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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7143-7153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061372

RESUMO

Introduction: Tobacco mosaic virus-based nanoparticles (TMV VNPs) were previously shown to promote osteogenic differentiation in vitro. This study aims to investigate whether and how TMV VNPs impact on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone injury healing in vivo. Methods: Raw264.7 cells were cultured in osteoclastogenic medium in culture plates coated with or without TMV and TMV-RGD1 VNPs, followed by TRAP staining, RT-qPCR and WB assessing expression of osteoclastogenic marker genes, and immunofluorescence assessing NF-κB activation. TMV and TMV-RGD1-modified hyaluronic acid hydrogel were used to treat mouse tibial bone injury. Bone injury healing was checked by micro-CT and Masson staining. Results: TMV and TMV-RGD1 VNPs significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and downregulated the expression of osteoclastogenic marker genes Ctr, Ctsk, Mmp-9, Rank, and Trap. Moreover, TMV and TMV-RGD1 VNPs inhibited NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, as well as activation of mTOR/AKT signaling pathway. TMV and TMV-RGD1-modified HA hydrogel strongly promoted mouse tibial bone injury with increased bone mass compared to plain HA hydrogel. The amount of osteoclasts was significantly reduced in TMV and TMV-RGD1 treated mice. TMV-RGD1 was more effective than TMV in inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and promoting bone injury repair. Discussion: These data demonstrated the great potential of TMV VNPs to be developed into biomaterial for bone injury repair or replacement.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/fisiologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/patologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/patologia , Cicatrização
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6355-6372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922006

RESUMO

Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are potent scavengers of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their antioxidant properties make CeO2NPs promising therapeutic agents for bone diseases and bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of CeO2NPs on intracellular ROS production in osteoclasts (OCs) are still unclear. Numerous studies have reported that intracellular ROS are essential for osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of CeO2NPs on osteoclast differentiation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: The bidirectional modulation of osteoclast differentiation by CeO2NPs was explored by different methods, such as fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. The cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of CeO2NPs were detected by cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometry. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that although CeO2NPs were capable of scavenging ROS in acellular environments, they facilitated the production of ROS in the acidic cellular environment during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). CeO2NPs at lower concentrations (4.0 µg/mL to 8.0 µg/mL) promoted osteoclast formation, as shown by increased expression of Nfatc1 and C-Fos, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption. However, at higher concentrations (greater than 16.0 µg/mL), CeO2NPs inhibited osteoclast differentiation and promoted apoptosis of BMMs by reducing Bcl2 expression and increasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, which may be due to the overproduction of ROS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CeO2NPs facilitate osteoclast formation at lower concentrations while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis in vitro by inducing the apoptosis of BMMs at higher concentrations by modulating cellular ROS levels.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Cério/química , Osteoclastos/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4705-4716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636626

RESUMO

Purpose: Ultra-small gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), as emerging fluorescent nanomaterials with excellent biocompatibility, have been widely investigated for in vivo biomedical applications. However, their effects in guiding osteogenic differentiation have not been investigated, which are important for osteoporosis therapy and bone regeneration. Herein, for the first time, lysozyme-protected AuNCs (Lys-AuNCs) are used to stimulate osteogenic differentiation, which have the potential for the treatment of bone disease. Methods: Proliferation of MC3T3E-1 is important for osteogenic differentiation. First, the proliferation rate of MC3T3E-1 was studied by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assays. Signaling pathways of PI3K/Akt play central roles in controlling proliferation throughout the body. The expression of PI3K/Akt was investigated in the presence of lysozyme, and lysozyme-protected AuNCs (Lys-AuNCs) by Western blot (WB) and intracellular cell imaging to evacuate the osteogenic differentiation mechanisms. Moreover, the formation of osteoclasts (OC) plays a negative role in the differentiation of osteoblasts. Nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) signaling pathways are used to understand the negative influence of the osteogenic differentiation by the investigation of Raw 264.7 cell line. Raw 264.7 (murine macrophage-like) cells and NIH/3T3 (mouse fibroblast) cells were treated with tyloxapol, and the cell viability was assessed. Raw 264.7 cells have also been used for in vitro studies, on understanding the osteoclast formation and function. The induced osteoclasts were identified by TRAP confocal fluorescence imaging. These key factors in osteoclast formation, such as (NFATc-1, c-Fos, V-ATPase-2 and CTSK), were investigated by Western blot. Results: Based on the above investigation, Lys-AuNCs were found to promote osteogenic differentiation and decrease osteoclast activity. It is noteworthy that the lysozyme (protected template), AuNPs, or the mixture of Lysozyme and AuNPs have negligible effects on osteoblastic differentiation compared to Lys-AuNCs. Conclusion: This study opens up a novel avenue to develop a new gold nanomaterial for promoting osteogenic differentiation. The possibility of using AuNCs as nanomedicines for the treatment of osteoporosis can be expected.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Muramidase/química , Muramidase/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Nanomedicina/métodos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/citologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000731, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479501

RESUMO

The nuclear lamina protein lamin A/C is a key component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) are identified in patients with various types of laminopathy-containing diseases, which have features of accelerated aging and osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanisms for laminopathy-associated osteoporosis remain largely unclear. Here, we provide evidence that loss of lamin A/C in skeletal muscles, but not osteoblast (OB)-lineage cells, results in not only muscle aging-like deficit but also trabecular bone loss, a feature of osteoporosis. The latter is due in large part to elevated bone resorption. Further cellular studies show an increase of osteoclast (OC) differentiation in cocultures of bone marrow macrophages/monocytes (BMMs) and OBs after treatment with the conditioned medium (CM) from lamin A/C-deficient muscle cells. Antibody array screening analysis of the CM proteins identifies interleukin (IL)-6, whose expression is markedly increased in lamin A/C-deficient muscles. Inhibition of IL-6 by its blocking antibody in BMM-OB cocultures diminishes the increase of osteoclastogenesis. Knockout (KO) of IL-6 in muscle lamin A/C-KO mice diminishes the deficits in trabecular bone mass but not muscle. Further mechanistic studies reveal an elevation of cellular senescence marked by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal), p16Ink4a, and p53 in lamin A/C-deficient muscles and C2C12 muscle cells, and the p16Ink4a may induce senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and IL-6 expression. Taken together, these results suggest a critical role for skeletal muscle lamin A/C to prevent cellular senescence, IL-6 expression, hyperosteoclastogenesis, and trabecular bone loss, uncovering a pathological mechanism underlying the link between muscle aging/senescence and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Lamina Tipo A/deficiência , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Osteoporose/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Reabsorção Óssea/complicações , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/sangue , Fenótipo
5.
Phytomedicine ; 75: 153234, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diaporisoindole E (SA8), an isoprenylisoindole alkaloids isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. SYSU-HQ3, was reported with anti-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. However, the effect of SA8 in bone metabolism is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of SA8 in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and to explore its mechanism of action. METHODS: Osteoclastogenesis was assayed by TRAP staining. Expression of osteoclast specific genes was evaluated by real time-PCR. The inhibition of phosphorylation of the protein was measured by western blot analysis. The transcription activity of NF-κB was conducted using luciferase reporter gene assays. Osteoblast differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red staining. RESULTS: SA8 significantly inhibited the osteoclast differentiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which is consistent with the suppression of osteoclast specific genes including TRAP, DC-stamp, NFATc1, MMP-9, and ATP6v0d2. Further study on the mechanism of action revealed that SA8 inhibited osteoclast differentiation by attenuating PI3K/AKT and MAPK but not through NF-κB signaling pathways. Moreover, SA8 also suppressed bone resorption activity in a hydroxyapatite-coated plate without affecting osteoblast differentiation in C3H10T1/2 using alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red staining. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SA8 (Diaporisoindole E) is the potential anti-osteoporosis agent.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109179, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534990

RESUMO

Excessive osteoclast leads to the imbalance in bone reconstruction and results in osteolytic diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatic arthritis. Integrin αvß3 abundantly expresses on osteoclast and plays a critical role in the formation and function of osteoclast, therefore, blockage of αvß3 has become an attractive therapeutic option for osteolytic diseases. In this study, we find that Tablysin-15, a RGD motif containing disintegrin, concentration-dependently suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption without affecting the cell viabilities. Tablysin-15 binds to integrin αvß3 and inhibits the activation of FAK-associated signaling pathways. Tablysin-15 also suppresses the activation of NF-кB, MAPK, and Akt-NFATc1 signaling pathways, which are crucial transcription factors during osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, Tablysin-15 decreases the osteoclastogenesis marker gene expression, including MMP-9, TRAP, CTSK, and c-Src. Finally, Tablysin-15 significantly inhibits LPS-induced bone loss in a mouse model. Taken together, our results indicate that Tablysin-15 significantly suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo, thus it might be a excellent candidate for treating osteolytic-related diseases.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/farmacologia , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/toxicidade , Reabsorção Óssea/induzido quimicamente , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/patologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/toxicidade , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Toxicology ; 441: 152520, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522522

RESUMO

Environmental cadmium (Cd) pollution can ultimately lead to chronic toxicity via food consumption. Previous studies have demonstrated that long-term low-dose Cd exposure decreases bone mineral density and bone mineralization. Cd may increase receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL) expression by osteoclasts, and inhibit the expression of osteoprotegerin. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Cd toxicity toward osteoclasts is unclear. In this study, bone marrow monocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and treated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and RANKL to induce the formation of osteoclasts. The results show that low-dose Cd exposure induced osteoclast differentiation. Cd also increased the intracellular calcium concentration of osteoclasts by triggering release of calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the elevation of intracellular calcium levels was shown to activate the calmodulin (CaM)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) pathway. NFATc1 is a downstream protein of CaM/CaMK signaling, as well as a key player in osteoclast differentiation. Overall, we conclude that Cd activates the CaM/CaMK/NFATc1 pathway and regulates osteoclast differentiation by increasing intracellular calcium concentration. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying osteoclast differentiation following Cd exposure. This study provides a theoretical basis for future investigations into the therapeutic application of CaMK inhibitors in osteoporosis induced by Cd exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Western Blotting , Cádmio/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(4): 300-306, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534995

RESUMO

Drug and therapies currently used to treat human bone diseases have a lot of severe side effects. Liquiritigenin is a flavonoid extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots which has been reported to have positive effects in vitro on osteoblasts activity and bone mineralization as well as inhibitory effect on osteoclasts differentiation and activity in vitro. The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vivo effects of liquiritigenin on bone structure and metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions using Danio rerio as experimental animal model. Treatments with liquiritigenin were performed on embryos to evaluate the osteogenesis during skeletal development. Other treatments were performed on adult fish affected by glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis to assay the therapeutic potential of liquiritigenin in the reversion of bone-loss phenotype in scale model. Liquiritigenin treatment of zebrafish embryo significantly enhances the osteogenesis during development in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, liquiritigenin inhibits the formation of the osteoporotic phenotype in adult zebrafish model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis preventing osteoclast activation in scales. Interestingly, liquiritigenin does not counteract the loss of osteoblastic activity in scales. The liquiritigenin exhibits in vivo anti-osteoporotic activity on adult fish scale model. It can be considered a good candidate to develop new drugs against osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Química , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14386-14394, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513693

RESUMO

We report that two widely-used drugs for erectile dysfunction, tadalafil and vardenafil, trigger bone gain in mice through a combination of anabolic and antiresorptive actions on the skeleton. Both drugs were found to enhance osteoblastic bone formation in vivo using a unique gene footprint and to inhibit osteoclast formation. The target enzyme, phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A), was found to be expressed in mouse and human bone as well as in specific brain regions, namely the locus coeruleus, raphe pallidus, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Localization of PDE5A in sympathetic neurons was confirmed by coimmunolabeling with dopamine ß-hydroxylase, as well as by retrograde bone-brain tracing using a sympathetic nerve-specific pseudorabies virus, PRV152. Both drugs elicited an antianabolic sympathetic imprint in osteoblasts, but with net bone gain. Unlike in humans, in whom vardenafil is more potent than tadalafil, the relative potencies were reversed with respect to their osteoprotective actions in mice. Structural modeling revealed a higher binding energy of tadalafil to mouse PDE5A compared with vardenafil, due to steric clashes of vardenafil with a single methionine residue at position 806 in mouse PDE5A. Collectively, our findings suggest that a balance between peripheral and central actions of PDE5A inhibitors on bone formation together with their antiresorptive actions specify the osteoprotective action of PDE5A blockade.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/química , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Disfunção Erétil/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais , Modelos Moleculares , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/química , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Cultura Primária de Células , Tadalafila/química , Tadalafila/farmacologia , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/química , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/farmacologia , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/uso terapêutico
10.
Life Sci ; 255: 117827, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450170

RESUMO

AIMS: Data suggest pharmacological treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) may impair bone health. Our group has previously modeled compromised craniofacial healing after treatment with sertraline, a commonly prescribed SSRI, and hypothesized potential culprits: alterations in bone cells, collagen, and/or inflammation. Here we interrogate bone lineage cell alterations due to sertraline treatment as a potential cause of the noted compromised bone healing. MAIN METHODS: Murine pre-osteoblast, pre-osteoclast, osteoblast, and osteoclast cells were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of the SSRI. Studies focused on serotonin pathway targets, cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation, and the osteoblast/osteoclast feedback loop. KEY FINDINGS: All cells studied express neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, SSRI target) and G-protein-coupled receptors associated with the serotonin pathway. Osteoclasts presented the greatest native expression of Slc6a4 with all cell types exhibiting decreases in Slc6a4 expression after SSRI treatment. Pre-osteoclasts exhibited alteration to their differentiation pathway after treatment. Pre-osteoblasts and osteoclasts showed reduced apoptosis after treatment but showed no significant differences in functional assays. RANKL: OPG mRNA and protein ratios were decreased in the osteoblast lineage. Osteoclast lineage cells treated with sertraline demonstrated diminished TRAP positive cells when pre-exposed to sertraline prior to RANKL-induced differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest osteoclasts are a likely target of bone homeostasis disruption due to sertraline treatment, most potently through the osteoblast/clast feedback loop.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/toxicidade , Células 3T3 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/citologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 16(8): 437-447, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286516

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are widely used to suppress inflammation or the immune system. High doses and long-term use of glucocorticoids lead to an important and common iatrogenic complication, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, in a substantial proportion of patients. Glucocorticoids mainly increase bone resorption during the initial phase (the first year of treatment) by enhancing the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts. Glucocorticoids also inhibit osteoblastogenesis and promote apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes, resulting in decreased bone formation during long-term use. Several indirect effects of glucocorticoids on bone metabolism, such as suppression of production of insulin-like growth factor 1 or growth hormone, are involved in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Fracture risk assessment for all patients with long-term use of oral glucocorticoids is required. Non-pharmacological interventions to manage the risk of fracture should be prescribed to all patients, while pharmacological management is reserved for patients who have increased fracture risk. Various treatment options can be used, ranging from bisphosphonates to denosumab, as well as teriparatide. Finally, appropriate monitoring during treatment is also important.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/terapia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/induzido quimicamente , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Pós-Menopausa , Medição de Risco
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3721383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184915

RESUMO

Intraplaque hemorrhage frequently occurs in atherosclerotic plaques resulting in cell-free hemoglobin, which is oxidized to ferryl hemoglobin (FHb) in the highly oxidative environment. Osteoclast-like cells (OLCs) derived from macrophages signify a counterbalance mechanism for calcium deposition in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to investigate whether oxidized hemoglobin alters osteoclast formation, thereby affecting calcium removal from mineralized atherosclerotic lesions. RANKL- (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand-) induced osteoclastogenic differentiation and osteoclast activity of RAW264.7 cells were studied in response to oxidized hemoglobin via assessing bone resorption activity, expression of osteoclast-specific genes, and the activation of signalization pathways. OLCs in diseased human carotid arteries were assessed by immunohistochemistry. FHb, but not ferrohemoglobin, decreased bone resorption activity and inhibited osteoclast-specific gene expression (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein) induced by RANKL. In addition, FHb inhibited osteoclastogenic signaling pathways downstream of RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β). It prevented the induction of TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6) and c-Fos, phosphorylation of p-38 and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and nuclear translocation of NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-Β) and NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1). These effects were independent of heme oxygenase-1 demonstrated by knocking down HO-1 gene in RAW264.7 cells and in mice. Importantly, FHb competed with RANK for RANKL binding suggesting possible mechanisms by which FHb impairs osteoclastic differentiation. In diseased human carotid arteries, OLCs were abundantly present in calcified plaques and colocalized with regions of calcium deposition, while the number of these cells were lower in hemorrhagic lesions exhibiting accumulation of FHb despite calcium deposition. We conclude that FHb inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation of macrophages and suggest that accumulation of FHb in a calcified area of atherosclerotic lesion with hemorrhage retards the formation of OLCs potentially impairing calcium resorption.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Hemoglobinas/farmacologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Calcinose , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Aterosclerótica/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Toxicology ; 436: 152429, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156525

RESUMO

Excessive systemic uptake of inorganic fluorides causes disturbances of bone homeostasis. The mechanism of skeletal fluorosis is still uncertain. This study aimed to study the effect of fluoride on osteocyte-driven osteoclastogenesis and probe into the role of PTH in this process. IDG-SW3 cells seeded in collagen-coated constructs were developed into osteocyte-like cells through induction of mineral agents. Then, osteocyte-like cells were exposed to fluoride in the presence or absence of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Cell viability and their capacity to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and sclerostin (SOST) were detected by MTT and Western blot assays, respectively. Finally, a transwell coculture system using osteocyte-like cells seeded in the low compartment, and osteoclast precursors added in the inserts was developed to observe the osteocyte-driven osteoclasogenesis response to fluoride with or without PTH, and the expression of molecules involved in this mechanism were measure by real time RT-PCR. Results showed that osteocytes withstood a toxic dose of fluoride, and yet PTH administration significantly reduced osteocytes viability. PTH amplified the effect of fluoride on the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in osteocyte, but did not enlarged the stimulating effect of fluoride on osteoclastogenesis drove by osteocyte coculture. Gene expression levels of TRAP, RANK, JNK and NFAtc1 significantly increased in fluoride affected osteoclast precursor cocultured with osteocyte-like cells. The impact of fluoride on osteocyte-driven osteoclast differentiation was stronger than that of PTH. In conclusion, osteocyte played a pivotal role on the mechanism underlying fluoride-affected osteoclastogenesis in which RANK-JNK-NFATc1 signaling pathway was involved, and PTH had a significant impact in this process.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/patologia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Hormônio Paratireóideo/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/genética , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/genética , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1578, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221289

RESUMO

PARP1 and PARP2 dual inhibitors, such as olaparib, have been recently FDA approved for the treatment of advanced breast and ovarian cancers. However, their effects on bone mass and bone metastasis are unknown. Here we show that olaparib increases breast cancer bone metastasis through PARP2, but not PARP1, specifically in the myeloid lineage, but not in the cancer cells. Olaparib treatment or PARP1/2 deletion promotes osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. Intriguingly, myeloid deletion of PARP2, but not PARP1, increases the population of immature myeloid cells in bone marrow, and impairs the expression of chemokines such as CCL3 through enhancing the transcriptional repression by ß-catenin. Compromised CCL3 production in turn creates an immune-suppressive milieu by altering T cell subpopulations. Our findings warrant careful examination of current PARP inhibitors on bone metastasis and bone loss, and suggest cotreatment with CCL3, ß-catenin inhibitors, anti-RANKL or bisphosphonates as potential combination therapy for PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL3/deficiência , Quimiocina CCL3/genética , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/patologia , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/deficiência , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9467683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149147

RESUMO

Yishen Bugu Ye (YSBGY), a traditional Chinese medicine comprising 12 types of medicinal herbs, is often prescribed in China to increase bone strength. In this study, the antiosteoporotic effects of YSBGY were investigated in C57BL/6 mice afflicted with dexamethasone- (Dex-) induced osteoporosis (OP). The results showed that YSBGY reduced the interstitial edema in the liver and kidney of mice with Dex-induced OP. It also increased the number of trabecular bone elements and chondrocytes in the femur, promoted cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone density, and modulated the OP-related indexes in the femur and tibia of OP mice. It also increased the serum concentrations of type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and runt-related transcription factor-2 and reduced those of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5 and nuclear factor of activated T cells in these mice, suggesting that it improved osteoblast differentiation and suppressed osteoclast differentiation. The anti-inflammatory effect of YSBGY was confirmed by the increase in the serum concentrations of interleukin- (IL-) 33 and the decrease in concentrations of IL-1, IL-7, and tumor necrosis factor-α in OP mice. Furthermore, YSBGY enhanced the serum concentrations of superoxide dismutase and catalase in these mice, indicating that it also exerted antioxidative effects. This is the first study to confirm the antiosteoporotic effects of YSBGY in mice with Dex-induced OP, and it showed that these effects may be related to the YSBGY-induced modulation of the osteoblast/osteoclast balance and serum concentrations of inflammatory factors. These results provide experimental evidence supporting the use of YSBGY for supporting bone formation in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/metabolismo , Osso Esponjoso , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Osso Cortical/metabolismo , Osso Cortical/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/patologia , Peptídeos , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
16.
Phytomedicine ; 69: 153195, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Areca nut has anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antihypertensive, and antidepressant properties. The pathological hallmarks of inflammatory joint diseases are an increased number of osteoclasts and impaired differentiation of osteoblasts, which may disrupt the bone remodeling balance and eventually lead to bone loss. PURPOSE: The present study assessed the effects of arecoline, the main alkaloid found in areca nut, on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and function. METHOD: M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were incubated with several concentrations of arecoline, and TRAP staining and pit formation were assessed to monitor osteoclast formation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses were used to analyze the expression of osteoclast-associated genes and signaling pathways. The effects of arecoline on bone were investigated in an in vivo mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced trabecular bone loss after oral administration of arecoline. Alizarin red S staining and assays to measure ALP activity and the transcription level of osteoblast-related genes were used to evaluate the effects of arecoline on osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization. RESULTS: In a dose-dependent manner, arecoline at concentrations of 50-100 µM reduced both the development of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts and the formation of resorption pits in M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated BMMs, arecoline also suppressed the expression and translocation of c-Fos and NFATcl, and osteoclast differentiated-related genes via interference with the AKT, MAPK, and NF-kB activation pathways. Femur bone loss and microcomputed tomography parameters were recovered by oral administration of arecoline in the mouse LPS-induced bone loss model. Lastly, arecoline increased ALP activity, bone mineralization, and the expression of osteoblast differentiation-related genes, such as ALP and Runx2, in MC3T3-E1 cells. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that arecoline may attenuate or prevent bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide evidence supporting arecoline's use as a potential therapeutic agent in bone-loss disorders and diseases.


Assuntos
Arecolina/farmacologia , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes fos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
Cell Prolif ; 53(4): e12789, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oestrogen is known to inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and numerous studies have identified it as an autophagic activator. To date, the role of oestrogen in the autophagy of osteoclast precursors (OCPs) during osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of autophagy regulated by the biologically active form of oestrogen (17ß-estradiol) on osteoclastogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After treatment with 17ß-estradiol in OCPs (from bone marrow-derived macrophages, BMMs) and ovariectomy (OVX) mice, we measured the effect of 17ß-estradiol on the autophagy of OCPs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we studied the role of autophagy in the OCP proliferation, osteoclast differentiation and bone loss regulated by 17ß-estradiol using autophagic inhibitor or knock-down of autophagic genes. RESULTS: The results showed that direct administration of 17ß-estradiol enhanced the autophagic response of OCPs. Interestingly, 17ß-estradiol inhibited the stimulatory effect of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) on the autophagy and osteoclastogenesis of OCPs. Moreover, 17ß-estradiol inhibited the downstream signalling of RANKL. Autophagic suppression by pharmacological inhibitors or gene silencing enhanced the inhibitory effect of 17ß-estradiol on osteoclastogenesis. In vivo assays showed that the autophagic inhibitor 3-MA not only inhibited the autophagic activity of the OCPs in the trabecular bone of OVX mice but also enhanced the ability of 17ß-estradiol to ameliorate bone loss. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study showed that oestrogen directly enhanced the autophagy of OCPs, which inhibited its anti-osteoclastogenic effect. Drugs based on autophagic inhibition may enhance the efficacy of oestrogen on osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1241-1253, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111302

RESUMO

Genetic selection and intensive nutrition for increased growth rate in meat-type ducks has resulted in an imbalance between pectorales increment and sternal mass, which is detrimental to productivity and welfare. Reducing body weight and increasing sternal mass probably reverses these adverse effects. Therefore, 2 experiments (Expt.) were conducted to investigate the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), a vitamin D3 metabolites, on sternal mass. In Expt. 1, 512 1-day-old male ducks were randomly assigned to 4 low-nutrient density diets and received following treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: (i) NRC or China Agricultural industry standards (NY/T) vitamin premixes and (ii) 0.069 mg/kg 25-HyD in feed or not. At 49 D of age, regardless of 25-OH-D3, NY/T vitamin regimen inhibited bone turnover and consequently increased sternal trabecular bone volume and mineral deposition compared with NRC vitamin premix. Supplementing 25-OH-D3 to NRC but not NY/T vitamin regimen significantly improved sternal microarchitecture and mineral content, which companied by decreased serum bone resorption markers concentration, as well as downregulation of the gene expressions of osteoclast differentiation and activity. In Expt. 2, 256 1-day-old male ducks were fed a standard nutrient density diet contained NRC vitamin premix with 0 or 0.069 mg/kg of 25-OH-D3. Results also showed that 25-OH-D3 treatment significantly improved sternal mineral accumulation and microarchitecture, along with decreasing osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in bone surface, declining serum bone turnover markers levels, and increasing serum Ca concentration. Collectively, these findings indicated that the dietary administration of 25-OH-D3 increased sternal mass in NRC vitamin diet by suppressing bone resorption in 49-day-old meat duck.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Esterno/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033440

RESUMO

Balanced osteoclast and osteoblast activity is necessary for skeletal health, whereas unbalanced osteoclast activity causes bone loss in many skeletal conditions. A better understanding of pathways that regulate osteoclast differentiation and activity is necessary for the development of new therapies to better manage bone resorption. The roles of Protein Kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases in osteoclasts have not been well characterized. In this study we use immunofluorescence analysis to reveal that PKD2 and PKD3, the isoforms expressed in osteoclasts, are found in the nucleus and cytoplasm, the mitotic spindle and midbody, and in association with the actin belt. We show that PKD inhibitors CRT0066101 and CID755673 inhibit several distinct aspects of osteoclast formation. Treating bone marrow macrophages with lower doses of the PKD inhibitors had little effect on M-CSF + RANKL-dependent induction into committed osteoclast precursors, but inhibited their motility and subsequent differentiation into multinucleated mature osteoclasts, whereas higher doses of the PKD inhibitors induced apoptosis of the preosteoclasts. Treating post-fusion multinucleated osteoclasts with the inhibitors disrupted the osteoclast actin belts and impaired their resorptive activity. In conclusion, these data implicate PKD kinases as positive regulators of osteoclasts, which are essential for multiple distinct processes throughout their formation and function.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019244

RESUMO

As the population of western societies on average ages, the number of people affected by bone remodeling-associated diseases such as osteoporosis continues to increase. The development of new therapeutics is hampered by the high failure rates of drug candidates during clinical testing, which is in part due to the poor predictive character of animal models during preclinical drug testing. Co-culture models of osteoblasts and osteoclasts offer an alternative to animal testing and are considered to have the potential to improve drug development processes in the future. However, a robust, scalable, and reproducible 3D model combining osteoblasts and osteoclasts for preclinical drug testing purposes has not been developed to date. Here we review various types of osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture models and outline the remaining obstacles that must be overcome for their successful translation.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos
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