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2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light the lacunae in the preparedness of healthcare systems across the globe. This preparedness also includes the safety of healthcare providers (HCPs) at various levels. Sudden spread of COVID-19 infection has created threatening and vulnerable conditions for the HCPs. The current pandemic situation has not only affected physical health of HCPs but also their mental health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the prevalence and severity of secondary traumatic stress, optimism parameters, along with states of mood experienced by the HCPs, viz., doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals (including Physiotherapist, Lab technicians, Phlebotomist, dieticians, administrative staff and clinical pharmacist), during the COVID-19 lockdown in India. METHODOLOGY: The assessment of level of secondary traumatic stress (STS), optimism/pessimism (via Life Orientation Test-Revised) and current mood states experienced by Indian HCPs in the present COVID-19 pandemic situation was done using a primary data of 2,008 HCPs from India during the first lockdown during April-May 2020. Data was collected through snow-ball sampling technique, reaching out to various medical health care professionals through social media platforms. RESULT: Amongst the study sample 88.2% of doctors, 79.2 of nurses and 58.6% of allied HCPs were found to have STS in varying severity. There was a female preponderance in the category of Severe STS. Higher optimism on the LOTR scale was observed among doctors at 39.3% followed by nurses at 26.7% and allied health care professionals 22.8%. The mood visual analogue scale which measures the "mood" during the survey indicated moderate mood states without any gender bias in the study sample. CONCLUSION: The current investigation sheds light on the magnitude of the STSS experienced by the HCPs in the Indian Subcontinent during the pandemic. This hitherto undiagnosed and unaddressed issue, calls for a dire need of creating better and accessible mental health programmes and facilities for the health care providers in India.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492043

RESUMO

The sustainable financial behavior and financial well-being have been a key concern among the developing societies; thereby encompassing the various psychological factors which play a role in influencing individual's positive financial behavior and financial well-being, this study is conducted. Research focusing on the psychological aspect of human financial behavior and well-being is scarce, focusing more on the cognitive side such as financial literacy and numeracy. The aim of this research study is to find the role played by the non-cognitive factors such as self-esteem, self-control, optimism and deliberative thinking, in forming the financial behavior and financial well-being of the young adults. A sample of 429 university students from public and private sector was collected via an online and field survey using purposive sampling technique. The survey contained measures for demographics, self-esteem, optimism, deliberative thinking, self-control, general financial behavior and financial well-being. SPSS and PLS-SEM tools were used for the exploration of the relationships among dependent and independent variables. The results of PLS path analysis demonstrate that among the non-cognitive factors, self-control and deliberative thinking show a significant association with both financial behavior, and financial security. Self-esteem plays no significant role in forming the financial behavior of the young adults when all the variables are taken together but it exhibits a significant association with financial well-being (financial security and financial anxiety). Optimism on the other hand exhibits no significant association with both financial behavior and financial well-being (financial security and financial anxiety). The results of this study complement the previous studies and also put forth new outcomes. This research is unique as it is the first of its kind conducted in a consumption-oriented economy like Pakistan. In addition to the previous studies which have often established the link of self-esteem with general well-being, this study goes further by analyzing the association between self-esteem and financial well-being and by the identification of the role played by non-cognitive factors like self-esteem, optimism, deliberative thinking and self-control together on the financial behavior and financial well-being of the individuals using PLS-SEM approach.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Administração Financeira/tendências , Otimismo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Criatividade , Feminino , Administração Financeira/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Health Psychol ; 40(6): 408-417, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uveal melanoma, a rare eye cancer, presents potential vision loss and life threat. This prospective, longitudinal study interrogated the predictive utility of visual impairment, as moderated by optimism/pessimism, on depressive symptoms in 299 adults undergoing diagnostic evaluation. METHOD: Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), subjective (Measure of Outcome in Ocular Disease vision subscale) and objective (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) visual impairment, and optimism/pessimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised) were assessed before diagnostic evaluation and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after diagnosis. Multilevel modeling, with repeated measures (Level 1) nested within individuals (Level 2) and imputation of missing data (Blimp software), was performed. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were significantly more elevated 1 week after diagnosis in cancer patients (n = 107) versus patients not diagnosed with cancer (n = 192). Higher subjective (but not objective) visual impairment predicted greater depressive symptoms (p < .001). Across the entire sample, the two-way (Optimism/Pessimism × Subjective Visual Impairment) interactions were statistically significant (ps < .05), but not the three-way interaction (with diagnosis). The positive association between subjective visual impairment and depressive symptoms was significant at low and moderate levels of optimism (ps < .001), but not at high optimism (p > .05). The association was significant at high and moderate levels (ps < .001), but not low (p > .05) levels of pessimism. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated depressive symptoms are evident in adults who do (vs. do not) receive a diagnosis of uveal melanoma but appear to remit within 3 months. Perceived impaired vision, especially coupled with low optimism or high pessimism, predicts depressive symptoms over time, with implications for intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão , Melanoma , Otimismo , Pessimismo , Neoplasias Uveais , Transtornos da Visão , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081714

RESUMO

This study examines multi-stakeholders' perceptions of vandalism at tourist attractions in two Asian cities: Bangkok and Singapore. It provides an opportunity to explore the differences and similarities in stakeholder attitudes towards attraction management and reveals desired levels of participation of community in managing vandalism in tourism. This mixed method research employs community survey and interviews of site managers and government officials as its main data collection approach. It also offers an innovative approach to data analysis using the severity and optimist/pessimist psychographic variables coupled with quantitative analytical techniques. The results reveal complex relationship between psychographic profiles, future and current time dimensions, and location. In conclusion, the study offers several recommendations to city managers and policymakers on methods of vandalism control. It also highlights the importance of cultural context and its influence on community involvement. While this study is limited to tourism attractions, it provides a solid foundation for future research, one that can extend into urban planning and public policy design.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Criminoso , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Participação dos Interessados , Turismo , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
6.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 49(9): 1113-1123, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856611

RESUMO

The current longitudinal study examines changes in overall mental health symptomatology from before to after the COVID-19 outbreak in youth from the southeastern United States as well as the potential mitigating effects of self-efficacy, optimism, and coping. A sample of 105 parent-child dyads participated in the study (49% boys; 81% European American, 1% Alaska Native/American Indian, 9% Asian/Asian American; 4% Black/African American; 4% Latinx; and 4% other; 87% mothers; 25% high school graduate without college education; 30% degree from 4-year college; 45% graduate or professional school). Parents completed surveys when children were aged 6-9, 8-12, 9-13, and 12-16, with the last assessments occurring between May 13, 2020 and July 1, 2020 during the COVID-19 outbreak. Children also completed online surveys at ages 11-16 assessing self-efficacy, optimism, and coping. Multi-level modeling analyses showed a within-person increase in mental health symptoms from before to after the outbreak after controlling for changes associated with maturation. Symptom increases were mitigated in youth with greater self-efficacy and (to some extent) problem-focused engaged coping, and exacerbated in youth with greater emotion-focused engaged and disengaged coping. Implications of this work include the importance of reinforcing self-efficacy in youth during times of crisis, such as the pandemic, and the potential downsides of emotion-focused coping as an early response to the crisis for youth.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Otimismo/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficácia , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(10): 1323-1329, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833424

RESUMO

Online reviews promise to provide people with immediate access to the wisdom of the crowds. Yet, half of all reviews on Amazon and Yelp provide the most positive rating possible, despite human behaviour being substantially more varied in nature. We term the challenge of discerning success within this sea of positive ratings the 'positivity problem'. Positivity, however, is only one facet of individuals' opinions. We propose that one solution to the positivity problem lies with the emotionality of people's opinions. Using computational linguistics, we predict the box office revenue of nearly 2,400 movies, sales of 1.6 million books, new brand followers across two years of Super Bowl commercials, and real-world reservations at over 1,000 restaurants. Whereas star ratings are an unreliable predictor of success, emotionality from the very same reviews offers a consistent diagnostic signal. More emotional language was associated with more subsequent success.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Tomada de Decisões , Emoções Manifestas , Comportamento de Massa , Opinião Pública , Marketing Social , Humanos , Otimismo/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Psicologia Social , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social , Fatores Sociológicos
8.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211000889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827338

RESUMO

To examine basic COVID-19 knowledge, coping style and exercise behavior among the public including government-provided medical cloud system treatment app based on the internet during the outbreak. Besides, to provide references for developing targeted strategies and measures on prevention and control of COVID-19. We conducted an online survey from 11th to 15th March 2020 via WeChat App using a designed questionnaire. As well as aim to diagnose COVID-19 earlier and to improve its treatment by applying medical technology, the "COVID-19 Intelligent Diagnosis and Treatment Assistant Program (nCapp)" based on the Internet of Things. Valid information was collected from 1893 responders (47.07% males and 52.93% females aged 18-80 years, with a mean age of 31.05 ± 9.86) in 20 provincial-level regions across China. From the responders, 92.90% and 34.81% were scaled pass and good and above scores for the knowledge about the novel coronavirus epidemic. 38.44% were scaled poor scores and only 5.40% were scaled good and above scores for appropriate behavior coping with the pandemic. Among the responders, 52.14% reported having active physical exercise in various places during the previous 1 week. For all the responders, appropriate behavior coping correlated positively with physical exercise (p < 0.05); the daily consumed time for getting the epidemic-related information correlated positively with the score for cognition on the epidemic's prevention measures (r = 0.111, p < 0.01) and on general knowledge about the epidemic (r = 0.087, p < 0.01). Targeted and multiple measures for guidance on the control of COVID-19 among the public should be promoted to improve the cognition on basic knowledge, behaviors and treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Computação em Nuvem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Qual Life Res ; 30(6): 1605-1617, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606179

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The impact of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation on the psychological well-being of patients on dialysis is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the effect of primary ICD implantation on quality of life (QoL), mood and dispositional optimism in patients undergoing dialysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prespecified subanalysis of the randomized controlled ICD2 trial. In total, 177 patients on chronic dialysis, with an age of 55-81 years, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≥ 35%, were included in the per-protocol analysis. Eighty patients received an ICD for primary prevention, and 91 patients received standard care. The Short Form-36 (SF-36), Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) questionnaires were administered prior to ICD implantation (T0), and at 1-year follow-up (T1) to assess QoL, depression and optimism, respectively. The patients were predominantly male (76.0%), with a median age of 67 years. Hemodialysis was the predominant mode of dialysis (70.2%). The GDS-15 score difference (T1 - T0) was 0.5 (2.1) in the ICD group compared with 0.3 (2.2) in the control group (mean difference - 0.3; 95% CI - 1.1 to 0.6; P = 0.58). The LOT-R score difference was - 0.2 (4.1) in the ICD group compared with - 1.5 (4.0) in the control group (mean difference - 1.1 (0.8); 95% CI - 2.6 to 0.4; P = 0.17). The mean difference scores of all subscales of the SF-36 were not significantly different between randomization groups. CONCLUSIONS: In our population of patients on dialysis, ICD implantation did not affect QoL, mood or dispositional optimism significantly during 1-year follow-up. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique identifier: ISRCTN20479861. http://www.controlled-trials.com .


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo/psicologia , Personalidade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
10.
Behav Genet ; 51(3): 191-203, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582898

RESUMO

The distinction between genetic influences on the covariance (or bivariate heritability) and genetic correlations in bivariate twin models is often not well-understood or only one is reported while the results show distinctive information about the relation between traits. We applied bivariate twin models in a large sample of adolescent twins, to disentangle the association between well-being (WB) and four complex traits (optimism, anxious-depressed symptoms (AD), aggressive behaviour (AGG), and educational achievement (EA)). Optimism and AD showed respectively a strong positive and negative phenotypic correlation with WB, the negative correlation of WB and AGG is lower and the correlation with EA is nearly zero. All four traits showed a large genetic contribution to the covariance with well-being. The genetic correlations of well-being with optimism and AD are strong and smaller for AGG and EA. We used the results of the models to explain what information is retrieved based on the bivariate heritability versus the genetic correlations and the (clinical) implications.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos , Otimismo/psicologia , Fenótipo , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
11.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 50: 101892, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety are now considered as common adverse reactions to cancer. Prior research has shown that social support and functional coping strategies alleviate depressive and anxious symptoms of cancer patients but the exact relationship between social support and coping strategies in amelioration of the symptoms is yet to be elaborated. METHODS: The current study examined the relationship between social support, coping strategies and depressive-anxious symptomatology and explored the possible role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between social support, depression and anxiety in Iranian breast cancer patients (N = 221). Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Depression-Anxiety-Stress (DASS-21) scale, social support was measured using the Medical Outcome Survey, Social Support Scale (MOSS-SSS), and coping strategies were measured using the brief COPE. RESULTS: All of the social support subscales were negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Most of the coping strategies were negatively correlated with depressive-anxious symptoms. When controlling for covariates, mediation analysis revealed that active coping, positive reframing and acceptance partially mediated the association of social support of different types with depression. Positive reframing also partially mediated the relationship of the total social support and positive social interactions with anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may relieve depressive and anxious symptoms of breast cancer patients through functional coping. The management of breast cancer patients should also focus on providing patients with social support and educating them on the practice of functional coping strategies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Comportamento , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(5): 453-462, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502507

RESUMO

When people are confronted with feedback that counters their prior beliefs, they preferentially rely on desirable rather than undesirable feedback in belief updating, i.e. an optimism bias. In two pre-registered EEG studies employing an adverse life event probability estimation task, we investigated the neurocognitive processes that support the formation and the change of optimism biases in immediate and 24 h delayed tests. We found that optimistic belief updating biases not only emerged immediately but also became significantly larger after 24 h, suggesting an active role of valence-dependent offline consolidation processes in the change of optimism biases. Participants also showed optimistic memory biases: they were less accurate in remembering undesirable than desirable feedback probabilities, with inferior memories of undesirable feedback associated with lower belief updating in the delayed test. Examining event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that desirability of feedback biased initial encoding: desirable feedback elicited larger P300s than undesirable feedback, with larger P300 amplitudes predicting both higher belief updating and memory accuracies. These results suggest that desirability of feedback could bias both online and offline memory-related processes such as encoding and consolidation, with both processes contributing to the formation and change of optimism biases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Adulto , Viés , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
An. psicol ; 37(1): 77-87, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, grab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200653

RESUMO

Oliva's Escala para la Evaluación del Estilo Parental (EEEP) [Scale for the evaluation of parenting styles] asks adolescents about their parents' education styles separately ("your father" and "your mother") or in a combined way ("your parents"), but only the separated version has been tested for validity. The objective of this work was to carry out a validation of the combined version. A sample of 1507 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, was recruited. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were run in two independent subsamples. Then, structural equation models (SEM) were run in order to test the association between the EEEP's subscales and adolescent outcomes (optimism, pessimism, and academic achievement). Results showed a good fit of the instruments' structure. Furthermore, the subscales showed associations with the outcomes. The EEEP can be reliably used in its combined form, which results in a reduction of items, often beneficial for research


La Escala para la Evaluación del Estilo Parental (EEEP) pregunta a los adolescentes sobre los estilos educativos de sus padres por separado ("tu padre" y "tu madre") o de forma conjunta ("tus padres"), pero solo se ha evaluado la validez en la versión por separado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la validez de las inferencias de la versión conjunta. Se reclutó una muestra de 1507 adolescentes, de 12 a 18 años. Se realizaron análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios en dos submuestras independientes. Después se probó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para comprobar la asociación de las subescalas de la EEEP con desenlaces de los adolescentes (optimismo, pesimismo y resultados académicos). Los resultados muestran buenas medidas de ajuste de la estructura del instrumento. Además, las subescalas mostraron asociación con los desenlaces. La EEEP puede ser usada con fiabilidad en su forma conjunta, resultando en una reducción de ítems, los cual es a menudo beneficioso para la investigación


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Sucesso Acadêmico , Análise de Classes Latentes , Otimismo/psicologia
14.
An. psicol ; 37(1): 114-120, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200656

RESUMO

Research results have shown the existence of relationships be-tween the Big Five personality factors, optimism, and perceived stress. The aim of this study is to explore the possible mediating role that it has been suggested might play optimism in this relationship. Structural equation models were conducted to examine the mediating role of optimism. A multi-group analysis was performed to verify whether the results varied by sex. 611 Spanish adolescents completed anonymously the measures of BFQ, LOT-R, and PSS. The findings showed that optimism was positively associated with the personality traits and negatively with perceived stress. Perceived stress was in turn negatively related to Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness, while it was not correlated with Agree-ableness and Openness. Mediation analysis revealed the mediating role of optimism on the relationship between Emotional Stability (partial mediation), Extraversion, and Conscientiousness and the perception of stress. These findings did not vary by sex. In conclusion, a basic personality pro-file characterized by Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Conscientious-ness would favor the development of positive future expectations that rep-resent a proximal predictor for perceived stress. Optimism mediation may be relevant for the development of interventions focused on reducing stress levels and, consequently, to improve the adolescent's adjustment


Los resultados de investigación han mostrado la existencia de relaciones entre los Cinco Grandes factores de personalidad, Optimismo y Estrés Percibido. El objetivo del estudio es explorar, mediante modelos de ecuaciones estructurales, el posible papel mediador que se ha sugerido podría desempeñar Optimismo en esta relación. También, se explora a través de un análisis multi-grupo la invarianza por sexo de los resultados. Un total de 611 adolescentes españoles completaron de forma anónima los cuestionarios BFQ, LOT-R y PSS. Optimismo se asoció positivamente asociado con los rasgos de personalidad y negativamente con Estrés Percibido. El Estrés se relacionó negativamente con Estabilidad Emocional, Extraversion y Responsabilidad y no mostró asociación alguna con Afabilidad ni con Apertura. Los análisis de mediación revelaron el papel mediador de Optimismo en la relación entre Estabilidad Emocional (mediación parcial), Extraversion y Responsabilidad y Estrés. Estos resultados no variaron por sexo. En conclusión, un perfil básico de personalidad caracterizado por Extraversión, Estabilidad Emocional y Responsabilidad favorecería el desarrollo de expectativas positivas de futuro que representan un predictor proximal de Estrés Percibido. El papel mediador del optimismo puede resultar relevante para el desarrollo de intervenciones focalizadas en reducir los niveles de estrés y, consecuentemente, mejorar el ajuste del adolescent


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Personalidade , Otimismo/psicologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores de Referência , Extroversão Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Espanha
15.
Neurosci Lett ; 744: 135625, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421488

RESUMO

Previous studies studies indicate that individuals tend to integrate positive information into their self-concept. However, whether such self-positivity bias would still be observed without an explicit self-related cue is unknown. In the present study, 29 participants were asked to evaluate a series of positive and negative trait adjectives, after the participants were presented with their own name or another name subliminally. During the task, their electroencephalograms were recorded. The results showed participants responded faster to positive traits than to negative traits in the self-name cue conditions. In addition, both the latencies and the amplitudes of the N400 showed significant interaction between name-cue and valence in N400 (240-440 ms) amplitudes. The earlier N400 latencies and smaller N400 amplitudes were associated with positive traits in the self-name cue. These results suggested that the self-positivity bias can also be observed in a subliminally presenting self-cue, indicating the robustness of self-positivity bias.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Community Ment Health J ; 57(1): 70-78, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955670

RESUMO

The role of individual variables (COVID-19 anxiety, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, optimistic bias and personal identity) as predictors of quality of life (QoL) during the novel coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic is explored. Impact of group related variables (identification to family, religious group and nation) on QoL is also examined. Sample comprised 305 male and female Indian respondents, aged 18 to 78 years. Standardized measures have been utilised to assess the constructs. Results revealed that QoL was significantly influenced by individual variables (COVID-19 anxiety and personal identity) and group variables (identification with family and nation). The effect of COVID-19 anxiety and personal identity as individual variables is over and above that of demographic variables on QoL. Group variables (family and national identification) significantly impacted QoL over and above the individual variables. Findings would indeed, aid in the rehabilitation and assistance of people to live in COVID-19 crisis, and thereafter.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 92(3): 338-349, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893937

RESUMO

Age-related changes in future-directed thinking may be important for well-being. Older and younger adults generated idiographic anticipated experiences for the next week, the next year, and the next 5-10 years, using an adapted fluency measure. Relative to younger adults, older adults maintained a focus on the immediate future but frequency of anticipated events declined for the medium and longer term. The presence of negative thoughts for those two more distant time periods was related to lower life satisfaction in older adults. Content differences in thoughts illustrated the differing concerns of the two groups. The results align broadly with previous findings in the literature on socioemotional selectivity theory.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Otimismo/psicologia , Pensamento , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(3): 563-573, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Positive perceptions of aging are known to have beneficial effects for older adults' health and well-being, but less is known regarding their social correlates. The current study aimed to disentangle the bidirectional associations of perceptions of aging with informal and formal social involvement. METHOD: Data for this study came from the 2008 and 2014 waves of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS). Informal social involvement was assessed as the frequency of providing advice and emotional support to others. Formal social involvement was measured as the number of groups and organizations one participates in and the frequency of attending them. A latent change score model was used to assess the bidirectional links between the constructs. RESULTS: Adults with more positive aging perception at baseline were likely to become more informally and formally socially involved over time. Informal social involvement predicted better perceptions of aging, but not formal social involvement. These trends were consistent across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that having positive expectations regarding one's aging might encourage adults to maintain a more engaged and socially productive lifestyle. In addition, informal social involvement, characterized by the provision of advice and support to others, is beneficial for experiencing the aging process more positively.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Estilo de Vida , Otimismo/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Autoimagem , Participação Social/psicologia , Idoso , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários/psicologia
19.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 92(4): 492-520, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283942

RESUMO

This article examines the hypothesis that the dialogical integration of life experiences is related to successful aging. Life story interviews with 93 older Czech adults were sorted into categories characterized by specific patterns of life experience integration: (i) without dialogical processes, (ii) with differentiated I-positions, (iii) with dialogical relationships, (iv) partially integrated, and (v) completely integrated. The results indicated that the categories were ordered, yielding low-level correlations with scales of successful aging in predicted directions. A comparison of the categories revealed that they were related to successful aging in a cumulative way, starting with the most essential indicator (lower scores of rumination) in the participants who had developed at least dialogical relationships, continuing to higher well-being linked with partial integration, and ending with an advanced indicator (optimism toward future) linked with complete integration. These relationships were summarized in a hypothetical model that is open to further examination.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Narração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Otimismo/psicologia , Ruminação Cognitiva
20.
Psychol Rep ; 124(3): 1412-1430, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576093

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study is to compare the construct, convergent and divergent validity and the reliability of three optimism scales. The study relied on a nonprobability sample of 100 social work students at Western Michigan University in the United States (Seventy-nine percent of the sample were female, and 21% were male). The sample's mean age was 26.35 years, SD = 7.70. Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the respondents self-identified as White, and 31% self-identified as African American, Hispanic/Latino, multiethnic, Native American or Asian American. The study used confirmatory factor and multiple regression analyses (CFA and MRA). The findings show that the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) and the Personal Optimism Scale (POS) were supported by three indicators of goodness of fit, while the Brief Interactive Optimism Scale-Garcia (BIOS-G) was supported by eight. The LOT-R showed no acceptable internal consistency indicators, but the POS and the BIOS-G showed several good internal consistency indicators. Correlations of all of these scales with the Physical Well-being Scale-Garcia (PWS-G) ranged from r (100) = .303, p = .002 to r (100) = .439, p = .000. The three scales had divergent validity because their scores did not differ by gender (LOT-R: t(100) = -.885, p = .383; POS: t(100) = -.263, p = .794; BIOS-G: t(100) = -.840, p = .407). The findings suggest the advisability of recommending the BIOS-G, which is short and easy to use and understand.


Assuntos
Otimismo/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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