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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 211-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191223

RESUMO

Patients with schizophrenia often experience relapses that negatively impact long-term outcomes. Continuous antipsychotic treatment can reduce relapse risk; however, this can be hindered by nonadherence resulting from the poor insight, which is often associated with schizophrenia. A strong patient-physician-carer alliance can improve patient insight, and adherence. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment (LAT) provides continuous treatment; however, its acceptance by the patient is often compromised by a lack of physician-patient communication. The COMP approach (Connectedness, Openness, Motivation, Partnership) was developed to build effective communication and aid discussions around treatment. Insights on COMP fed into the development of COMPLETE - a tool for discussing LAT with eligible patients including the following components: 'Life goals', 'Establish connection between goals and therapy', 'Therapy introduction' and 'Encourage long-term motivation'. The overarching objective of COMPLETE is to improve long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. This article discusses the development of COMPLETE and its potential use in the management of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Otimismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Injeções
2.
Nature ; 577(7792): 671-675, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942076

RESUMO

Since its introduction, the reward prediction error theory of dopamine has explained a wealth of empirical phenomena, providing a unifying framework for understanding the representation of reward and value in the brain1-3. According to the now canonical theory, reward predictions are represented as a single scalar quantity, which supports learning about the expectation, or mean, of stochastic outcomes. Here we propose an account of dopamine-based reinforcement learning inspired by recent artificial intelligence research on distributional reinforcement learning4-6. We hypothesized that the brain represents possible future rewards not as a single mean, but instead as a probability distribution, effectively representing multiple future outcomes simultaneously and in parallel. This idea implies a set of empirical predictions, which we tested using single-unit recordings from mouse ventral tegmental area. Our findings provide strong evidence for a neural realization of distributional reinforcement learning.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Otimismo , Pessimismo , Probabilidade , Distribuições Estatísticas , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861137

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to identify a factor structure between variables-interest in broad science topics, perceived information and communications technology (ICT) competence, environmental awareness and optimism; and (2) to explore the relations between these variables at the country level. The first part of the aim is addressed using exploratory factor analysis with data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for 15-year-old students from Singapore and Finland. The results show that a comparable structure with four factors was verified in both countries. Correlation analyses and linear regression were used to address the second part of the aim. The results show that adolescents' interest in broad science topics can predict perceived ICT competence. Their interest in broad science topics and perceived ICT competence can predict environmental awareness in both countries. However, there is difference in predicting environmental optimism. Singaporean students' interest in broad science topics and their perceived ICT competences are positive predictors, whereas environmental awareness is a negative predictor. Finnish students' environmental awareness negatively predicted environmental optimism.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Otimismo , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Singapura
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e16720, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) sometimes referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a very challenging condition to treat, there is evidence that individual cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) can be effective for treatment and management of its symptoms. Furthermore, group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) is emerging as promising treatment for the condition.The aim of the present study was to explore further the effectiveness of GCBT in a routine clinical setting and to investigate associated positive psychological effects related to GCBT. METHODS: In this pragmatic, non-randomized, controlled trial, 28 people acted as their own waiting list control by completing a range of measures 8 weeks prior to taking part in the GCBT. The intervention consisted of 8 consecutive weeks of 2.5-hour sessions. RESULTS: Repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed significant improvements in physical fatigue (F = 28.31, P < .01, effect size d = 0.52), mental fatigue (F = 7.72, P < .01, effect size d = 0.22), and depressive symptoms (Beck depression inventory-fast screen for medical individuals [BDI-FS]: F = 11.43, P < .01, effect size d = 0.30; hospital anxiety and depression scale [HADS-D]: F = 16.72, P < .01, effect size d = 0.38) compared with the waiting list. Improvements in quality of life (F = 7.56, P < .01, effect size d = 0.23), hope (F = 15.15, P < .01, effect size d = 0.36), and optimism (F = 8.17, P < .01, effect size d = 0.23) were also identified, but no change was reported for anxiety levels. Global outcome measures revealed that the majority of the individuals found the treatment beneficial and were satisfied with the results. CONCLUSION: GCBT is a beneficial and cost-effective treatment that individuals find amenable in routine clinical practice for CFS. Additionally we have described important effects emerged on positive psychological dimensions such as hope and optimism potentially enhancing the overall benefit.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/psicologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/terapia , Listas de Espera , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/complicações , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The approach and use of the term "humanization" is very much present in healthcare. However, instruments for measuring the concept of the humanization of care are yet to be designed and developed. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the Healthcare Professional Humanization Scale (HUMAS) for nursing professionals. METHOD: The sample was made up of 338 adults, who were nurses working at health centers and hospitals, and aged between 22 and 56. RESULTS: The results of the analyses confirm that the Healthcare Professional Humanization Scale (HUMAS) has an adequate construct validity and reliability, and defines the humanization of care as a multidimensional construct, made up of five factors: Affection, Self-efficacy, Emotional understanding, Optimistic disposition and Sociability. CONCLUSIONS: The new HUMAS scale may be an easily administered and coded instrument for approaching the humanization of care, not only in research, but also in practice.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoeficácia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540017

RESUMO

Background: Positive orientation includes optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. This research was conducted to determine whether positive orientation is an important predictor of health behaviors of patients with chronic movement disorders which require a rehabilitation program. Methods: The study involved 93 patients, including 46 women (49.5%) and 47 men (50.5%). The study utilized a standardized Positive Orientation Scale and a Health Behavior Inventory to measure the intensity of health-promoting behaviors. Results: The two variables of age and positive orientation were found to be predictors of overall healthy behavior, explaining a total of 22% variance of the dependent variable. Age was a predictor of preventative behavior (ß = 0.37; R2 = 0.16). Its share in the prediction of this variable was significant (16%). The highest predictive value of positive mental attitude was having a positive orientation (ß = 0.42; R2 = 0.17), which explained 17% of the variance of the dependent variable. However, age explained 14% of the variability of health practice results (ß = 0.39; R2 = 0.14). Conclusion: The results of the research indicate the need to implement preventive programs with a positive orientation to modify the health behavior of chronically ill male and female patients.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos dos Movimentos/psicologia , Otimismo , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4547-4558, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414262

RESUMO

This study examines associations between dimensions of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and anxiety symptoms in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers' positive ways of thinking and romantic relationship satisfaction were examined as mediators of associations. The extent to which child ASD symptom severity and maternal broad autism phenotype (BAP) behaviors predicted interactions with religious community members was also examined. Seventy-three Christian mothers of a child with ASD completed online surveys. Higher levels of spirituality were associated with viewing their child with ASD as providing a positive contribution to the family. These positive views were, in turn, associated with less anxiety symptoms. Mothers of children with more severe ASD symptoms also reported greater negative interactions with members of their congregation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Qual Life Res ; 28(12): 3323-3332, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate associations of the balance of optimism and pessimism orientations as personal traits with pro-environmental behavior and subjective well-being, i.e., life satisfaction. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire survey consisting of two waves were conducted with Japanese respondents within an interval of 3 months (N = 770, mean age 49.6 ± 15.23 years). Correlation analyses and structural equation modeling were conducted to identify relationships between pro-environmental behavior and positive and negative psychological states and orientations. RESULTS: Results of both the two surveys indicated positive correlations of optimism-pessimism orientation (O/P ratio) and subjective well-being with pro-environmental behavior. Negative associations were also confirmed between depression, stress, and sleepiness and pro-environmental behavior. Structural equation modeling using the two-wave data revealed that O/P ratio is positively associated with pro-environmental behavior as longitudinal associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that O/P ratio can be related to current and future engagement in pro-environmental behavior and improvement in subjective well-being which could lead to an environmentally sustainable society with enhanced quality of life.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(7-8): 615-620, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at examining the relationships between optimism and life satisfaction in persons with schizophrenia living in the community. METHOD: In total, 108 persons with schizophrenia who live in the community, ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed measures of optimism, perceived stress and life satisfaction. RESULTS: Results showed that optimism significantly predicted life satisfaction even after controlling for gender, age, onset age, employment and perceived stress. CONCLUSION: Findings add further support to the growing body of evidence implicating that the intervention for enhancing life satisfaction in persons with schizophrenia dwelling in the community could focus on increasing optimism.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Satisfação Pessoal , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 106, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a serious public health issue, threatening the health of individuals the world over. Whilst DVA can be experienced by both men and women, the majority is still experienced by women; around 30% of women worldwide who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced violence at the hands of their partner, and every week in England and Wales two women are killed by their current or ex-partner. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of thrivership with women who have experienced DVA, to contribute to our understandings of what constitutes 'thriving' post-abuse, and how women affected can move from surviving to thriving. METHODS: Thirty-seven women took part in this qualitative study which consisted of six focus groups and four in-depth interviews undertaken in one region of the UK in 2018. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Initial findings were reported back to a group of participants to invite respondent validation and ensure co-production of data. RESULTS: The process of 'thrivership' - moving from surviving to thriving after DVA - is a fluid, non-linear journey of self-discovery featuring three 'stages' of victim, survivor, and thriver. Thriving after DVA is characterised by a positive outlook and looking to the future, improved health and well-being, a reclamation of the self, and a new social network. Crucial to ensuring 'thrivership' are three key components that we propose as the 'Thrivership Model', all of which are underpinned by education and awareness building at different levels: (1) Provision of Safety, (2) Sharing the Story, (3) Social Response. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings provide a new view of thriving post-abuse by women who have lived through it. The proposed Thrivership Model has been developed to illustrate what is required from DVA-services and public health practitioners for the thrivership process to take place, so that more women may be supported towards 'thriving' after abuse.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobrevivência , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Otimismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291278

RESUMO

This study examined profiles of participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) in 4th grade children (N = 27,121; Mean age = 9.20 years; SD = .54; 51% male) in British Columbia, Canada. Latent class analyses were used to establish activity profiles and determine class membership; ANCOVA was used to investigate differences in mental wellbeing (optimism, life satisfaction, self-concept) and perceived overall health between groups. Data came from a cross-sectional, population-level child self-report survey (i.e., the Middle Years Development Instrument) implemented with 4th grade children in public schools. We found four distinct ECA profiles: participation in "All Activities", "No activities", "Sports" (i.e., individual and team sports), and "Individual activities" (i.e., educational programs, arts/music, individual sports). Wellbeing and health scores were highest for children in the "All Activities" and the "Sports" clusters, and lowest for those in "No Activities" and the cluster reflecting individual activities (i.e., "Individual activities"). Results are discussed in the context of previous research, and with respect to practical relevance.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Arte , Colúmbia Britânica , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Otimismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Esportes
14.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(8): 643-645, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274610

RESUMO

There are many lessons relevant to burnout from studying the literature on positive psychology. For example, resilience can be taught. A major portion of resilience and fighting burnout is finding meaning in work. Positive thinking, optimism, positive self-talk, and ways to diminish stress and increase happiness and engagement can also be learned.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Segurança , Humanos , Otimismo , Resiliência Psicológica
15.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 17(8): 786-798, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals tend to have unrealistic comparative optimism (UCO) for different diseases and health outcomes. Our aim was to analyze UCO in relation to skin cancer for the first time in a representative nationwide sample. The results will be important for planning future prevention. METHODS: The National Cancer Aid Monitoring on Sunbed Use (NCAM, wave 3) is a representative nationwide German survey (n = 3,000, 14-45 years). We assessed UCO in relation to skin cancer and analyzed its association with sociodemographics, tanning and health-related risk behaviors, skin cancer risk, and skin cancer risk awareness. RESULTS: Four out of ten (43.3 %) respondents believed themselves to have a lower risk of developing skin cancer than other people of the same age and sex. Younger individuals were more likely to be optimistic. Individuals with an increased risk of skin cancer were more likely to perceive this higher risk. CONCLUSION: While it is realistic for those who actually have a higher risk of skin cancer to perceive it that way, the findings for the general population (and specifically for younger individuals) are concerning. It seems important to explain to people that their perception of their own risk of skin cancer is unrealistic, as this may affect their individual screening and prevention behavior.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15869, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192918

RESUMO

Higher trait optimism and/or lower cynical hostility are associated with healthier behaviors and lower risk of morbidity and mortality, yet their association with health care utilization has been understudied. Whether these psychological attitudes are associated with breast cancer screening behavior is unknown. To assess the association of optimism and cynical hostility with screening mammography in older women and whether sociodemographic factors acted as mediators of these relationships, we used Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort survey data linked to Medicare claims. The sample includes WHI participants without history of breast cancer who were enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B for ≥2 years from 2005-2010, and who completed WHI baseline attitudinal questionnaires (n = 48,291). We used survival modeling to examine whether screening frequency varied by psychological attitudes (measured at study baseline) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and healthcare-related variables. Psychological attitudes included trait optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised) and cynical hostility (Cook Medley subscale), which were self-reported at study baseline. Sociodemographic, health conditions, and healthcare variables were self-reported at baseline and updated through 2005 as available. Contrary to our hypotheses, repeated events survival models showed that women with the lowest optimism scores (i.e., more pessimistic tendencies) received 5% more frequent screenings after complete covariate adjustment (p < .01) compared to the most optimistic group, and showed no association between cynical hostility and frequency of screening mammograms. Sociodemographic factors did not appear to mediate the relationship between optimism and screenings. However, higher levels of education and higher levels of income were associated with more frequent screenings (both p < .01). We also found that results for optimism were primarily driven by women who were aged 75 or older after January 2009, when changes to clinical guidelines lead to uncertainty about risks and benefits of screening in this age group. The study demonstrated that lower optimism, higher education, and higher income were all associated with more frequent screening mammograms in this sample after repeated events survival modeling and covariate adjustment.


Assuntos
Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Otimismo/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Estudos Longitudinais , Medicare , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 719-724, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207858

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of pre-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories on the relationship between Sandy exposures and post-Sandy 9/11-related PTSD among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees. The study population included 3,199 adult Registry enrollees who completed three surveys prior to Sandy in 2003-4, 2006-7, and 2011-12; a post-Hurricane Sandy survey (2013); and a follow-up survey in 2015-16. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups of enrollees who shared a similar trajectory of change in PCL score in the time period prior to Sandy. We compared enrollees in each trajectory group to assess the impact of Sandy-related PTSD, Sandy exposures, and optimism on 9/11-related PTSD status post-Sandy (2015-16) using bivariate analyses and multivariable log-binomial regression. Sandy-related PTSD was the strongest predictor of subsequent 9/11-related PTSD. Lower optimism and higher Sandy exposure significantly predicted 9/11-related PTSD only in some trajectory groups. Hurricane Sandy may have exacerbated previously resolved symptoms of 9/11-related PTSD. This indicates a need after a disaster to assess and address mental health sequelae from previous traumatic exposures.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro/tendências , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Bioeth ; 19(7): 26-28, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237505
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242609

RESUMO

Very little is known about the extent to which seemingly vulnerable younger and older adults appraise household risks and relatedly whether safety information focused on raising risk awareness influences intentions to reduce hazards in the home. The present study assessed age differences in accident experience, risk attitudes, household accident risk perceptions, comparative optimism, personal control, efficacy judgements, and intentions to remove household hazards. It also examined the predictors of these intentions. Thirty-eight younger adults (aged 18 to 25) and forty older adults (aged 65 to 87) completed study booklets containing all measures. There were significant age group differences for all accident experience and risk-related variables. Younger adults experienced more accidents, had riskier attitudes, and had significantly lower cognitive risk perceptions (i.e., they were less likely to be injured due to a household accident). They also had lower affective risk perceptions (i.e., they were less worried) about their accident risk and perceived more personal control over the risk compared with older adults. Young adults were comparatively optimistic about their risk while older adults were pessimistic. Older adults had higher response efficacy and intentions to reduce hazards in the home. Only worry, response efficacy, and risk attitudes predicted intention, however, these relationships were not moderated by age or efficacy appraisal. Although tentative theoretical and practical implications are presented, further research is required in order to better understand the objective and subjective risk associated with household accidents, and to determine the factors that may improve safety, particularly for those most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Intenção , Julgamento , Masculino , Otimismo , Percepção , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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