorphological analyses of the burial pit content and encasing archaeological layers indicate that the pit was deliberately excavated. Taphonomical evidence, such as the strict articulation or good anatomical association of the skeletal elements and histological evidence of putrefaction, support the in-place decomposition of the fresh body. The presence of little or no displacement of the unstable joints during decomposition points to an interment in a filled space (grave earth), making the PYS finding the oldest known human burial in Africa. The morphological assessment of the partial skeleton is consistent with its assignment to Homo sapiens, although the preservation of some primitive features in the dentition supports increasing evidence for non-gradual assembly of modern traits during the emergence of our species. The PYS burial sheds light on how MSA populations interacted with the dead.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Fósseis , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Cultural/história , Dentição , História Antiga , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Quênia
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10209, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986378

RESUMO

Competition for resources is a key question in the study of our early human evolution. From the first hominin groups, carnivores have played a fundamental role in the ecosystem. From this perspective, understanding the trophic pressure between hominins and carnivores can provide valuable insights into the context in which humans survived, interacted with their surroundings, and consequently evolved. While numerous techniques already exist for the detection of carnivore activity in archaeological and palaeontological sites, many of these techniques present important limitations. The present study builds on a number of advanced data science techniques to confront these issues, defining methods for the identification of the precise agents involved in carcass consumption and manipulation. For the purpose of this study, a large sample of 620 carnivore tooth pits is presented, including samples from bears, hyenas, jaguars, leopards, lions, wolves, foxes and African wild dogs. Using 3D modelling, geometric morphometrics, robust data modelling, and artificial intelligence algorithms, the present study obtains between 88 and 98% accuracy, with balanced overall evaluation metrics across all datasets. From this perspective, and when combined with other sources of taphonomic evidence, these results show that advanced data science techniques can be considered a valuable addition to the taphonomist's toolkit for the identification of precise carnivore agents via tooth pit morphology.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados/métodos , Paleontologia/métodos , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Carnívoros , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fósseis , Hominidae , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10156, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980921

RESUMO

Evolution of the genus Equus has been a matter of long debate with a multitude of hypotheses. Currently, there is no consensus on either the taxonomic content nor phylogeny of Equus. Some hypotheses segregate Equus species into three genera, Plesippus, Allohippus and Equus. Also, the evolutionary role of European Pleistocene Equus stenonis in the origin of the zebra-ass clade has been debated. Studies based on skull, mandible and dental morphology suggest an evolutionary relationship between North American Pliocene E. simplicidens and European and African Pleistocene Equus. In this contribution, we assess the validity of the genera Plesippus, Allohippus and Equus by cladistic analysis combined with morphological and morphometrical comparison of cranial anatomy. Our cladistic analysis, based on cranial and postcranial elements (30 taxa, 129 characters), supports the monophyly of Equus, denies the recognition of Plesippus and Allohippus and supports the derivation of Equus grevyi and members of the zebra-ass clade from European stenonine horses. We define the following evolutionary steps directly relevant to the phylogeny of extant zebras and asses: E. simplicidens-E. stenonis-E. koobiforensis-E. grevyi -zebra-ass clade. The North American Pliocene species Equus simplicidens represents the ancestral stock of Old World Pleistocene Equus and the zebra-ass clade. Our phylogenetic results uphold the most recent genomic outputs which indicate an age of 4.0-4.5 Ma for the origin and monophyly of Equus.


Assuntos
Equidae/classificação , Equidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Cavalos/classificação , Cavalos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Equidae/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia
14.
Orthop Surg ; 13(4): 1417-1422, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Measure and systematically evaluate the distribution of microhardness in the human skeleton. METHODS: Three fresh corpses were obtained, aged 62 (male), 45 (female), and 58 years (male). Soft tissues were removed, and all axial and unilateral appendicular bones were freshly harvested. All three skeletons were examined by X-ray and computed tomography (CT) to exclude skeletal pathology. Only bones from donors with no known skeletal pathology were included in the study. Axial and unilateral appendicular skeleton bones from each of the three donors were obtained, except for ear ossicles, hyoid bone, tailbone, and 14 phalanges of the foot, for which samples were difficult to obtain. Precision bone specimens with a thickness of 3 mm, which were cut with a Buehler IsoMet 11-1280-250 low-speed diamond saw (Buehler, USA), were obtained from all important anatomic sites in a direction perpendicular to the mechanical axis of each bone. Micro-indentation (the Vickers hardness test) was performed on the surface of each specimen using a microhardness tester with a diamond indenter. Hardness value (HV) was computed for each indentation. Each bone specimen was divided into several regions of interest. Indentations were carefully made and computed. Then we analyzed the data to identify hardness distribution rules at different anatomic sites. RESULTS: In total, 5360 indentations were made in 1072 regions of interest in each donor. Hardness of the axial and appendicular bones were all inhomogeneous depending on the anatomic sites, but the distribution of microhardness followed certain rules. The mean hardness value ranged from 24.46 HV (HV = hardness value, kgf/mm2 ) for the sacrum to 53.20 HV for the shaft of the tibia. The diaphysis was harder than the metaphysis, and the proximal and distal epiphysis had lower values (8.85%- 40.39%) than the diaphysis. Among the long bone diaphyses, the tibia cortical bone (51.20 HV) was the hardest, harder than the humerus (47.25 HV), the ulna (43.26 HV), the radius (42.54 HV), and the femur (47.53 HV). However, in some anatomic sites such as the lumbar vertebra (cortical bone 32.86 HV, cancellous bone 31.25 HV), the cortical shells were sometimes not harder than the internal cancellous bones. The lumbar vertebra (32.86 HV) was harder than the cervical vertebra (28.51 HV) and the thoracic vertebra (29.01 HV). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of microhardness in the human skeleton follows certain rules. These distribution rules could be used to predict the mechanical properties of bone and progress in this field could provide data for the basis of a new three-dimensional printing technique, which may lead to new perspectives for custom-made implants.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Dureza/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997020

RESUMO

Purpose: This study investigated the antilingula and its related landmarks, the mandibular rami, by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: CBCT images of 37 patients (74 sides of the mandibular ramus) were collected. The landmarks of antilingula (AntiL), anterior ramus (A), posterior ramus (P), superior ramus (S), and inferior ramus (I) were identified. The distances (A-AntiL, P-AntiL, S-AntiL, and I-AntiL) were statistically evaluated according to gender, side (right and left), and skeletal patterns. Results: The distance from the antilingula to the anterior (A-AntiL) border of the ramus was significantly longer on the right side (14.69 mm) than on the left side (13.97 mm). Male patients had longer AntiL-P, AntiL-I, and S-I distances (18.96, 40.07, and 54.94 mm, respectively) than did female patients (16.66, 35, and 47.54 mm, respectively). Regarding skeletal patterns, the classes can be ordered as follows in terms of the measurements: class III>class II>class I. However, the differences between the classes were nonsignificant. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that gender and S-I distance were strongly correlated (r = 0.667); specifically, male patients had a longer S-I distance. A-AntiL and A-P also exhibited a strong correlation (r = 0.796). Conclusion: Antilingula-related distances did not differ between skeletal patterns. Among antilingula-related variables, A-AntiL could serve as a favorable measuring point during operation.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Osteotomia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997021

RESUMO

Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition involving repetitive partial or complete collapse of the pharyngeal airway, especially in patient with mandibular hypoplasia. The present study investigated the differences between the volume of the oropharyngeal airway and the minimum axial area in three skeletal patterns through the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: CBCT scans of 147 patients were collected to measure the upper oropharyngeal airway volume (UOV), lower oropharyngeal airway volume (LOV), upper oropharyngeal airway area (UOA), minimum upper oropharyngeal airway area (MUOA), lower oropharyngeal airway area (LOA), minimum lower oropharyngeal airway area (MLOA), anatomical structures (orbitale, Or; porion, Po; pogonion, Pog; hyoid, H; second cervical vertebra, C2; fourth cervical vertebra, C4), and relevant angles. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson's test. Results: Compared with patients in Class II, those in Class III and Class I exhibited a significantly anterior position of H and Pog. The vertical positions of H and Pog revealed no significant difference between the three skeletal patterns. Patients in skeletal Class III exhibited significantly larger oropharyngeal area (UOA, MUOA, LOA, MLOA) and oropharyngeal airway (UOV and LOV) than those in skeletal Class II did. The horizontal position of Pog had a moderately significant correlation with UOA (r = 0.471) and MUOA (r = 0.455). Conclusion: Patients in skeletal Class II had significantly smaller oropharyngeal airway areas and volumes than those in Class III did. The minimum oropharyngeal cross-sectional area had a 67% probability of occurrence in the upper oropharyngeal airway among patients in Class I and Class II and a 50% probability of occurrence among patients in Class III.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Orofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7594, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828193

RESUMO

In the last decades, several discoveries have uncovered the complexity of mammalian evolution during the Mesozoic Era, including important Gondwanan lineages: the australosphenidans, gondwanatherians, and meridiolestidans (Dryolestoidea). Most often, their presence and diversity is documented by isolated teeth and jaws. Here, we describe a new meridiolestidan mammal, Orretherium tzen gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous of southern Chile, based on a partial jaw with five cheek teeth in locis and an isolated upper premolar. Phylogenetic analysis places Orretherium as the earliest divergence within Mesungulatidae, before other forms such as the Late Cretaceous Mesungulatum and Coloniatherium, and the early Paleocene Peligrotherium. The in loco tooth sequence (last two premolars and three molars) is the first recovered for a Cretaceous taxon in this family and suggests that reconstructed tooth sequences for other Mesozoic mesungulatids may include more than one species. Tooth eruption and replacement show that molar eruption in mesungulatids is heterochronically delayed with regard to basal dryolestoids, with therian-like simultaneous eruption of the last premolar and last molar. Meridiolestidans seem endemic to Patagonia, but given their diversity and abundance, and the similarity of vertebrate faunas in other regions of Gondwana, they may yet be discovered in other continents.


Assuntos
Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/classificação , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Chile , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Anormalidades Dentárias/classificação , Erupção Dentária/fisiologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801539

RESUMO

Bone microarchitecture has been shown to provide useful information regarding the evaluation of skeleton quality with an added value to areal bone mineral density, which can be used for the diagnosis of several bone diseases. Bone mineral density estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has shown to be a limited tool to identify patients' risk stratification and therapy delivery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as another technique to assess bone quality and fracture risk by evaluating the bone structure and microarchitecture. To date, MRI is the only completely non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that can assess both cortical and trabecular bone in vivo. In this review article, we reported a survey regarding the clinically relevant information MRI could provide for the assessment of the inner trabecular morphology of different bone segments. The last section will be devoted to the upcoming MRI applications (MR spectroscopy and chemical shift encoding MRI, solid state MRI and quantitative susceptibility mapping), which could provide additional biomarkers for the assessment of bone microarchitecture.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Humanos
19.
Zootaxa ; 4963(2): zootaxa.4963.2.2, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903551

RESUMO

Shearwaters are among the most diverse groups of Procellariiformes, and the systematics of genera Calonectris, Ardenna and Puffinus (sensu stricto) is particularly complex. Here we present the first morphology-based phylogenetic hypothesis for the group, using 104 osteological characters (23 continuous and 81 discrete) scored for 20 extant species of shearwaters, representing 62.5% of species currently recognized. Both equal and implied weighting were used for phylogenetic analyses, and the final hypothesis presented herein is the strict consensus of the most stable trees produced by the latter. Calonectris was recovered as monophyletic (Relative Bremer Support = 75), while all other members of shearwaters were included in a single, monophyletic grouping: Puffinus (sensu lato) (RBS = 76). The monophyly of Ardenna, as suggested by all molecular-based hypotheses, was not recovered, whereas a monophyletic Puffinus (sensu stricto) is present within the larger clade. The final hypothesis, wherein shearwaters fall into the sister taxa Calonectris and Puffinus (sensu lato), is consistent with earlier classifications based on osteological evidence.


Assuntos
Aves , Filogenia , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/classificação , Aves/genética , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248681, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735263

RESUMO

Lystrosaurus represents one of the most successful dicynodonts, a survivor of the end-Permian mass extinction that remained abundant in the Early Triassic, but many aspects of its paleobiology are still controversial. The bone histology of Lystrosaurus species from South Africa and India has provided important information on their growth strategy and lifestyle, but until recently no data was available on the bone histology of Lystrosaurus from China. Here, we report on the bone microstructure of seven Lystrosaurus individuals from the Lower Triassic of Xinjiang, providing the first such data for the Chinese Lystrosaurus species. Our samples indicate that the microstructure of Lystrosaurus limb bones from China is characterized by fibrolamellar bone tissue similar to those from South Africa and India. Three ontogenetic stages were identified: juvenile, early subadult, and late subadult based on lines of arrested growth (LAGs) and bone tissue changes. Bone histology supports a rapid growth strategy for Lystrosaurus during early ontogeny. Unlike Early Triassic Lystrosaurus from South Africa, lines of arrested growth are common in our specimens, suggesting that many individuals of Chinese Lystrosaurus had reached the subadult stage and were interrupted in growth. The differences in bone histology between Lystrosaurus from South Africa and China may indicate different environmental conditions in these two regions.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Extinção Biológica , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , China , Paleontologia/métodos
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