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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5068, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033251

RESUMO

The mineralized collagen fibril is the basic building block of bone, and is commonly pictured as a parallel array of ultrathin carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAp) platelets distributed throughout the collagen. This orientation is often attributed to an epitaxial relationship between the HAp and collagen molecules inside 2D voids within the fibril. Although recent studies have questioned this model, the structural relationship between the collagen matrix and HAp, and the mechanisms by which collagen directs mineralization remain unclear. Here, we use XRD to reveal that the voids in the collagen are in fact cylindrical pores with diameters of ~2 nm, while electron microscopy shows that the HAp crystals in bone are only uniaxially oriented with respect to the collagen. From in vitro mineralization studies with HAp, CaCO3 and γ-FeOOH we conclude that confinement within these pores, together with the anisotropic growth of HAp, dictates the orientation of HAp crystals within the collagen fibril.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Minerais/química , Orientação Espacial , Osso e Ossos/química , Criança , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Cristalização , Durapatita/química , Elétrons , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Tomografia , Difração de Raios X
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966345

RESUMO

Despite a growing body of evidence concerning accelerated organic degradation at archaeological sites, there have been few follow-up investigations to examine the status of the remaining archaeological materials in the ground. To address the question of archaeo-organic preservation, we revisited the Swedish, Mesolithic key-site Ageröd and could show that the bone material had been subjected to an accelerated deterioration during the last 75 years, which had destroyed the bones in the areas where they had previously been best preserved. To understand why this has happened and to quantify and qualify the extent of the organic degradation, we here analyse the soil chemistry, bone histology, collagen preservation and palaeobotany at the site. Our results show that the soil at Ageröd is losing, or has already lost, its preservative and buffering qualities, and that pH-values in the still wet areas of the site have dropped to levels where no bone preservation is possible. Our results suggest that this acidification process is enhanced by the release of sulphuric acid as pyrite in the bones oxidizes. While we are still able to find well-preserved palaeobotanical remains, they are also starting to corrode through re-introduced oxygen into the archaeological layers. While some areas of the site have been more protected through redeposited soil on top of the archaeological layers, all areas of Ageröd are rapidly deteriorating. Lastly, while it is still possible to perform molecular analyses on the best-preserved bones from the most protected areas, this opportunity will likely be lost within a few decades. In conclusion, we find that if we, as a society, wish to keep this valuable climatic, environmental and cultural archive, both at Ageröd and elsewhere, the time to act is now and if we wait we will soon be in a situation where this record will be irretrievably lost forever.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Fósseis/história , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Botânica , Colágeno/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Características Culturais/história , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga , Paleontologia , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Preservação Biológica/história , Datação Radiométrica , Solo/química , Suécia , Áreas Alagadas
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23450-23459, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913055

RESUMO

Cuttlefish, a unique group of marine mollusks, produces an internal biomineralized shell, known as cuttlebone, which is an ultra-lightweight cellular structure (porosity, ∼93 vol%) used as the animal's hard buoyancy tank. Although cuttlebone is primarily composed of a brittle mineral, aragonite, the structure is highly damage tolerant and can withstand water pressure of about 20 atmospheres (atm) for the species Sepia officinalis Currently, our knowledge on the structural origins for cuttlebone's remarkable mechanical performance is limited. Combining quantitative three-dimensional (3D) structural characterization, four-dimensional (4D) mechanical analysis, digital image correlation, and parametric simulations, here we reveal that the characteristic chambered "wall-septa" microstructure of cuttlebone, drastically distinct from other natural or engineering cellular solids, allows for simultaneous high specific stiffness (8.4 MN⋅m/kg) and energy absorption (4.4 kJ/kg) upon loading. We demonstrate that the vertical walls in the chambered cuttlebone microstructure have evolved an optimal waviness gradient, which leads to compression-dominant deformation and asymmetric wall fracture, accomplishing both high stiffness and high energy absorption. Moreover, the distribution of walls is found to reduce stress concentrations within the horizontal septa, facilitating a larger chamber crushing stress and a more significant densification. The design strategies revealed here can provide important lessons for the development of low-density, stiff, and damage-tolerant cellular ceramics.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Osso e Ossos/química , Sepia/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cerâmica/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Dureza , Porosidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797087

RESUMO

The Late Mesolithic in Southern Europe is dated to the 7th and the first part of the 6th millennia BCE and is marked by profound changes which are mostly evident in the technical know-how and tool-kit of the last hunter-fisher-gatherer societies. The significance of this phase also relates to the fact that it precedes the Early Neolithic, another period of major transformations of human societies. Nonetheless, the Late Mesolithic still remains a poorly known age in this area. A burial discovered at Mondeval de Sora (Northern Italy) in 1987, represents a unique window into this period. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of more than 50 lithic and osseous artifacts associated with this burial. We highlight important contextual data regarding the techno-economic dimension and the notion of personal burial possessions. Based on the association and location of some items, we propose a new interpretation of the social status of this individual and the possible impact of technological innovation on the social organization and symbolic sphere of Late Mesolithic groups.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Lítio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770248

RESUMO

Data from three experiments conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing available P in swine diets were used to compare two different bone processing methods. Our objective was to determine if the procedures influenced treatment differences and the ability to detect changes in the percentage bone ash. In each experiment, pigs (nursery pigs in experiments 1 and 2, and finishing pigs in experiment 3) were fed a wide range of available phosphorus levels provided from either increasing monocalcium P or added phytase. At the completion of each experiment, a subset of pigs was euthanized, and either fibulas (experiments 1 and 2) or metacarpals (experiment 3) were collected to determine the percentage bone ash. Bones were processed by cleaning away all soft tissues followed by ether extraction for 7 d (defatted), or no lipid extraction (non-defatted), and then ashed. In nursery and finishing pigs, defatted bones had increased (P < 0.001) percentage bone ash compared with non-defatted bones. No evidence of a method × treatment interaction or linear and quadratic interactions were observed in bone ash weight and percentage bone ash (P > 0.10) for nursery pigs; however, a linear interaction was detected (P < 0.05) in percentage bone ash for grow-finish pigs. This response was minimal and likely due to increased variation observed in grow-finish pigs when bones were not defatted. The processing method did not affect the ability to detect differences among treatments as a result of changing dietary P concentrations in the nursery or grow-finish pigs. In summary, either non-defatted or defatted bone processing methods can be used to determine bone ash weight and percentage bone ash as a way to assess bone mineralization and dietary treatment differences in nursery pigs; however, the increased variation observed in mature pigs suggests that defatted bone processing is the preferred method for grow-finish pigs.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/química , Minerais/análise , Suínos , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
6.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 299-312, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706016

RESUMO

Coastal residents are quite often expected to consume a significant amount of aquatic resources, though historical evidence often reveals a rather complex diet. To better understand the actual consumption and the distribution of various foods, stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analyses were employed to skeletal remains from three coastal communities, Palanga, Kretinga and Smelte, ranging in date from the medieval period to the early modern ages (14th-early 20th c.) near the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea in Lithuania. Animal bones from the region, covering the same time periods, were also analysed. Stable isotope results were compared with historical records. According to historical sources different types of diet were prevalent during that period of time: Medieval Prussian-Lithuanian peasant, Lithuanian fisherman, German urban, and religious-based. Elevated δ15N values for Smelte samples suggest a diet consisting of considerable amounts of freshwater fish protein, which is in contrast to historical sources. There were no significant differences in stable isotope values between males and females, while subadult δ15N values were significantly higher than adult ones, indicating that those children were breastfed for an extended period. Meanwhile, Palanga and Kretinga samples had isotope values suggesting a high reliance on terrestrial resources and a peasant type of diet.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Dieta , Adulto , Animais , Restos Mortais , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Pesquisa
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127401, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610261

RESUMO

Tofu gel was made by using citric acid (0.14%) in combination with varied volumetric ratios (e.g., 0-4%) of nano fish bone (NFB). The gel properties were investigated by colorimetry, penetration tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. As the volumetric ratio increased from 0 to 3%, the soluble calcium concentrations of soymilk linearly increased from 1.78 to 6.42 mg/mL. Correspondently, yield, moisture and texture values of the tofu gel increased continuously (p < 0.05) while syneresis and whiteness decreased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds increased by 140%, 40% and 10%, respectively. With the addition of NFB, the α-helices of the soybean proteins changed to ß-sheets and random coil structures. Additionally, the tofu gel network became more orderly and denser. The results confirmed that NFB can be utilized as a functional coagulant ingredient to improve the properties of acid-induced tofu gels.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Peixes , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Animais , Géis , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18393-18400, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661154

RESUMO

In the past decade, the early Acheulean before 1 Mya has been a focus of active research. Acheulean lithic assemblages have been shown to extend back to ∼1.75 Mya, and considerable advances in core reduction technologies are seen by 1.5 to 1.4 Mya. Here we report a bifacially flaked bone fragment (maximum dimension ∼13 cm) of a hippopotamus femur from the ∼1.4 Mya sediments of the Konso Formation in southern Ethiopia. The large number of flake scars and their distribution pattern, together with the high frequency of cone fractures, indicate anthropogenic flaking into handaxe-like form. Use-wear analyses show quasi-continuous alternate microflake scars, wear polish, edge rounding, and striae patches along an ∼5-cm-long edge toward the handaxe tip. The striae run predominantly oblique to the edge, with some perpendicular, on both the cortical and inner faces. The combined evidence is consistent with the use of this bone artifact in longitudinal motions, such as in cutting and/or sawing. This bone handaxe is the oldest known extensively flaked example from the Early Pleistocene. Despite scarcity of well-shaped bone tools, its presence at Konso shows that sophisticated flaking was practiced by ∼1.4 Mya, not only on a range of lithic materials, but also occasionally on bone, thus expanding the documented technological repertoire of African Early Pleistocene Homo.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Fósseis/história , Artefatos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Etiópia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628680

RESUMO

Archaeology has yet to capitalise on the opportunities offered by bioarchaeological approaches to examine the impact of the 11th-century AD Norman Conquest of England. This study utilises an integrated multiproxy analytical approach to identify and explain changes and continuities in diet and foodways between the 10th and 13th centuries in the city of Oxford, UK. The integration of organic residue analysis of ceramics, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of human and animal bones, incremental analysis of δ13C and δ15N from human tooth dentine and palaeopathological analysis of human skeletal remains has revealed a broad pattern of increasing intensification and marketisation across various areas of economic practice, with a much lesser and more short-term impact of the Conquest on everyday lifestyles than is suggested by documentary sources. Nonetheless, isotope data indicate short-term periods of instability, particularly food insecurity, did impact individuals. Evidence of preferences for certain foodstuffs and cooking techniques documented among the elite classes were also observed among lower-status townspeople, suggesting that Anglo-Norman fashions could be adopted across the social spectrum. This study demonstrates the potential for future archaeological research to generate more nuanced understanding of the cultural impact of the Norman Conquest of England, while showcasing a method which can be used to elucidate the undocumented, everyday implications of other large-scale political events on non-elites.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Culinária/história , Dieta/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Cerâmica/análise , Feminino , Cabras , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Dente/química , Reino Unido
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584871

RESUMO

The recovery and analysis of ancient DNA and protein from archaeological bone is time-consuming and expensive to carry out, while it involves the partial or complete destruction of valuable or rare specimens. The fields of palaeogenetic and palaeoproteomic research would benefit greatly from techniques that can assess the molecular quality prior to sampling. To be relevant, such screening methods should be effective, minimally-destructive, and rapid. This study reports results based on spectroscopic (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance [FTIR-ATR]; n = 266), palaeoproteomic (collagen content; n = 226), and palaeogenetic (endogenous DNA content; n = 88) techniques. We establish thresholds for three different FTIR indices, a) the infrared splitting factor [IRSF] that assesses relative changes in bioapatite crystals' size and homogeneity; b) the carbonate-to-phosphate [C/P] ratio as a relative measure of carbonate content in bioapatite crystals; and c) the amide-to-phosphate ratio [Am/P] for assessing the relative organic content preserved in bone. These thresholds are both extremely reliable and easy to apply for the successful and rapid distinction between well- and poorly-preserved specimens. This is a milestone for choosing appropriate samples prior to genomic and collagen analyses, with important implications for biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , DNA Antigo/análise , Fósseis , Proteômica , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , DNA Antigo/química , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127054, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450356

RESUMO

In this work, very efficient VOCs adsorbent was developed from waste bovine bone. After pyrolysis at 450 °C, the bone char was treated by H3PO4 for surface modification and activated by K2CO3 respectively. The prepared materials were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, SEM, FT-IR, and XPS. Adsorption/desorption and regeneration behavior of VOCs were also studied. Results showed that H3PO4 modification can effectively accelerate the adsorption process and after K2CO3 activation, a new hierarchical pore structure was found with an ultrahigh total pore volume of 2.807 cm3/g. The specific adsorption capacity for typical VOC reached ∼13.03 mmol/g which is much higher than literature data under the same condition. Static toluene adsorption test on the prepared activated bone-char revealed that the hierarchical structure has provided abundant adsorption sites and the adsorption behavior can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The dynamic/static adsorption ratio increased from 70.31% to 78.62% due to less mass transfer resistance by surface modification.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adsorção , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Bovinos , Pirólise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tolueno/química
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 427-446, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multinutrient protein-enriched supplements are promoted to augment the effects of exercise on muscle mass and strength, but their effectiveness in middle-aged women, or whether there are any additional benefits to physical function, remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether a multinutrient-fortified milk drink (MFMD) could enhance the effects of exercise on functional muscle power (stair climbing) in middle-aged women. Secondary aims were to evaluate the intervention effects on physical function, muscle strength, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle density, balance, flexibility, aerobic fitness, inflammation, oxidative stress, bone and cartilage turnover, blood pressure, and blood lipids. METHODS: In this 4-mo, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 244 women (45-65 y) participated in a multimodal resistance-type exercise program 3 d/wk, with random allocation to a twice-daily MFMD containing added protein, vitamin D, calcium, milk fat globule membrane (phospholipids and other bioactives), and other micronutrients (Ex + MFMD, n = 123) or an energy-matched placebo (Ex + placebo, n = 121). RESULTS: A total of 216 women (89%) completed the study. After 4 mo, both groups experienced similar 3.6%-4.3% improvements in the primary outcomes of fast-pace 5- and 10-step stair ascent power. In contrast, Ex + MFMD experienced greater improvements in 5-step regular-pace stair descent time [net difference (95% CI): -0.09 s (-0.18, 0.00 s), P = 0.045], countermovement jump height [0.5 cm (0.04, 1.0 cm), P = 0.038], total body LM [0.3 kg (0.04, 0.60 kg), P = 0.020], FM [-0.6 kg (-1.0, -0.2 kg), P = 0.004], BMC [0.4% (0.1%, 0.6%), P = 0.020], muscle CSA [thigh: 1.8% (0.6%, 2.9%), P = 0.003; lower leg: 0.9% (0.3%, 1.6%), P = 0.005], balance eyes closed [3.3 s (1.1, 5.4 s), P = 0.005], 2-min step performance [8 steps (3, 12 steps), P = 0.003], and sit-and-reach flexibility [1.4 cm (0.6, 2.2 cm), P = 0.026]. MFMD did not enhance the effects of exercise on any measures of muscle strength, gait speed, dynamic balance, reaction time, or blood lipids, and there was no effect of either intervention on blood pressure, markers of inflammation, or cartilage turnover. Ex + placebo had a greater improvement in the oxidative stress marker protein carbonyls (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged women, daily consumption of an MFMD did not enhance the effects of a multimodal exercise program on the primary outcome of stair climbing ascent power, but did elicit greater improvements in multiple secondary outcomes including various other measures of functional performance, LM, muscle size, FM, balance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and bone metabolism.This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12617000383369.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/química , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/química , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/química , Desempenho Físico Funcional
13.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(3): 263-272, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295434

RESUMO

Background: Three main diagnostic types of osteoarthritic changes are distinguished in clinical and anthropological literature: osteophytes, porosity, and eburnation. The nature of the relationship between these changes and how lesions progress over time is still unclear.Aim: The aim of the present study is the analysis of the relationships between osteophytes, porosity, and eburnation based on skeletal material.Subjects and methods: The analysis employed the skeletal collection from Cedynia (199 individuals) from tenth to fourteenth-century Poland. Marginal osteophytes (OP), porosity (POR), and eburnation (EB) were examined on a shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle.Results: Osteophytes and porosity occurred independently of each other. Combinations of osteophytes and porosity (OP + POR) and osteophytes, porosity, and eburnation (OP + POR + EB) were rarely observed. Combinations of osteophytes and eburnation (OP + EB) or porosity and eburnation (POR + EB) were not found. There was a significant correlation between osteophytes and porosity in the scapula, proximal end of the ulna and proximal end of the femur. Osteophytes and eburnation were correlated at the distal end of the ulna. Porosity and eburnation were correlated at the distal end of the radius and distal end of the ulna. When all joints were considered together, all the types of osteoarthritic changes were correlated. However, the relationship between osteophytes and eburnation and between porosity and eburnation was only slightly significant. Osteophytes preceded porosity, but there were a few cases where more developed porosity accompanied less developed osteophytes.Conclusions: The findings indicate that correlations between osteoarthritic changes are weak, albeit statistically significant and further studies of the relationship between changes are necessary.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Osteoartrite/história , Osteófito/história , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso e Ossos/química , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteófito/patologia , Polônia , Porosidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2041-2047, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241489

RESUMO

The influence of dietary vitamin D3 (VD3) levels on growth, bone performance, and duodenal type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) genes in broiler chicken were studied. One-day-old male Ross308 broilers (n = 432) were allocated into 6 treatment groups with each group consisting of 6 cage pens. Each treatment group received diet containing different amounts of VD3 (80, 200, 500, 1,250, 3,125, or 7,813 IU per kg of diet) from a day-old to 31 D of age. Dietary available phosphorus and calcium were kept the same across all treatments in each phase. At 14 D, influence of VD3 on BW gain was found in the birds that received VD3 of 3,125 IU/kg and 200 IU/kg (P < 0.05). Toe ash and tibia ash linearly increased (P < 0.05) at 14 D with increase in dietary VD3. There was no significant influence of dietary VD3 on tibia breaking strength. In both phases, relative expression of duodenal NaPi-IIb linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increase in dietary VD3. At 14 D, highest expression of 3.2 folds was observed in birds treated with VD3 at 7,813 IU/kg of feed. At 31 D, birds that received VD3 levels of 3,125 and 7,813 IU/kg of feed showed 2.9 folds higher in NaPi-IIb expression compared with those fed lowest level of VD3 at 80 IU/kg of feed. When dietary calcium and phosphorus were maintained at the standard requirement, increase in dietary VD3 did not improve growth performance. For optimum growth and bone characteristics, dietary inclusion of VD3 at 500 IU/kg was adequate for both starter and grower broiler diets. Vitamin D3 enhanced the expression of NaPi-IIb at higher doses and thus improving the tibia ash content in high VD3 treatment groups. This study reported for the first time an increased in the expression of duodenal NaPi-IIb in 31-day-old broilers in response to high dietary VD3 levels.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/química , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1621, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238803

RESUMO

Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1)-mediated endothelial cell signalling in response to bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 is of significant importance in cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, detailed molecular mechanisms of ALK1-mediated signalling remain unclear. Here, we report crystal structures of the BMP10:ALK1 complex at 2.3 Å and the prodomain-bound BMP9:ALK1 complex at 3.3 Å. Structural analyses reveal a tripartite recognition mechanism that defines BMP9 and BMP10 specificity for ALK1, and predict that crossveinless 2 is not an inhibitor of BMP9, which is confirmed by experimental evidence. Introduction of BMP10-specific residues into BMP9 yields BMP10-like ligands with diminished signalling activity in C2C12 cells, validating the tripartite mechanism. The loss of osteogenic signalling in C2C12 does not translate into non-osteogenic activity in vivo and BMP10 also induces bone-formation. Collectively, these data provide insight into ALK1-mediated BMP9 and BMP10 signalling, facilitating therapeutic targeting of this important pathway.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/química , Osso e Ossos/química , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315354

RESUMO

Levänluhta is a unique archaeological site with the remains of nearly a hundred Iron Age individuals found from a water burial in Ostrobothnia, Finland. The strongest climatic downturn of the Common Era, resembling the great Fimbulvinter in Norse mythology, hit these people during the 6th century AD. This study establishes chronological, dietary, and livelihood synthesis on this population based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic and radiocarbon analyses on human remains, supported by multidisciplinary evidence. Extraordinarily broad stable isotopic distribution is observed, indicating three subgroups with distinct dietary habits spanning four centuries. This emphasizes the versatile livelihoods practiced at this boundary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. While the impact of the prolonged cold darkness of the 6th century was devastating for European communities relying on cultivation, the broad range of livelihoods provided resilience for the Levänluhta people to overcome the abrupt climatic decline.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Mudança Climática/história , Comportamento Alimentar , Resiliência Psicológica , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Finlândia , História Antiga , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343728

RESUMO

The ability to distinguish between different migratory behaviours (e.g., anadromy and potamodromy) in fish can provide important insights into the ecology, evolution, and conservation of many aquatic species. We present a simple stable carbon isotope (δ13C) approach for distinguishing between sockeye (anadromous ocean migrants) and kokanee (potamodromous freshwater residents), two migratory ecotypes of Oncorhynchus nerka (Salmonidae) that is applicable throughout most of their range across coastal regions of the North Pacific Ocean. Analyses of kokanee (n = 239) and sockeye (n = 417) from 87 sites spanning the North Pacific (Russia to California) show that anadromous and potamodromous ecotypes are broadly distinguishable on the basis of the δ13C values of their scale and bone collagen. We present three case studies demonstrating how this approach can address questions in archaeology, archival, and conservation research. Relative to conventional methods for determining migratory status, which typically apply chemical analyses to otoliths or involve genetic analyses of tissues, the δ13C approach outlined here has the benefit of being non-lethal (when applied to scales), cost-effective, widely available commercially, and should be much more broadly accessible for addressing archaeological questions since the recovery of otoliths at archaeological sites is rare.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Salmão/fisiologia , Salmonidae/fisiologia , Migração Animal , Escamas de Animais/química , Animais , Arqueologia , Biodiversidade , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA Antigo/análise , Ecótipo , Feminino , Lagos , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , Salmão/classificação , Salmão/genética , Salmonidae/classificação , Salmonidae/genética
18.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(6): 912-918, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise plays an important role in bone mineralization as well as factors involved in bone metabolism influence the athletic performance. In European countries, soccer is the most popular sport. The aim of the study was to investigate bone metabolism, bone mass and structural integrity profile in professional male adult football players. METHODS: Sixteen professional male football players from a single team of the Second division Italian League (mean age 22.4±0.7 years) were enrolled. Bone biochemical parameters, including serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, intact plasma PTH, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD), 24-h urinary calcium and phosphorus, and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS), were evaluated at the beginning (October 2012) and at the end of the League (May 2013). RESULTS: 25-OHD levels were significantly lower at the end of the League compared to the beginning (27.1±5.9 vs. 36.6±9.5 ng/mL, fold change [FC]=0.25, P=0.008), and the prevalence of 25-OHD deficiency increased from 25% to 73%. Moreover, higher rate of previous bone, cartilage or ligament injuries correlated with 25-OHD deficiencies (P=0.014). T-score and Z-score were at the upper limits of the normality ranges, without significant difference between the beginning and end of the League. Phosphaturia was slightly decreased at the end of the League (691.0±364.5 vs. 934.0±274.3 mg/24h, FC=0.26, P=0.06). A significant correlation was found between phosphaturia and BQI (R2=0.28, P=0.03), and both T-s and Z-s (R2=0.28, P=0.03) at the beginning of the League. CONCLUSIONS: With this pilot study, we demonstrated that vitamin D status significantly worsened at the end of the League. Therefore, vitamin D supplementation might be suggested in adult football players in order to prevent vitamin D deficiency and improve the athletic performance.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/química , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/urina , Creatinina/sangue , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Fósforo/sangue , Fósforo/urina , Projetos Piloto , Futebol/lesões , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160202

RESUMO

The El Argar society of the Bronze Age in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (2200-1550 cal BCE) was among the first complex societies in Europe. Its economy was based on cereal cultivation and metallurgy, it was organized hierarchically, and successively expanded its territory. Most of the monumentally fortified settlements lay on steeply sloped mountains, separated by fertile plains, and allowed optimal control of the area. Here, we explore El Argar human diets, animal husbandry strategies, and food webs using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of charred cereal grains as well as human and animal bone collagen. The sample comprised 75 human individuals from the sites of La Bastida (n = 52) and Gatas (n = 23), 32 domesticated and wild animals as well as 76 barley and 29 wheat grains from two chronological phases of a total time span of ca. 650 years. The grains indicate extensive cereal cultivation under rain-fed conditions with little to moderate application of manure. Especially at La Bastida, crops and their by-products contributed significantly to the forage of the domesticated animals, which attests to a strong interrelation of cultivation and animal husbandry. Trophic level spacing and Bayesian modelling confirm that human diets were largely based on barley with some contribution of meat or dairy products. A cross-sectional analysis of bone collagen suggests that children were breastfed until about 1.5-2 years old, and infants from Gatas may have suffered from more metabolic stress than those at La Bastida. Adults of both sexes consumed similar diets that reflect social and chronological variation to some extent. Despite significantly higher δ13C and δ15N values at La Bastida than at Gatas, the isotopic data of the staple crops and domestic animals from both sites indicate that such differences do not necessarily correspond to different average human diets, but to agricultural strategies. These results urge for a reassessment of previous isotope studies in which only human remains have been taken into account. The study highlights that disentangling the complex influences on human isotope compositions requires a firm set of comparative data.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/história , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
Food Chem ; 319: 126302, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151895

RESUMO

Gelatin, as a by-product of the meat industry, is extracted from bone and skin of mainly bovine and porcine origins. It is used widely in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries. Authenticity testing methods can be used to confirm whether labelled ingredients are present in the product. Generally, studies on gelatin are concerned mainly with determining species, but detecting tissue origin is also important from religious, health, and commercial perspectives. In the present study, for the first time, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was used to differentiate bovine bone gelatin from gelatin derived from bovine skin. Tryptic-digested gelatins were measured using HPLC/MS and, subsequently, two powerful chemometrics approaches (i.e., PCA and PLS-DA) were used to classify samples as either skin or bone gelatins. Origin of bovine gelatins in different test samples were predicted accurately using this method. The results showed both the stability and reliability of the proposed procedure.


Assuntos
Gelatina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gelatina/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne Vermelha , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/química , Suínos
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