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1.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211000889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827338

RESUMO

To examine basic COVID-19 knowledge, coping style and exercise behavior among the public including government-provided medical cloud system treatment app based on the internet during the outbreak. Besides, to provide references for developing targeted strategies and measures on prevention and control of COVID-19. We conducted an online survey from 11th to 15th March 2020 via WeChat App using a designed questionnaire. As well as aim to diagnose COVID-19 earlier and to improve its treatment by applying medical technology, the "COVID-19 Intelligent Diagnosis and Treatment Assistant Program (nCapp)" based on the Internet of Things. Valid information was collected from 1893 responders (47.07% males and 52.93% females aged 18-80 years, with a mean age of 31.05 ± 9.86) in 20 provincial-level regions across China. From the responders, 92.90% and 34.81% were scaled pass and good and above scores for the knowledge about the novel coronavirus epidemic. 38.44% were scaled poor scores and only 5.40% were scaled good and above scores for appropriate behavior coping with the pandemic. Among the responders, 52.14% reported having active physical exercise in various places during the previous 1 week. For all the responders, appropriate behavior coping correlated positively with physical exercise (p < 0.05); the daily consumed time for getting the epidemic-related information correlated positively with the score for cognition on the epidemic's prevention measures (r = 0.111, p < 0.01) and on general knowledge about the epidemic (r = 0.087, p < 0.01). Targeted and multiple measures for guidance on the control of COVID-19 among the public should be promoted to improve the cognition on basic knowledge, behaviors and treatment.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Computação em Nuvem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806026

RESUMO

The association between caregiver burden and the physical frailty of older adults has been the object of previous studies. The contribution of patients' dispositional optimism on caregiver burden is a poorly investigated topic. The present study aimed at investigating whether older adults' multidimensional frailty and optimism might contribute to the burden of their family caregivers. The Caregiver Burden Inventory was used to measure the care-related burden of caregivers. The multidimensional frailty status of each patient was evaluated by calculating a frailty index, and the revised Life Orientation Test was used to evaluate patients' dispositional optimism. The study involved eighty family caregivers (mean age 64.28 ± 8.6) and eighty older patients (mean age 80.45 ± 7.13). Our results showed that higher frailty status and lower levels of optimism among patients were significantly associated with higher levels of overall burden and higher burden related to the restriction of personal time among caregivers. Patients' frailty was additionally associated with caregivers' greater feelings of failure, physical stress, role conflicts, and embarrassment. Understanding the close connection between patient-related factors and the burden of caregivers appears to be an actual challenge with significant clinical, social, and public health implications.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Fragilidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo
3.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 43, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thalassemia have a negative impact on the patients' psychological health and sleep quality. This study aimed to determine the effects of a positive thinking training program on hope and sleep quality of patients with thalassemia major. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 78 patients with thalassemia major including 36 males (46.2%) and 42 females (53.8%) with a mean age of 25.56 ± 29.6 in Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. Experimental group received 16 h training based on positive thinking materials published by Martin Seligman. Control group received only usual programs. Data were collected at baseline, as well as immediately and one month after the intervention, using Snyder's Hope Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Software 18.0; statistical tests included the independent T-test, the Chi-square, Mann Whitney, and Friedman test. Significance level was set at 0.05 in this study. RESULTS: The experimental group had a significantly higher mean hope score compared to the control group immediately (45.38 ± 7.82 vs. 35.32 ± 5.54, P < 0.001) and one month following intervention (44.67 ± 3.47 vs. 35 ± .54, P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean sleep quality scores of the experimental group was significantly greater than that for control group immediately (5.35 ± 2.02 vs. 7 ± 2.4, P = 0.004) and one month after the intervention (4.23 ± 2.2 vs.7.02 ± 3.03, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Since our training program on positive thinking improved hope and quality of sleep in patients with thalassemia major, we recommend the use of such courses as an important step toward promotion of hope and sleep quality among these patients. Trial registration The name of the registry: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: IRCT2017010431774N1. URL of the trial registry record: https://en.irct.ir/trial/24923 . Registration Date: 07/03/2017.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Talassemia , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Sono
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670871

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a chronic endocrinopathy characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulation that may pervade psychological dimensions such as dispositional optimism. Considering how PCOS influences mental health and the lack of studies on this matter, this research was aimed at assessing optimism and associated factors in PCOS. A case-control study of 156 patients with PCOS and 117 controls was conducted. All woman filled out the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), a self-report questionnaire for measuring dispositional optimism. Medication, pain severity, gynecological, and sociodemographic information was also collected. Lower optimism was found in patients with PCOS compared to controls, even after covariate adjustment (LOT-R global scores: 14.1 vs. 15.9, p = 0.020). Our study provides evidence that a personality characteristic with important implications in illness prognosis may be affected in PCOS. We propose to assess dispositional optimism with the LOT-R scale in the gynecological appointment and tailor medical attention accordingly as a way to improve the comprehensive care of these patients within a multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Anovulação , Hiperandrogenismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Otimismo
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 171, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has reached pandemic status and is affecting countries all over the world. The COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by various stressors that require adjustment in everyday life and possibly changes in personal future prospects. While some individuals cope well with these challenges, some develop psychological distress including depressive symptoms, anxiety, or stress. Internet-based self-help interventions have proven to be effective in the treatment of various mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Based on that, we developed an internet-based self-help program for individuals with psychological distress due to the situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The 3-week self-help program consists of 6 modules comprising texts, videos, figures, and exercises. Participants can request guidance within the self-help program (guidance on demand). The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the self-help program compared to a waiting control condition. METHODS: The design is a parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants are allocated to a 3-week self-help intervention plus care as usual or a 3-week waiting period with only care as usual. There are follow-ups after 6 weeks and 18 weeks. At least 80 participants with COVID-19 pandemic related psychological distress will be recruited. Primary outcome are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include anxiety and chronic stress, suicidal experiences and behavior, health-related quality of life, generalized optimism and pessimism, embitterment, optimistic self-beliefs, emotion regulation skills, loneliness, resilience, and the satisfaction with and usability of the self-help program. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies investigating the efficacy of an internet-based self-help program for psychological distress due to the situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the results of this study may give further insight into the use of internet-based self-help programs in pandemic-related psychological distress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04380909 . Retrospectively registered on 8 May 2020.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Autocuidado , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Humanos , Solidão , Otimismo , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Pessimismo , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoeficácia , Autogestão , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ideação Suicida
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132721995448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576290

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to assess how optimism, social support, and perceived susceptibility are associated with depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life among elderly patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 256 participants age 60 through 95 completed the following self-administered questionnaires: Perceived Susceptibility, Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Symptoms of Depression (CES-D) and health-related quality of life (SF-12v2 Health Survey). Data were collected from June to July 2020, 3 months after the COVID-19 state of emergency was declared in Israel. Participants were interviewed by family medicine residents via telephone. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations, t-tests between groups, regression analyses, and Hayes' PROCESS to analyze a moderated mediation model. RESULTS: Of the elderly participants, 37.5% were classified as having depression. Optimism, social support and health-related quality of life were positively associated. Higher optimism and social support were related to lower perceived susceptibility and lower depression. Results of a multivariate regression explained 29% of the variance in depression and 19% of the variance in health-related quality of life. The relationships assessed by 4 Process models were significant, such that higher optimism and social support were related to lower perceived susceptibility, which in turn was related to higher depression and lower health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism and social support may be effective in coping with challenges and buffering depression. Perceived susceptibility may mediate the association of optimism and social support with higher depression and lower health-related quality of life. The conclusions of this study underscore the need to treat depression among older adults during this period. Hence, healthcare providers should also support elderly patients living at home. In giving this type of help, healthcare providers should strive to increase social support and optimism among older adults.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Otimismo , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Isolamento Social , Apoio Social , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578873

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak had a negative impact on psychological status among elderly subjects, negatively affecting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Psychological factors that promote resilience might beneficially contribute also to promoting a better HRQoL among elderly subjects. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of dispositional optimism and expressive flexibility on the HRQoL of elderly outpatients during the COVID-19 outbreak. The outpatients were recruited from October 2018 to October 2019, and then followed-up during April 2020, by evaluating their HRQoL. The baseline sample consisted of 141 elderly outpatients (mean age 80.31 ± 6.84 years); the final number of outpatients included in the follow-up evaluation was 104 (mean age 80.26 ± 6.39). Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were developed to explore significant associations with the physical and mental component of HRQoL. Baseline dispositional optimism was a predictor of the mental component of HRQoL at follow-up; the flexible suppression of emotional expression was a predictor of the physical component of HRQoL at follow-up. From a psychogeriatric perspective, the accurate assessment of psychological factors, such as dispositional optimism and expressive flexibility, might help physicians and psychologists to recognize additional patients' vulnerabilities during the current emergency.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emoções , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Otimismo
13.
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 51-62, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587203

RESUMO

Steven Soderbergh's Contagion (2011) positions the vaccine as the end point of the arc of â€‹pandemic, marking both the containment of an elusive virus and â€‹the resumption of a life not fundamentally different from â€‹before the disease outbreak. ​The film reinforces the â€‹assumption that a pandemic will awaken â€‹all of us to the urgency of vaccination​, persuading us to put aside our reservations and anxieties â€‹and the idea that compliance is the inevitable outcome of quarantine. This article explores how pro-vaccination cultural products â€‹such as Contagion might in fact undermine public health efforts by promoting a false narrative, which simplifies the kind of vaccination campaign necessary for herd immunity to develop. An ethic of sacrifice and selflessness drives the public health messaging of the film but leaves intact certain individualistic tropes and plague narrative scapegoating tendencies, while the framing of the vaccine as "gift" takes it out of the realm of medical science altogether.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Saúde da População , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Vacinação
14.
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 81-101, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620597

RESUMO

The ongoing trauma of COVID-19 will no doubt mark entire generations in ways inherent in an unmanaged global pandemic. The question that I ask is why this ongoing trauma seems so particularly profound and so uniquely shattering, and whether there is anything that we could do now, while still in the midst of disaster, to begin the process of social and moral repair? I will begin by considering the trauma of isolation with unknown time-horizons, and argue that it not only damages our experiences as social selves, but its languages of overwhelming grief rob us of hope of self-restoration. Second, I will examine some reasons for the "why us"-type of trauma experienced by so many in the Global North, and suggest that such laments are predicated on the misalignment among our socio-historical awareness, disaster-imagination, and our sense of ourselves as uniquely unfortunate. Finally, relying in part on Viktor Frankl's notion of "tragic optimism," I conclude by considering how we may begin to reconsider our traumas as not just endings of what is, but beginnings of what still might be -as repair without a master plan.


Assuntos
Pesar , Narração , Humanos , Otimismo , Pandemias
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 744: 135625, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421488

RESUMO

Previous studies studies indicate that individuals tend to integrate positive information into their self-concept. However, whether such self-positivity bias would still be observed without an explicit self-related cue is unknown. In the present study, 29 participants were asked to evaluate a series of positive and negative trait adjectives, after the participants were presented with their own name or another name subliminally. During the task, their electroencephalograms were recorded. The results showed participants responded faster to positive traits than to negative traits in the self-name cue conditions. In addition, both the latencies and the amplitudes of the N400 showed significant interaction between name-cue and valence in N400 (240-440 ms) amplitudes. The earlier N400 latencies and smaller N400 amplitudes were associated with positive traits in the self-name cue. These results suggested that the self-positivity bias can also be observed in a subliminally presenting self-cue, indicating the robustness of self-positivity bias.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatr Neurol ; 116: 62-67, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The past decades have seen a transformational shift in the understanding and treatment for neurological diseases affecting infants and children. These advances have been driven in part by the pediatric neurology physician-scientist workforce and its efforts. However, pediatric neurology research faces substantial challenges from internal and external forces including work-life balance demands, COVID-19 pandemic effects, and research funding. Understanding the impact of these challenges on the perceptions, planning, and careers of pediatric neurology physician-scientists is needed to guide the research mission. METHODS: Our objective was to survey the research challenges, goals, and priorities of pediatric neurologists. In 2020 we conducted a cross-sectional, 28-question survey emailed to 1,775 members of the Child Neurology Society. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-one individuals responded to the survey. Most respondents were grant investigators (52%) and conducted clinical research (69%). Research areas included epilepsy (23%), neurodevelopmental and autism (16%), neurocritical care and stroke (11%), neurogenetics and neurometabolics (9%), neonatal neurology (8%), and others. The most common funding source was the National Institutes of Health (37%). Shared major research concerns were funding, utilization of remote technology, overcoming disparities, natural history and multicenter studies, global neurology, and diversification of the research portfolio. Commitment to continuing and increasing research efforts was evident. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey demonstrates obstacles for physician-scientist researchers in pediatric neurology, but it also shows optimism about continued opportunity. Creative approaches to address challenges will benefit the research mission, maximize the current and future pool of researchers, and help improve the lives of children with neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Otimismo , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
19.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1859-1866, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic presents a global crisis. To remain safe, individuals must take preventive measures. Health behavior theories suggest that perceived risk is a key determinant of engagement in preventive behavior. People often underestimate their risk for disease compared with similar others', a phenomenon known as optimistic bias (OB). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore how OB affected individuals' engagement in COVID-19 preventive behavior/intentions. Based on health behavior theories, this study considered risk perception and risk response as mediators of the relationship between OB and individuals' preventive health behaviors and intentions. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Online survey platforms were used to recruit U.S. adults. A total of 293 valid responses were included in the analyses. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of OB to the respondents' health information seeking intention and related behavioral outcomes. RESULTS: Results from the first regression model showed that OB was negatively related to risk perception. In other words, optimistically biased respondents perceived their risk of COVID-19 to be low. The second model demonstrated that perceived risk was related positively to affective responses to risk (e.g., worry and fear). That is, the lower their perceived risk of COVID-19, the less likely respondents were to feel anxiety and fear about this disease. Models 3 and 4 revealed positive relationships between risk response and respondents' intentions and behaviors. Finally, the results supported a fully mediated pathway: OB → risk perception → risk response → information seeking intention and behavioral outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that by decreasing their perceived risk and subsequent responses, optimistic bias can undermine individuals' motivation to take precautions. To reduce this bias, the actual risk of COVID-19 should be reinforced.


Assuntos
Viés , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Otimismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Eur J Pain ; 25(4): 817-830, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a broad range of evidence on optimism dampening the pain experience, as assessed by subjective self-report. Facial expression of pain conveys supplementary information about the pain experience, is an integral part of pain communication and assists psychosocial pain coping. Nevertheless, the effect of induced optimism on facial activity during pain has to our knowledge not been examined. METHODS: In our experiment, 40 healthy participants underwent two blocks of thermal stimulation containing phasic non-painful and painful stimuli. Between the two blocks, the Best Possible Self imagery and writing task was performed to induce situational optimism, while a control group wrote about their typical day. Facial activity and self-report ratings of intensity and unpleasantness were recorded. Facial activity was analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. RESULTS: The optimism manipulation was successful in increasing state optimism. It did not affect self-report ratings, but resulted in a stronger facial expression of pain, caused especially by increases in Action Units 4 (furrowed brows) and 6_7 (narrowed eyes). CONCLUSIONS: All Action Units, which were affected by the optimism induction, are known to be prevalent during pain stimulation. The increase in facial expression might reflect reduced inhibition of pain communication in temporarily optimistic participants. Optimism might lead to expecting positive and helpful reactions from others and, by that, to great readiness to elicit these reactions by non-verbal social behaviour. SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to indicate that state optimism increases the facial expression of pain as a social signal for help and empathy without concomitant changes in the subjective pain experience.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Dor , Empatia , Humanos , Otimismo , Medição da Dor
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