Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.160
Filtrar
1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2565391, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265168

RESUMO

Osteoporosis and degenerative spinal disease are still an unsolvable surgical problem. It is still difficult to solve the complications related to postoperative osteoporosis, such as cage subsidence, displacement, and retraction. Expandable interbody cage is a recent innovation and an increasingly popular alternative to standard static cage. However, the clinical efficacy of MIS-TLIF combined with expandable cage for the treatment of osteoporosis has limited reports. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the efficacy of MIS-TLIF with expandable cage in patients with degenerative lumbar disease with osteoporosis. Patients with osteoporosis who received single-level MIS-TLIF and were followed up for at least 1 year were included. The outcome measures are as follows: clinical features, perioperative period, and neurological complications. JOA score and VAS pain score were used to analyze the improvement of patients' function. Imaging analysis included segmental lordosis (SL), lumbar lordosis (LL), intervertebral disc height (DH), and the ratio of cage height to preoperative DH (RCD). The final data analysis included 284 patients with osteoporosis. 178 patients used static cages, and 106 patients used expandable cages. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, surgical indexes, and JOA and VAS scores between the two groups. There was no difference in SL or LL between static group and expandable group. There was no significant difference in preoperative DH between the two groups. The RCD in the expansion group was significantly lower than that in the static group. The intraoperative and postoperative sedimentation rate in the static group was significantly higher than that in the expandable group. The use of expandable cages in MIS-TLIF has shown good results for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis. Through appropriate surgical techniques, the expandable cage can reduce the risk of cage sinking.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Osteoporose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 8332737, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281947

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to see how cold plasma affects rabbit bone tissue infected with osteoporosis. The search is divided into three categories: control, infected, and treated. The rabbits were subjected to cold plasma for five minutes in a room with a microwave plasma voltage of "175 V" and a gas flow of "2." A histopathological photograph of infected bone cells is obtained to demonstrate the influence of plasma on infected bone cells, as well as the extent of destruction and effect of plasma therapy before and after exposure. The findings of the search show that plasma has a clear impact on Ca and vitamin D levels. In the cold plasma, the levels of osteocalcin and alkali phosphates (ALP) respond as well. Image processing techniques (second-order gray level matrix) with textural elements are employed as an extra proof. The outcome gives good treatment indicators, and the image processing result corresponds to the biological result.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/terapia , Gases em Plasma/uso terapêutico , Animais , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fósforo/sangue , Coelhos , Vitamina D/metabolismo
3.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 4201-4211, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176943

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that significantly affects the quality of life and can even lead to death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of RAD51 recombinase (RAD51) in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We analyzed differentially expressed genes using microarray analysis. The osteogenic differentiation capability was analyzed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red staining assays. Osteogenesis and osteoclast related genes expression was detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. The phosphorylation of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATR serine/threonine kinase (ATR) was tested using Western blotting. The effect of RAD51 on osteoporosis was also explored in vivo. The results showed that RAD51 was downregulated in osteoporosis, but upregulated in differentiated osteoblasts. Overexpression of RAD51 enhanced the differentiation of osteoblasts and suppressed the formation of osteoclasts. Furthermore, p-ATM and p-ATR levels were upregulated in osteoblasts and downregulated in osteoclasts. RAD51 expression was reduced by the ATM/ATR pathway inhibitor AZ20. AZ20 treatment inhibited osteoblastogenesis and promoted osteoclastogenesis, whereas RAD51 reversed the effects induced by AZ20. Moreover, RAD51 improved bone microarchitecture in vivo. Taken together, ATM/ATR signaling-mediated RAD51 promoted osteogenic differentiation and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. These findings reveal a critical role for RAD51 in osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteogênese , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Osteoclastos/enzimologia , Osteoporose/genética , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263458, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The incidence of acetabular fractures due to low-energy falls is increasing among the geriatric population. Studies have shown that several biomechanical factors such as body configuration, impact velocity, and trochanteric soft-tissue thickness contribute to the severity and type of acetabular fracture. The effect of reduction in apparent density and elastic modulus of bone as well as other bone mechanical properties due to osteoporosis on low-energy acetabular fractures has not been investigated. METHODS: The current comprehensive finite element study aimed to study the effect of reduction in bone mechanical properties (trabecular, cortical, and trabecular + cortical) on the risk and type of acetabular fracture. Also, the effect of reduction in the mechanical properties of bone on the load-transferring mechanism within the pelvic girdle was examined. RESULTS: We observed that while the reduction in the mechanical properties of trabecular bone considerably affects the severity and area of trabecular bone failure, reduction in mechanical properties of cortical bone moderately influences both cortical and trabecular bone failure. The results also indicated that by reducing bone mechanical properties, the type of acetabular fracture turns from elementary to associated, which requires a more extensive intervention and rehabilitation period. Finally, we observed that the cortical bone plays a substantial role in load transfer, and by increasing reduction in the mechanical properties of cortical bone, a greater share of load is transmitted toward the pubic symphysis. CONCLUSION: This study increases our understanding of the effect of osteoporosis progression on the incidence of low-energy acetabular fractures. The osteoporosis-related reduction in the mechanical properties of cortical bone appears to affect both the cortical and trabecular bones. Also, during the extreme reduction in the mechanical properties of bone, the acetabular fracture type will be more complicated. Finally, during the final stages of osteoporosis (high reduction in mechanical properties of bone) a smaller share of impact load is transferred by impact-side hemipelvis to the sacrum, therefore, an osteoporotic pelvis might mitigate the risk of sacral fracture.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Acetábulo/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Osteoporose/complicações , Postura/fisiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
5.
J Clin Invest ; 132(3)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104801

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a fundamental aging mechanism that is currently the focus of considerable interest as a pathway that could be targeted to ameliorate aging across multiple tissues, including the skeleton. There is now substantial evidence that senescent cells accumulate in the bone microenvironment with aging and that targeting these cells prevents age-related bone loss, at least in mice. Cellular senescence also plays important roles in mediating the skeletal fragility associated with diabetes mellitus, radiation, and chemotherapy. As such, there are ongoing efforts to develop "senolytic" drugs that kill senescent cells by targeting key survival mechanisms in these cells without affecting normal cells. Because senescent cells accumulate across tissues with aging, senolytics offer the attractive possibility of treating multiple age-related comorbidities simultaneously.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos , Senescência Celular , Osteoporose , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia
6.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(1): 20-24, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986496

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to establish the influence of glucocorticoids (GC) on fracture risk, probability, and prevalence. A set of 1548 postmenopausal women were divided into study group - treated with GC (n=114, age 66.48±7.6 years) and controls (n=1434, age 66.46±6.83 years). Data on clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures were collected. Hip bone densitometry was performed using a device Prodigy (GE, USA). Fracture probability was established by FRAX, and fracture risk by Garvan algorithm and POL-RISK. Fracture risk and fracture probability were significantly greater for GC-treated women in comparison to controls. In the study group, there were 24, 3, 24, and 6 fractures noted at spine, hip, forearm, and arm, respectively. The respective numbers of fractures reported in controls at those skeletal sites were: 186, 23, 240, and 25. The use of GCs increased significantly prevalence of all major, spine and arm fractures. Also the number of all fractures was affected by GC use. Following factors significantly increased fracture probability: age (OR 1.04 per each year; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06), GC use (OR 1.54; 95% CI: 1.03-2.31), falls (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.60-2.73), and FN T-score (OR 0.62 per each unit; 95% CI: 0.54-0.71). In conclusion, in patients treated with GCs the fracture risk, probability, and prevalence were increased. This effect was evident regardless of whether GC therapy is included in the algorithm as a risk factor (FRAX, POL-RISK) or not taken into consideration (Garvan nomogram).


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 782, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039574

RESUMO

There is no consensus regarding the advantages of the lag screw type over the blade type for treating femoral trochanteric fractures. We aimed to investigate whether non-spiral blade (Conventional-Blade, Fid-Blade) nails provide better biomechanical fixation than lag screws in a severe osteoporotic bone model. Different severities of osteoporotic cancellous bone were modelled using polyurethane foam blocks of three densities (0.24, 0.16, and 0.08 g/cm3). Three torsional tests were performed using each component for each density of the polyurethane block, and the maximum torque was recorded; subsequently, the energy required to achieve 30° rotation was calculated. Using a push-in test, the maximum force was recorded, and the energy required to achieve 4-mm displacement was calculated. For 0.08-g/cm3 density, the peak torques to achieve 30° rotation, energy required to achieve 30° rotation, peak force to achieve 4-mm displacement, and energy required to achieve 4-mm displacement were significantly greater for Conventional-Blade and Fid-Blade than those for Lag Screw. The fixation stability of the blade-type Magnum nail component is better than that of the lag screw type under any test condition. The blade-type nail component may have better fixation stability than the lag screw type in a severe osteoporotic bone model.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos , Parafusos Ósseos , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Osteoporose/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fraturas do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Torque
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 414, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013540

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a critical problem during aging. Ultrasound signals backscattered from bone contain information associated with microstructures. This study proposed using entropy imaging to collect the information in bone microstructures as a possible solution for ultrasound bone tissue characterization. Bone phantoms with different pounds per cubic foot (PCF) were used for ultrasound scanning by using single-element transducers of 1 (nonfocused) and 3.5 MHz (nonfocused and focused). Clinical measurements were also performed on lumbar vertebrae (L3 spinal segment) in participants with different ages (n = 34) and postmenopausal women with low or moderate-to-high risk of osteoporosis (n = 50; identified using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Taiwan). The signals backscattered from the bone phantoms and subjects were acquired for ultrasound entropy imaging by using sliding window processing. The independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Spearman correlation coefficient rs, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis. The results indicated that ultrasound entropy imaging revealed changes in bone microstructures. Using the 3.5-MHz focused ultrasound, small-window entropy imaging (side length: one pulse length of the transducer) was found to have high performance and sensitivity in detecting variation among the PCFs (rs = - 0.83; p < 0.05). Small-window entropy imaging also performed well in discriminating young and old participants (p < 0.05) and postmenopausal women with low versus moderate-to-high osteoporosis risk (the area under the ROC curve = 0.80; cut-off value = 2.65; accuracy = 86.00%; sensitivity = 71.43%; specificity = 88.37%). Ultrasound small-window entropy imaging has great potential in bone tissue characterization and osteoporosis assessment.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Entropia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Porosidade , Pós-Menopausa , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Espalhamento de Radiação , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação
9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 26(1): e14127, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are commonly found in patients who have undergone heart transplantation (HT), which increases the risk for bone fractures which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adults. However, the long-term evolution of BMD after HT in pediatric patients has not been thoroughly investigated. METHOD: Bone mineral density up to 10 years after HT was investigated in 30 patients who underwent HT at an age <20 years at Skåne University Hospital in Lund 1988-2016. RESULTS: The total observed time was 235 person-years. Before HT, 86% had low BMD for chronologic age in the lumbar spine. In lumbar spine, BMD was significantly lower than normal for chronological age before HT (p = .034), but recovered at the 4th year (p = .009). In whole body, BMD was normal at the 4th annual check-up (p = .030) and remained so throughout the follow-up period. The median T score in the lumbar spine and femoral neck 10 years after HT did not differ between the two groups based on age at HT (<20 years vs 20 years or older; p = .779 in the lumbar spine and p = .388 in the femoral neck). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo HT at an age of <20 years have low BMD for chronological age already before HT, but BMD may recover completely within the first 4 years after HT. The results indicate no difference in BMD at 10 years after HT between pediatric and adult patients.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante de Coração , Osteoporose/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Life Sci ; 290: 119480, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862113

RESUMO

AIMS: Bone defect repair in osteoporosis remains a tremendous challenge for clinicians due to increased bone metabolism resulted from estrogen deficiency. This study aims to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combined with fibrin glue (FG) in the extraction socket healing process of osteoporosis rats, as well as estimate the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) played in BMSCs differentiation in vitro and in the alveolar bone reconstruction process in vivo. MAIN METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups, under general anesthesia, three groups underwent bilateral ovariectomy(OVX) and one group with the sham operation. Three months later, the osteogenic ability of BMSCs, isolated from healthy and osteoporosis rats, respectively, was tested. The ERα and ERß mRNA expression in BMSCs was also evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. In vivo experiment, Micro-CT detection, histological and immunofluorescent analysis, tissue PCR was conducted up to 2, 4 and 6 weeks after transplantation of BMSCs/FG to assess the newly formed bone in the extraction socket. KEY FINDINGS: The BMSCs from osteoporosis rats displayed weaker osteogenic potential and lower ERs expression compared with the BMSCs from healthy rats. Newly formed bone tissue filled the socket defect in BMSCs/FG treated VOX rats after six weeks, which was comparable to the sham group, while reduced ERs expression was found in the regenerated bone of the OVX group. SIGNIFICANCE: The BMSCs seeded within FG might provide an alternative therapeutic method for repairing the extraction socket defect in osteoporosis condition.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Osteoporose/terapia , Alvéolo Dental/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Maxila/efeitos dos fármacos , Maxila/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoporose/patologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Extração Dentária/efeitos adversos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis a common bone disorder characterized by decreases in bone mass, tension, and strength. Although many previous studies worldwide have sought to identify the risk factors for osteoporosis, studies that simultaneously examine a variety of factors, such as biochemical, anthropometric and nutritional components, are very rare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simultaneously examine the association of osteoporosis with biochemical profiles, anthropometric factors, and nutritional components in a large-scale cross-sectional study. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-VII) from 2015 to 2018. Based on data from 16,454 participants, logistic regression was used to examine the association between various parameters in a crude analysis and in models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: In men, osteoporosis was significantly associated with the anthropometric variables height and weight; the biochemical components hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea nitrogen and urine pH and creatinine; and the nutritional components total food intake, energy, water, protein, phosphorus, and kalium. However, these associations disappeared in adjusted model 2. In women, osteoporosis was significantly related to the anthropometric measures height, weight, and systolic blood pressure; the biochemical components hemoglobin, hematocrit and urine pH; and the nutritional components total food intake, water, calcium, phosphorus, and kalium. Most of these associations were maintained in the adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Osteoporosis was linked to various anthropometric, biochemical and urine and nutritional components in Korean women, but the association between osteoporosis and risk factors differed according to sex.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948434

RESUMO

Male osteoporosis is a still largely underdiagnosed pathological condition. As a consequence, bone fragility in men remains undertreated mainly due to the low screening frequency and to controversies in the bone mineral density (BMD) testing standards. Up to the 40% of overall osteoporotic fractures affect men, in spite of the fact that women have a significant higher prevalence of osteoporosis. In addition, in males, hip fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality as compared to women. Importantly, male fractures occur about 10 years later in life than women, and, therefore, due to the advanced age, men may have more comorbidities and, consequently, their mortality is about twice the rate in women. Gender differences, which begin during puberty, lead to wider bones in males as compared with females. In men, follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, estrogens, and sex hormone-binding levels, together with genetic factors, interact in determining the peak of bone mass, BMD maintenance, and lifetime decrease. As compared with women, men are more frequently affected by secondary osteoporosis. Therefore, in all osteoporotic men, a complete clinical history should be collected and a careful physical examination should be done, in order to find clues of a possible underlying diseases and, ultimately, to guide laboratory testing. Currently, the pharmacological therapy of male osteoporosis includes aminobisphosphonates, denosumab, and teriparatide. Hypogonadal patients may be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Given that the fractures related to mortality are higher in men than in women, treating male subjects with osteoporosis is of the utmost importance in clinical practice, as it may impact on mortality even more than in women.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Testosterona
13.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836090

RESUMO

Vascular Calcification (VC), low bone mass and fragility fractures are frequently observed in ageing subjects. Although this clinical observation could be the mere coincidence of frequent age-dependent disorders, clinical and experimental data suggest that VC and bone loss could share pathophysiological mechanisms. Indeed, VC is an active process of calcium and phosphate precipitation that involves the transition of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into osteoblast-like cells. Among the molecules involved in this process, parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a key role acting through several mechanisms which includes the regulation of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system and the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, the main pathways for bone resorption and bone formation, respectively. Furthermore, some microRNAs have been implicated as common regulators of bone metabolism, VC, left ventricle hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Elucidating the common mechanisms between ageing; VC and bone loss could help to better understand the potential effects of osteoporosis drugs on the CV system.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Osteogênese/fisiologia
14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(24): e2100808, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719888

RESUMO

A differentiation switch of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) from osteoblasts to adipocytes contributes to age- and menopause-associated bone loss and marrow adiposity. Here it is found that osteocytes, the most abundant bone cells, promote adipogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis of BMSCs by secreting neuropeptide Y (NPY), whose expression increases with aging and osteoporosis. Deletion of NPY in osteocytes generates a high bone mass phenotype, and attenuates aging- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone-fat imbalance in mice. Osteocyte NPY production is under the control of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and osteocyte NPY deletion blocks the ANS-induced regulation of BMSC fate and bone-fat balance. γ-Oryzanol, a clinically used ANS regulator, significantly increases bone formation and reverses aging- and OVX-induced osteocyte NPY overproduction and marrow adiposity in control mice, but not in mice lacking osteocyte NPY. The study suggests a new mode of neuronal control of bone metabolism through the ANS-induced regulation of osteocyte NPY.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257310, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735461

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract and is associated with decreased bone mineral density. IBD patients are at higher risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and fracture compared to non-IBD patients. The impact of IBD on the performance of orthopedic implants has not been well studied. We hypothesized that a history of IBD at the time of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) would increase the risk of subsequent failure as assessed by revision surgery. A retrospective implant survival analysis was completed using the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Registry and the Sweden National Patient Register. A total of 150,073 patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis within an 18-year period were included in the study. THA patients with (n = 2,604) and without (n = 147,469) a history of IBD at the time of THA were compared with primary revision as the main endpoint and adjusted using sex, age category and comorbidity (Elixhauser scores) as covariates. We found that patients with a history of IBD had a relatively higher risk of revision surgery for septic causes while the non-IBD patients had a relatively higher risk of revision for aseptic causes (p = 0.004). Our findings suggest there may be an association between gut health and THA performance.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Reoperação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/cirurgia , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
16.
Cell Tissue Res ; 386(3): 445-454, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665321

RESUMO

Bone remodeling, expressed as bone formation and turnover, is a complex and dynamic process closely related to its form and function. Different events, such as development, aging, and function, play a critical role in bone remodeling and metabolism. The ability of the bone to adapt to new loads and forces has been well known and has proven useful in orthopedics and insightful for research in bone and cell biology. Mechanical stimulation is one of the most important drivers of bone metabolism. Interestingly, different types of forces will have specific consequences in bone remodeling, and their beneficial effects can be traced using different biomarkers. In this narrative review, we summarize the major mediators and events in bone remodeling, focusing on the effects of mechanical stimulation on bone metabolism, cell populations, and ultimately, bone health.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos
17.
J Exp Med ; 218(12)2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698806

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, occurring in close proximity to hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Recurrent somatic mutations that lead to an expanded population of mutant blood cells is termed clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Analyzing exome sequencing data from the UK Biobank, we found CHIP to be associated with increased incident osteoporosis diagnoses and decreased bone mineral density. In murine models, hematopoietic-specific mutations in Dnmt3a, the most commonly mutated gene in CHIP, decreased bone mass via increased osteoclastogenesis. Dnmt3a-/- demethylation opened chromatin and altered activity of inflammatory transcription factors. Bone loss was driven by proinflammatory cytokines, including Irf3-NF-κB-mediated IL-20 expression from Dnmt3a mutant macrophages. Increased osteoclastogenesis due to the Dnmt3a mutations was ameliorated by alendronate or IL-20 neutralization. These results demonstrate a novel source of osteoporosis-inducing inflammation.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , DNA Metiltransferase 3A/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alendronato/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Hematopoiese Clonal/fisiologia , DNA Metiltransferase 3A/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638883

RESUMO

Projected life expectancy continues to grow worldwide owing to the advancement of new treatments and technologies leading to rapid growth of geriatric population. Thus, age-associated diseases especially in the musculoskeletal system are becoming more common. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopenia) mass are conditions whose prevalence is increasing because of the change in population distribution in the world towards an older mean age. The deterioration in the bone and muscle functions can cause severe disability and seriously affects the patients' quality of life. Currently, there is no treatment to prevent and reverse age-related musculoskeletal frailty. Existing interventions are mainly to slow down and control the signs and symptoms. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising approach to attenuate age-related musculoskeletal frailty. This review compiles the present knowledge of the causes and changes of the musculoskeletal frailty and the potential of MSC transplantation as a regenerative therapy for age-related musculoskeletal frailty.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Fragilidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoporose , Sarcopenia , Fragilidade/metabolismo , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/terapia
19.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(6): 1117-1134, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688418

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. A well-balanced diet containing adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, smoking cessation, and limited alcohol intake are important to maintain bone health. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in postmenopausal women who are at high risk for fractures. Newer anabolic therapies including teriparatide, abaloparatide, and romosozumab have emerged for use in severe osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico
20.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 240, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526510

RESUMO

The development of new effective and safer therapies for osteoporosis, in addition to improved diagnostic and prevention strategies, represents a serious need in the scientific community. Micro-CT image-based analyses in association with biomechanical testing have become pivotal tools in identifying osteoporosis in animal models by assessment of bone microarchitecture and resistance, as well as bone strength. Here, we describe a dataset of micro-CT scans and reconstructions of 15 whole femurs and biomechanical tests on contralateral femurs from C57BL/6JOlaHsd ovariectomized (OVX), resembling human post-menopausal osteoporosis, and sham operated (sham) female mice. Data provided for each mouse include: the acquisition images (.tiff), the reconstructed images (.bmp) and an.xls file containing the maximum attenuations for each reconstructed image. Biomechanical data include an.xls file with the recorded load-displacement, a movie with the filmed test and an.xls file collecting all biomechanical results.


Assuntos
Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...