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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 911-917, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify pathogens isolated in acute external otitis cases and determine their distribution according to ages and seasons as well as investigate the susceptibility or resistance to the aminoglycoside and quinolone group antibiotics of which topical forms are available. METHOD: A total of 168 patients diagnosed with acute external otitis were evaluated retrospectively. Growing bacteria were identified according to the species by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility status was determined for the growing bacteria. RESULTS: The most common bacteria detected were pseudomonas group bacteria (38.7 per cent). Resistance to the amikacin group of antibiotics was found to be the lowest and resistance to the ciprofloxacin group of antibiotics was the highest. CONCLUSION: External auditory canal cultures should be taken simultaneously with empirical treatment. Seasonal effect and age group should be taken into consideration in the choice of treatment and after questioning about chronic exposure to water. Empirical treatment should then be started.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Amicacina/uso terapêutico , Aminoglicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Externa/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
3.
Open Vet J ; 10(4): 377-383, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614432

RESUMO

Background: Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder with a multifactorial complex etiology. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of different etiological agents, particularly the parasitic and bacterial, responsible for the cases of feline otitis externa in Tripoli, Libya, and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates from those cases. Methods: Cerumen and otic discharges of the suspected cats were collected for parasite detection and bacterial culture. Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results: The results showed that otodectic mites and bacterial causes were equally the most prevalent in those cases, with a prevalence of 47.1% each. Otodectes cynotis infestation was more frequently bilateral and severe. Staphylococcus spp. were the most prevalent among bacterial causes (75%), followed by Proteus spp. (16.6%) and Pseudomonas spp. (8.4%). Norfloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antimicrobials against bacterial isolates, as they were effective against 83.3% and 70.8% of isolates, respectively. Conclusion: Otodectes cynotis infestation and staphylococcal infections constituted the most common etiology of feline otitis externa in Tripoli, Libya, and norfloxacin represented a cogent antibacterial for the treatment of otitis externa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Otite Externa/veterinária , Infecções por Proteus/veterinária , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Feminino , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Líbia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Otite Externa/parasitologia , Prevalência , Proteus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Proteus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Proteus/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(2): 102894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429178

RESUMO

Malignant otitis externa is a progressive infection of the external auditory canal and skull base. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most isolated microorganism and it affects mostly to diabetic, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Non-resolving otalgia and chronic otorrhea are the clinical manifestations presented. Facial nerve palsy is a common and well recognized complication. (Computed tomography) CT scan is useful for initial assessment, Technetium-99m is highly sensitive and is part of the protocol for diagnosis. Treatment should be individualized, with multidisciplinary cooperation among specialties. Management involves systemic antipseudomonal antibiotics and monitoring with radiologic techniques, it also involves the strict control of diabetes. It is essential to follow up the patients for at least a year post-treatment. In refractory malignant otitis externa and affection of facial nerve, surgical management is recommended. We reviewed the most recent studies on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment to provide an update on Malignant Otitis Externa that can offer an overview for clinical practice and future research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Otite Externa/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otológicos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Otite Externa/diagnóstico por imagem , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Base do Crânio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(4): 1084-1091, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979301

RESUMO

AIMS: Otitis externa (OE), one of the most common ear diseases in dogs, is caused by bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus sp. To understand the network of microbial communities in the canine ear canal affected with OE, we performed a cross-sectional study using next-generation sequencing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ear swab samples were collected from 23 OE-affected and 10 healthy control dogs, and the 16S rRNA gene sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. The otic microbiota in the OE-affected dogs showed significantly decreased alpha diversity compared to controls. The community composition also differed in the affected group, with significantly higher relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes and the genus Staphylococcus (P = 0·01 and 0·04 respectively). Contrary to our expectations, the severity of the disease did not impact the otic microbiota in OE-affected dogs. CONCLUSIONS: The ear canal microbiota of OE-affected dogs is distinct from that of healthy dogs, irrespective of disease status. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study, one of the few detailed analyses of the otic microbiota, can provide practical information for the appropriate treatment of canine OE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Meato Acústico Externo/microbiologia , Microbiota , Otite Externa/veterinária , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Otite Externa/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(3): 465-468, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006862

RESUMO

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) and methicillin-resistant SP (MRSP) is one of the most important veterinary pathogens in the dog. Herein, from a total of 126 S. pseudintermediusstrains, 23 MRSP (18%) were identified. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) revealed that most of MRSP strains belonged to ST71 (26%), which have been already reported in Italy and other countries. Interestingly, nine new sequence types (39%), from 1053 up to 1061, were described for the first time. Moreover, the isolated MRSP strains showed relevant antibiotic resistance profiles. This report highlights the circulation of new sequence types of MRSP in Italy and underlines the need of a global epidemiological surveillance to limit the increasing spread of multidrug-resistant MRSPstrains worldwide, since they may represent a considerable concern for dog's health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Meticilina/farmacologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Itália/epidemiologia , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Pioderma/epidemiologia , Pioderma/microbiologia , Pioderma/veterinária , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
7.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 63(2): 82-85, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771074

RESUMO

Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) also commonly known as malignant otitis externa was first described by Meltzer and Kelemen in 1959. Prior to the advent of the antibiotic era, this disease carried a poor prognosis with significant morbidity. It often proved fatal with mortality rates as high as 50%. Commonly seen in the immunocompromised patients, diabetes mellitus is an important associated comorbidity in the pathophysiologic development of this disease. Treatment is instituted by medical therapy with surgery having a limited role. Surgical intervention has a limited role, for example, in fungal SBO. Such cases may require local debridement and intraoperative tissue biopsies for histopathologic confirmation. This is to demonstrate fungal invasion into the skull base, as well as to exclude other sinister differential diagnoses like squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone. In this case report, we present a rare case of candida SBO and the literature review.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/complicações , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Base do Crânio
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 248, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal infection of animals or humans are common all over the world. Some of microorganisms like fungi, exist on the skin and can be transmitted onto other individuals, other animal species or even humans and cause skin infections. Moreover, they can be the causative agents of severe generalized infections especially in immunocompromised individuals. The study aimed to evaluate the most frequent etiological agents of skin diseases and to compare the prevalence of animal fungal infections in Poland, and to discuss the possibility of transmission to humans in Poland. RESULTS: The obtained results are culture based. The fungi most frequently isolated from group of animals with skin lesions were Malassezia pachydermatis (29.14%), and Candida yeasts (27.07%), and dermatophytes (23.5%), including Microsporum canis as majority of them (59.25%), and Trichophyton genus (40.7%), most of them T. mentagrophytes, while Malassezia pachydermatis represented (80%) of isolates in animals with otitis externa. In over 19% of positive fungal cultures obtained from external ear canals Candida yeasts, mainly C. albicans, were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatomycoses in companion animals are caused by both, mycelial fungi and yeasts. Most frequently isolated were Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida spp. Dermatophytes (Trichophyton, Microsporum), were also cultured, but the total number of these isolates seems to decrease. We have not found Cryptococcus neoformans in tested clinical samples.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Humanos , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zoonoses/microbiologia
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(8): 1671-1678, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant otitis externa (MOE) is a progressive infection of the external auditory canal (EAC). This disease is rare but has severe morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review provides an overview of malignant otitis externa for emergency clinicians. DISCUSSION: MOE is an invasive external ear infection that spreads to the temporal bone and can further progress to affect intracranial structures. Complications of advanced MOE include cranial nerve involvement, most commonly the facial nerve, and intracranial infections such as abscess and meningitis. The most common causative agent of MOE is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but others include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and fungi. Major risk factors for MOE include diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, and advanced age. Red flags for MOE include severe otalgia (pain out of proportion to exam) or severe otorrhea, neurologic deficits (especially facial nerve involvement), previously diagnosed otitis externa not responsive to therapy, and patients with major risk factors for MOE. Examination may show purulent otorrhea or granulation tissue in the EAC, and culture of EAC drainage should be performed. Diagnosis is aided by computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast, which may demonstrate bony destruction of the temporal bone or skull base. When suspecting MOE, early consultation with an otolaryngologist is recommended and antibiotics with pseudomonal coverage are needed. Most patients with MOE will require admission to the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: MOE is a rare, yet deadly diagnosis that must be suspected when patients with immunocompromise, diabetes, or advanced age present with severe otalgia. Rapid diagnosis and treatment may prevent complications and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Otite Externa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Otite Externa/terapia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 137(2): 127-129, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139197

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aspergillus necrotizing otitis externa (NOE) is a rare disease, often associated with delayed diagnosis, the management of which is poorly defined. SUMMARY: The authors report a case of Aspergillus flavus necrotizing otitis externa with temporomandibular arthritis and temporozygomatic osteomyelitis with Staphylococcal coinfection in a diabetic patient. The diagnosis and discontinuation of treatment were guided by PET-CT scan. A favourable course without sequelae was observed after repeated surgical curettage and 3 months of antifungal therapy. DISCUSSION: Aspergillus flavus is the agent most commonly incriminated in NOE. Indirect diagnostic tests (serology) may be negative. The diagnosis is based on imaging-guided surgical biopsy with histological examination and standard and fungal microbiological culture. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy. The duration of antifungal therapy is poorly defined and discontinuation of therapy can be guided by PET-CT scan.


Assuntos
Artrite/microbiologia , Artrite/patologia , Aspergilose/patologia , Aspergillus flavus , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/patologia , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Otite Externa/patologia , Osso Temporal , Articulação Temporomandibular , Zigoma , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose
12.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 70: 101471, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208190

RESUMO

In this study, the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii in a dog with clinical bilateral otitis externa is described. Moreover, to investigate the zoonotic potential of the isolate, microbiological examinations on the family members were performed. An A. baumanniistrain was isolated from nasal swab in one of the dog owners. The identity of bacterial strains, either from dog and owner, was confirmed by phenotypic and molecular typing (wgMLST). Furthermore, to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates a deep characterization of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes was done by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Finally, the susceptibility towards a wide panel of antimicrobials was investigated. In our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of A. baumanniiisolation from canine auricular swabs in Italy. And interestingly, this study underlines the possible spread of this microorganism from human to animal.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/veterinária , Acinetobacter baumannii/classificação , Cães/microbiologia , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/transmissão , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Propriedade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/microbiologia
13.
J Int Adv Otol ; 16(1): 98-103, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malignant (necrotizing) otitis externa (MOE) is an aggressive form of skin inflammation of the external ear with a tendency to spread infection to the temporal bone. The study aimed to evaluate a causal relationship between treatment responses and clinical features in patients with MOE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective, descriptive section study, the database was analyzed between January 2008 and December 2018 in our department, all patients with diagnosed MOE were identified. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were evaluated, of which 27 men and 3 women. The youngest patient was 52 years old while he was eldest 88 years, (mean-71 years old). As the most common comorbidity, diabetes mellitus was found in 23 (76%) subjects. Median duration of symptoms was about 3 months. The most common isolated pathogen was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (47%). Patients with facial nerve palsy and erosion of temporal bone find on computerized tomography affect prolonged stationary treatment (Mean, SD 29.2±8.5 and 26,7±11.6 days), while 80% of patients with facial nerve palsy had recurrence of disease (p=0.005) with mean duration of clinical remission of 60±17.3 days. Overall length of treatment is also increased in the presence of comorbidities as well as in patients with cranial nerve involvement. CONCLUSION: Patients with cranial nerve involvement, erosion of temporal bone and presence of comorbidities affect prolonged treatment and adverse prognosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of aggressive therapy are essential for stopping the further spread of the disease and prevention of serious complications.


Assuntos
Orelha Externa/patologia , Necrose/etiologia , Otite Externa/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/patologia , Necrose/terapia , Otite Externa/complicações , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Prognóstico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Osso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Temporal/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Infection ; 48(2): 193-203, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Malignant external otitis is an aggressive and potentially life-threatening infection. This rare disorder is typically caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and affects almost exclusively elderly diabetic patients. However, fungal malignant external otitis have been identified, especially in immunocompromised hosts. METHODS: We report a rare case of invasive malignant external otitis caused by Aspergillus flavus in a diabetic patient without other underlying immunosuppression. A review of Aspergillus spp. malignant external otitis since voriconazole became the first line for invasive aspergillosis was performed. RESULTS: A 72-year-old man with diabetes mellitus developed invasive malignant external otitis with a vascular involvement. The patient was treated with empiric courses of antibiotics until a fungal infection was diagnosed. Proven Apsergillus infection was based on histopathological examination and isolation of A. flavus from culture of osteo-meningeal biopsies. Despite optimal antimicrobial therapy with voriconazole, the patient presented with cerebral infarction in the setting of an angioinvasive fungal infection leading to a fatal outcome. From a review of the literature, we found 39 previously published cases of proven Aspergillus spp. malignant external otitis treated with new triazoles. CONCLUSION: Given our experience and the literature review, a fungal etiology should be considered early in the course of malignant external otitis unresponsive to a conventional broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, with the need for a tissue biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/complicações , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico por imagem , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Otite Externa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Vet Dermatol ; 31(3): 240-e53, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patulous Eustachian tube (pET) is a rare dysfunction of the Eustachian tube described in humans. It is characterized by failure of the ET to close, resulting in unrestricted passage of air, sound and material between the nasopharynx and the middle ear. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of pET associated with otitis in a dog. ANIMAL: A 6-year old-female spayed Dachshund dog. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Otoscopic examination, cytological evaluation, culture and susceptibility, computerized tomography (CT), video-otoscopic flushing and surgery. RESULTS: Left ear otoscopic examination revealed erythema, purulent frothy discharge, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, stenosis and a partial tear of the tympanum. Cytological evaluation from the left external canal showed neutrophils, macrophages, rods and cocci. Aerobic culture showed predominantly multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The CT findings of the left ear included chronic changes in the external canal, marked lysis of the tympanic bulla and marked dilation of the ET. During video-otoscope flushing, saline drained through the mouth. Bilateral incomplete hypoplasia of the soft palate was noted. Total ear canal ablation and bulla osteotomy with ET dissection were curative. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic otitis externa (OE) and media. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of pET described in animals. The ET dysfunction and palatine defect were likely the cause of the otitis in this dog. Clinicians should investigate pET in animals with signs of OE characterized by frothy liquid and food fragments in the ear canal in addition to sneezing after drinking water.


Assuntos
Tuba Auditiva/anormalidades , Otite Externa/veterinária , Otite Média/veterinária , Palato Duro/anormalidades , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Tuba Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Otite Externa/diagnóstico , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Otite Média/diagnóstico , Otite Média/microbiologia , Palato Duro/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
J Vet Sci ; 21(1): e11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940690

RESUMO

The increase in canine skin and soft tissue infections, such as pyoderma and otitis, caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi strains, is of significant zoonotic concern. In this study, we report the first complete genome sequence for a methicillin-resistant clinical isolate of S. schleiferi (MRSS) designated as SS4, obtained from a dog with otitis externa, in Korea. The genome of SS4 strain was of 2,539,409 bp and presented high G+C content ratio (35.90%) with no plasmid. Comparative analysis of SS4 genome revealed that it is closely related to 2142-05 and 5909-02 strains isolated from the canine skin infections in the USA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Meticilina/farmacologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Cães , Otite Externa/microbiologia , República da Coreia
17.
Vet Dermatol ; 31(3): 225-e49, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine otitis externa (OE) is a common inflammatory disease that is frequently complicated by secondary bacterial and/or yeast infections. The otic microbial population is more complex than appreciated by cytological methods and aerobic culture alone. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Differences in bacterial and fungal populations of the external ear canal will correlate with specific cytological and culture-based definitions of bacterial and Malassezia otitis. ANIMALS: Forty client-owned dogs; 30 with OE and 10 with healthy ears. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prospective study comparing cytological samples, aerobic bacterial cultures and culture-independent sequencing-based analyses of the external ear canal. Subjects with OE included 10 dogs with only cocci [≥25/high power field (HPF)] on cytological evaluation and culture of Staphylococcus spp.; 10 dogs with rods (≥25/HPF) and exclusive culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 10 dogs with only yeast on cytological results morphologically compatible with Malassezia spp. (≥5/HPF). RESULTS: Staphylococcus was the most abundant taxa across all groups. Ears cytologically positive for cocci had decreased diversity, and all types of OE were associated with decreased fungal diversity compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Cytological and culture-based assessment of the ear canal is not predictive of the diverse microbiota of the ear canal in cases of Pseudomonas or Malassezia otitis. Less abundant bacterial taxa in cases of staphylococcal OE are worth scrutiny for future biological therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Meato Acústico Externo/microbiologia , Microbiota , Micobioma , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Meato Acústico Externo/patologia , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Malassezia/patogenicidade , Masculino , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Vet Dermatol ; 31(2): 81-85, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria in dogs with otitis externa has led to a need for novel therapeutic agents. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To examine the antibacterial effects of manuka oil combined with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-tromethamine (Tris-EDTA) against Gram-negative bacteria isolates from dogs with otitis externa. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 53 clinical isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using disk diffusion; the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of manuka essential oil, with or without Tris-EDTA, were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 44 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 19 strains were multidrug-resistant, with resistance to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial classes. The MICs and MBCs of manuka oil alone were ≥1% (v/v) and ≥2% (v/v), respectively. There was no antimicrobial effect of Tris-EDTA (1.125:0.3 mg/mL) without manuka oil. However, the combination of manuka oil with Tris-EDTA significantly decreased the MICs (ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%, v/v; P < 0.001) and MBCs (ranging from 0.06% to 1%, v/v; P < 0.001). There also was no significant difference between multidrug-resistant and nonresistant bacterial isolates in terms of the antimicrobial activity of manuka oil with Tris-EDTA. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The study findings suggest that manuka oil, especially when combined with Tris-EDTA, may be a promising alternative therapeutic option for Gram-negative otic pathogens. Clinical studies are needed to assess potential for in vivo ototoxic effects and efficacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Leptospermum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Otite Externa/microbiologia
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 70: 101376, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703937

RESUMO

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is considered a primary pathogen of canine skin and soft tissue infections, and the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius worldwide is a major issue. In the current study, genotypic and phenotypic correlates associated with S. pseudintermedius causing canine otitis externa were evaluated using 41 S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa (n = 26) and healthy dogs (n = 15). The S. pseudintermedius strains were subjected to a comparative analysis of (i) genotypes (multilocus sequence typing, agr, and spa types), (ii) methicillin resistance and SCCmec types, (iii) multidrug resistance (MDR), (iv) biofilm formation, and (v) susceptibility to canine cathelicidin (K9CATH). A high degree of genetic diversity was observed in both groups of S. pseudintermedius strains, regardless of methicillin resistance. Almost all methicillin-resistant strains (>95%) harbored SCCmec V and displayed MDR. Although there was no difference in biofilm formation, S. pseudintermedius strains derived from otitis externa exhibited enhanced resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptide (K9CATH) compared with strains from healthy dogs. The high degree of heterogeneity in MLST, agr, and spa types prevented the identification of correlations between any specific genotype and virulence phenotype in otitis externa caused by S. pseudintermedius, These findings provide an important basis for monitoring and treating canine skin and soft tissue infections in Korea.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Variação Genética , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência
20.
Vet Dermatol ; 31(2): 138-145, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance represents a serious human and animal health risk. Good antimicrobial stewardship is essential to prolong the lifespan of existing antibiotics, and new strategies are required to combat infections in man and animals. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the in vitro interaction of ionophores (narasin or monensin) with antimicrobial adjuvants (N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Tris-EDTA or disodium EDTA) against bacterial strains representing pathogens associated with canine otitis externa (OE). ANIMAL/ISOLATES: American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains Staphylococcus aureus 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853 and P. aeruginosa biofilm producer PAO1, and a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis from a case of canine OE were tested. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 2D microdilution checkerboard method was used, allowing calculation of fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), dose reduction index (DRI) and plotting of isobolograms. RESULTS: The combination of narasin with either Tris-EDTA or disodium EDTA produced additive effects (FICI = 0.75) against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa biofilm producer ATCC PAO1. An additive effect (FICI = 0.53-0.75) was found against S. aureus ATCC 29213 when narasin or monensin were combined with NAC. The highest DRI (32-fold) was found with monensin/NAC where the MIC of monensin was reduced from 4 to 0.125 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The combination of narasin with Tris-EDTA or disodium EDTA is a promising strategy to inhibit the intrinsic resistance elements of Gram-negative bacteria. These novel combinations potentially could be useful as a multimodal approach to treat mixed infections in canine OE.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Monensin/farmacologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Piranos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ionóforos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
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