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1.
J Comp Pathol ; 172: 93-106, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690422

RESUMO

Hearing represents the major sense in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and impairment of hearing has a great impact on the survival of these animals. In this communication, some anatomical and histological aspects of the tympanoperiotic complex of harbour porpoises are presented. In addition, the ears of 21 incidentally bycaught or stranded freshly dead harbour porpoises of different age groups and sex were investigated histologically. At the entrance to the middle ear cavity, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue was present that was often hyperplastic in juvenile (9/10) and adult individuals (7/8). Solitary lymphoid follicles were additionally found in the corpus cavernosum and adjacent to the stapedius muscle in single porpoises. The nematode Stenurus minor represented the most common pathogen observed in the middle ear cavity of juvenile and adult harbour porpoises and the parasite was associated with chronic inflammation with metaplastic and hyperplastic epithelial changes. An unusual bone formation at the attachment of the corpus cavernosum to the perioticum was a common finding, even in young individuals. Whether this represents a normal structure or a metaplastic change remains undetermined. Acute haemorrhages in the cochlea and/or the tympanic cavity occurred in all animals and were most likely agonal changes. Single porpoises suffered from purulent otitis media, mycotic otitis media with osteolysis or chronically fractured tympanic bones, likely causing impairment of hearing that may have contributed to by-catch. There was no evidence that stranding in five porpoises was associated with the aural changes. Histological examination of the ears in harbour porpoises is a valuable part of the assessment of their health status. Damage to hearing structures may explain starvation due to impaired ability to catch prey or unusual behaviour such as stranding or entanglement in nets.


Assuntos
Orelha Interna , Otite/veterinária , Phocoena , Animais , Orelha Interna/anatomia & histologia , Orelha Interna/parasitologia , Orelha Interna/patologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/patologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Otite/parasitologia , Otite/patologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 333-337, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188945

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to describe occurrences of Rhabditis spp. causing parasitic otitis in dairy cattle of Gir breed in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, and to evaluate the biological control of this nematode using the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34). After nematode detection and collection, three groups were formed: two groups that were treated, respectively, with the fungal isolates; and a control group, without fungus. The treatments were as follows: (a) Petri dishes containing the culture medium 2% water agar (WA) + 250 nematodes + AC001; (b) Petri dishes containing 2% WA + 250 nematodes + NF34; and (c) Petri dishes containing only 2% WA + 250 nematodes. After seven days at 27 °C the treatments with fungi were able to capture and destroy the nematodes, with percentages of 82.0% (AC001) and 39.0% (NF34) in relation to the control group. The results demonstrate the occurrence of Rhabditis spp. after animals physical examination and that there was efficacy of the in vitro predatory activity of both fungal isolates. Thus, these results are important because they can assist in future in vivo control of this nematode in cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Otite/veterinária , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Rhabditoidea/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Bovinos , Duddingtonia/fisiologia , Otite/parasitologia , Otite/terapia , Infecções por Rhabditida/terapia
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 333-337, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042506

RESUMO

Abstract The objectives of this study were to describe occurrences of Rhabditis spp. causing parasitic otitis in dairy cattle of Gir breed in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, and to evaluate the biological control of this nematode using the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34). After nematode detection and collection, three groups were formed: two groups that were treated, respectively, with the fungal isolates; and a control group, without fungus. The treatments were as follows: (a) Petri dishes containing the culture medium 2% water agar (WA) + 250 nematodes + AC001; (b) Petri dishes containing 2% WA + 250 nematodes + NF34; and (c) Petri dishes containing only 2% WA + 250 nematodes. After seven days at 27 °C the treatments with fungi were able to capture and destroy the nematodes, with percentages of 82.0% (AC001) and 39.0% (NF34) in relation to the control group. The results demonstrate the occurrence of Rhabditis spp. after animals physical examination and that there was efficacy of the in vitro predatory activity of both fungal isolates. Thus, these results are important because they can assist in future in vivo control of this nematode in cattle.


Resumo Os objetivos neste estudo foram descrever ocorrências do nematódeo Rhabditis spp., causando otite parasitária em bovinos leiteiros da raça Gir no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil, e avaliar o controle biológico desse nematódeo utilizando os fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) e Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34). Após a detecção e coleta dos nematódeos, três grupos foram formados: dois grupos que foram tratados com os isolados fúngicos, respectivamente; e um grupo controle, sem fungos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: (a) placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura 2% ágar de água (WA) + 250 nematoides + AC001; (b) placas de Petri contendo 2% de WA + 250 nematoides + NF34; e (c) placas de contendo apenas 2% de nematódeos WA + 250. Após sete dias a 27 °C os tratamentos com fungos foram capazes de capturar e destruir os nematódeos, com porcentagens de 82,0% (AC001) e 39,0% (NF34) em relação ao grupo controle. Os resultados demonstram a ocorrência de Rhabditis spp., no Estado do Espírito Santo e a eficácia da atividade predatória in vitro dos isolados fúngicos utilizados. Assim, esses resultados são importantes, pois podem auxiliar no controle alternativo in vivo de Rhabditis spp. em bovinos com otite parasitária.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Otite/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Rhabditoidea/microbiologia , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Otite/parasitologia , Otite/terapia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Infecções por Rhabditida/terapia , Duddingtonia/fisiologia
4.
Med Mycol ; 57(2): 196-203, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534201

RESUMO

Combination therapy has become popular in clinical practice, but limited data on the effects of combinations of antifungal agents is still available for most fungal pathogens. We studied the in vitro response of 30 genetically diverse clinical strains of the basidiomycetous lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis obtained from cases of canine otitis to several amphotericin B (AMB)-azole combinations. Broth microdilution checkerboard tests revealed that AMB antagonized the effects of itraconazole (ITC) and voriconazole (VRC) in 50% and 6.7% of the strains, respectively, but did not interact with fluconazole or posaconazole (fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values were <4 in all cases). Subsequent Etest-based assays performed for a subset of strains did not confirm the antagonism between AMB and ITC or AMB and VRC. In summary, the results of this study suggest that antagonistic combination effects between AMB and azoles might occur when tested against M. pachydermatis. Nevertheless, as observed for other fungi, different in vitro analyses yielded contrasting results, and the response to AMB-azole combinations was compound- and strain-dependant.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Cães , Malassezia/classificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Otite/microbiologia , Otite/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 30(5): 784-788, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129392

RESUMO

Infectious coryza, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, is an acute respiratory disease of poultry that can result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. In March 2017, the Turlock branch of the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory system encountered an unusual clinical and pathologic presentation of infectious coryza in 6 live, 29-d-old, commercial broiler chickens that were submitted for diagnostic investigation. Antemortem evaluation revealed severe neurologic signs, including disorientation, torticollis, and opisthotonos. Swollen head-like syndrome and sinusitis were also present. Histologically, severe sinusitis, cranial osteomyelitis, otitis media and interna, and meningoencephalitis were noted, explaining the clinical signs described. A. paragallinarum was readily isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract, brain, and cranial bones. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was also detected by PCR, and IBV was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs. Based on sequencing analysis, the IBV appeared 99% homologous to strain CA1737. A synergistic effect between A. paragallinarum and IBV, resulting in exacerbation of clinical signs and increased mortality, may have occurred in this case. A. paragallinarum should be considered among the possible causes of neurologic signs in chickens. Appropriate media should be used for bacterial isolation, and the role of additional contributing factors and/or complicating agents should be investigated in cases of infectious coryza.


Assuntos
Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Otite/veterinária , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , California , Galinhas , Meningoencefalite/complicações , Meningoencefalite/diagnóstico , Otite/complicações , Otite/diagnóstico , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/complicações , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
6.
Vet Ital ; 54(2): 137-146, 2018 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633230

RESUMO

In the last decades, adverse food reactions have increased considerably in dogs and cats. In this study we report on the possible onset of food intolerances symptoms, including otitis, diarrhoea, generalised anxiety, and dermatitis in a cohort of 8 dogs consuming commercial diets. All dogs received an organic chicken-based diet for 15 days. We performed analysis of blood biochemical parameters, kibble composition, and oxytetracycline (OTC) serum concentration before and after 15 days of organic chicken-based diet supplementation. We hypothesised that a chronic intake of contaminated food enhanced by the presence of nanoparticle aggregates might be at the base of the onset of pharmacologic or idiopathic food intolerances. At the end of the evaluation period, an overall significant reduction of otitis, diarrhoea, generalised anxiety, and dermatitis was observed. Biochemical analyses indicate a significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase, from 41 to 52.5 U/L, after 15 days (••p <0.01), while a significant decrease in Gamma-glutamyl transferase and urea, from 9.37 to 6.25 U/L and from 32.13 ± 8.72 to 22.13 ± 7.8 mg/dL, respectively, was observed (•p <0.05). A significant decrease, from 0.22 to 0.02 µg/mL, in mean OTC serum concentration was also observed (••p <0.01). Composition analysis revealed the presence of OTC, calcium, aluminium, silicon, and phosphorous nanoparticle aggregates. Further research on a wider sample size would help to confirm the hypothesis proposed here.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/veterinária , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/fisiopatologia , Dermatite/prevenção & controle , Dermatite/veterinária , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Otite/induzido quimicamente , Otite/fisiopatologia , Otite/prevenção & controle , Otite/veterinária
7.
Vet Dermatol ; 29(3): 180-e65, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis are important agents in canine pyoderma and otitis. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Determine the in vitro efficacy of a honey-based gel (HBO) against meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP), meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and M. pachydermatis, by minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and time-kill assay (TKA). Efficacy of the product's honey component (HO) also was evaluated. METHODS: Sixty S. pseudintermedius and 10 M. pachydermatis canine isolates were selected. All isolates were tested against serial dilutions of an HBO containing 40% HO (40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% w/v) and HO alone (undiluted, 40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% w/v). Microbroth assay followed by subculture was used to determine MBC and MFC. The same protocol was applied after product exposure to catalase. A well-diffusion assay for S. pseudintermedius was used to generate inhibition zones. A TKA for 10 isolates of S. pseudintermedius and 10 isolates of M. pachydermatis was performed. RESULTS: MBC was 20% w/v (5-20% w/v) for HBO and HO. HBO had lower MBC values when compared to HO (P = 0.003). No statistical difference was observed between MSSP/MRSP isolates (HBO P = 0.757, HO P = 0.743). Only HO was affected by catalase (P = 0.015). MFC for HBO was 10% w/v (5-10% w/v) and 40% w/v for HO (20-≥40% w/v). All isolates were killed after 4 h of exposure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis are susceptible to the HBO and these results can be used for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Mel , Otite/veterinária , Pioderma/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Meticilina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Otite/tratamento farmacológico , Pioderma/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Vet Dermatol ; 29(3): 186-e68, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen cultured from cases of acute and chronic canine otitis and sometimes in cases of deep pyoderma. The spread of antimicrobial resistance, especially carbapenem resistance, is a serious therapeutic challenge worldwide. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the identification and characterization of resistant P. aeruginosa clinical canine isolates. MATERIALS: Clinical isolates (n = 80) were collected from dogs with pyoderma (n = 18) and otitis (n = 62) in Korea. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using agar dilution and using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for recording susceptibility for human Pseudomonas isolates; genetic relatedness of isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SpeI macrorestriction analysis. The class 1 integrons were amplified and sequenced using primer walking. RESULTS: Most isolates were susceptible to colistin (97.5%), polymyxin B (96.3%), ciprofloxacin (81.3%) and meropenem (80.0%); whereas resistance to aztreonam (80%), piperacillin (52.5%), piperacillin/tazobactam (41.3%) and cefepime (37.5%) was high; 12 carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (15%) were detected. MLST revealed 45 different sequence types (STs) and macrorestriction analysis detected 55 distinct pulsotypes (PTs), which were divided into 25 clonal groups. Among carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates, 10 (83.3%) were VIM-2-producing strains. Nine VIM-2-producing isolates were identified as ST1047 and harboured the same 2.8 kb class 1 integron. One remaining isolate was ST1203 with 2.1 kb class 1 integron. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study demonstrated the diversity of the phenotype and genotype of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates from dogs with pyoderma and otitis. The identification of VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa in dogs is alarming and warrants further surveillance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Otite/veterinária , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pioderma/veterinária , beta-Lactamases , Animais , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Otite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pioderma/tratamento farmacológico , Pioderma/microbiologia , República da Coreia
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 213: 102-107, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291992

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the implicated mechanisms of resistance against selected veterinary fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin) among 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=75) and Escherichia coli (n=26) isolates collected from dogs suffering from otitis. Resistance ranged from 32.0% to 48.0% with differences not being considered statistically significant among the three agents or between the two bacterial species. However, individual MICs of pradofloxacin, the latest veterinary fluoroquinolone, were significantly lower than those of enrofloxacin, the oldest one, indicating an increased in vitro potency of the former antimicrobial. Pradofloxacin MIC90 was, additionally, the lowest (8µg/ml), in E. coli, or among the lowest (8µg/ml), in P. aeruginosa isolates. Resistance was in most cases associated with topoisomerase substitutions, with patterns GyrA:V73G in P. aeruginosa and GyrA:S83L+D87N/ParC:S58I+A86V in E. coli being reported for the first time in small animal isolates. Only 6.7% and 15.4% of P. aeruginosa and E. coli otitis isolates, respectively, carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, which, moreover, contributed minimally to resistance. Efflux pump activity was additionally detected in resistant E. coli isolates, even those lacking topoisomerase substitutions or PMQR genes. The emergence of resistance in the canine otitis isolates seemed to be associated with previous, prolonged systemic fluoroquinolone administration. In any case, antimicrobial susceptibility testing should guide the selection of systemic FQs for the treatment of canine otitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Otite/veterinária , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Otite/tratamento farmacológico , Otite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação
11.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 20(3): 749-771, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28781032

RESUMO

Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Coelhos , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Animais , Encefalitozoonose/diagnóstico , Encefalitozoonose/veterinária , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Otite/diagnóstico , Otite/veterinária , Doenças Estomatognáticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Estomatognáticas/terapia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/veterinária , Timoma/cirurgia , Timoma/veterinária
12.
Vet J ; 219: 44-48, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093111

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2). Study heifers (n = 795) were reared in group pens of 25 calves per pen and fed unrestricted acidified non-saleable milk from day 1 to day 65 of life. Cox proportional hazard and general linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on mortality, BRD and otitis, and average daily weight gain. The birth weights, proportions of calves with inadequate transfer of passive immunity, proportions of calves born from primiparous dams and proportions of calves born from assisted parturitions were not different among CTR, M1 and M2 treatments. A significantly lower hazard of being affected with BRD and/or otitis (but not for BRD or otitis alone) was observed for M1 (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70, P = 0.009) and M2 (HR = 0.72, P = 0.01) when compared to the CTR group. Metaphylactic treatments had no effect on mortality, otitis and average daily weight gain during the pre-weaning period.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/veterinária , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/prevenção & controle , Otite/veterinária , Tilosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/microbiologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Otite/metabolismo , Otite/prevenção & controle , Tilosina/uso terapêutico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Vet Dermatol ; 28(1): 118-e25, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27426073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of the canine ear canal and occupies aquatic habitats in the environment. Nosocomial and zoonotic transmission of P. aeruginosa have been documented, including clonal outbreaks. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess various environmental exposures as potential risk factors for canine Pseudomonas otitis. It was hypothesized that isolates derived from infected ears would be clonal to isolates derived from household water sources and the mouths of human and animal companions of the study subjects. ANIMALS: Seventy seven privately owned dogs with otitis were enrolled, along with their human and animal household companions, in a case-control design. METHODS: Data on potential risk factors for Pseudomonas otitis were collected. Oral cavities of all study subjects, their human and animal companions, and household water sources were sampled. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to estimate clonal relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates. RESULTS: In a multivariate model, visiting a dog park was associated with 77% increased odds of case status (P = 0.048). Strains clonal to the infection isolates were obtained from subjects' mouths (n = 18), companion pets' mouths (n = 5), pet owners' mouths (n = 2), water bowls (n = 7) and water taps (n = 2). Clonally related P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from dogs that had no clear epidemiological link. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Genetic homology between otic and environmental isolates is consistent with a waterborne source for some dogs, and cross-contamination with other human and animal members within some households.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Otite/veterinária , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Humanos , Masculino , Otite/epidemiologia , Otite/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(3): 683-686, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-785711

RESUMO

Descreve-se o caso de um cão, Pinscher, fêmea de 11 meses de idade, com alteração anatômica da orelha do lado direito. Após avaliação, foi realizado o diagnóstico clínico e o radiográfico de microtia com atresia do canal auditivo do lado direito. Como o animal não apresentava sinais de alterações no sistema vestibular ou otite, optou-se pelo acompanhamento clínico do caso. A microtia, caracterizada pela hipoplasia parcial ou completa da pina, assim como outras anomalias do conduto auditivo, é raramente descrita em medicina veterinária. De acordo com a revisão de literatura realizada, este é o primeiro relato ocorrido no Brasil de um cão com microtia e atresia congênita do canal auditivo sem a associação de síndrome vestibular.(AU)


This paper describes an 11-month-old female Pinscher dog, with anatomical changes of the ear on the right side. After physical exam, clinical and radiographic diagnosis of microtia with ear canal atresia on the right side was made. As the animal did not show any signs of vestibular system changes or ear infections, the veterinarians opted for monitoring the patient. Microtia, characterized by the partial or complete hypoplasia of pina, as well as other abnormalities of ear canal are rarely described in veterinary medicine. As far as the author´s knowledge by literature review carried out, this is the first report of a dog with microtia and congenital ear canal atresia not associated with vestibular syndrome in Brazil.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Anormalidades Congênitas/veterinária , Microtia Congênita/veterinária , Meato Acústico Externo/anormalidades , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Variação Anatômica , Orelha/anormalidades , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Otite/diagnóstico , Otite/veterinária
15.
Vet Dermatol ; 27(1): 3-e2, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26748885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. are saprophytic opportunistic fungal organisms and are a common cause of otomycosis in humans. Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing Aspergillus otitis in dogs and cats. OBJECTIVE: To characterize signalment, putative risk factors, treatments and outcomes of a case series of dogs and cats with Aspergillus otitis. ANIMALS: Eight dogs and nine cats diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records from 1989 to 2014 identified animals diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis based on culture. RESULTS: All dogs weighed greater than 23 kg. The most common putative risk factors identified in this study were concurrent diseases, therapy causing immunosuppression or a history of an otic foreign body. Aspergillus otitis was unilateral in all study dogs and most cats. Concurrent otitis media was confirmed in three dogs and one cat, and suspected in two additional cats. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common isolate overall and was the dominant isolate in cats. Aspergillus niger and A. terreus were more commonly isolated from dogs. Animals received various topical and systemic antifungal medications; however, otic lavage under anaesthesia and/or surgical intervention increased the likelihood of resolution of the fungal infection. CONCLUSION: Aspergillus otitis is uncommon, typically seen as unilateral otitis externa in cats and larger breed dogs with possible risk factors that include immunosuppression and otic foreign bodies; previous antibiotic usage was common.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Otite/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergilose/patologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Otite/tratamento farmacológico , Otite/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Med Mycol ; 54(1): 72-79, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26333353

RESUMO

A total of 216 colonies of Malassezia pachydermatis from 28 cases of fungal otitis or dermatitis in pets were genotyped by M13 fingerprinting and tested for antifungal susceptibility. A huge genetic diversity was found (157 M13 types in total), with all animals having a polyclonal pattern of infection (5.4 ± 1.5 genotypes/sample). Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most genetic diversity (44%) was found at the within sample level. In contrast, variability in antifungal susceptibility among isolates from the same sample was less important, with different M13 types displaying in most cases identical or very similar MIC results. Most isolates displayed high in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, terbinafine and all azoles tested except fluconazole, for which MIC values were always ≥4 µg/ml and a 26.9% of isolates displayed values ≥32 µg/ml. We conclude that although characterization of multiple yeast isolates results in a considerable increase in laboratory workload and expenses, it may help to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of M. pachydermatis in a given patient population.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Genótipo , Malassezia/classificação , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Otite/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Malassezia/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Otite/epidemiologia , Otite/microbiologia
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(7): 659-663, jul. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-766207

RESUMO

Ácaros do gênero Otodectes são parasitos encontrados frequentemente no ouvido de cães e gatos, sendo reconhecidos como os principais causadores de otite externa nesses animais. Trezentos e vinte cães, oriundos do município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, foram examinados através da otoscopia e do exame do swab parasitológico, com o objetivo de avaliar, através da análise bayesiana para a estimativa da prevalência, sensibilidade e especificidade destes métodos no diagnóstico da infestação causada pelo ácaro utilizando-se de dados a priori informativos e não informativos. Cada animal foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Do total de cães examinados, 142 (44,37%) apresentaram-se positivos para otocariose. Em 100 animais (31,25%) a infestação foi diagnosticada pelos dois métodos, em 31 (9,69%) apenas pelo exame do swab parasitológico, em 11 (3,44%) apenas pela otoscopia e em 178 (55,62%) animais o resultado foi negativo por ambos os métodos. A sensibilidade da otoscopia, quando comparada ao exame do swab parasitológico, foi considerada menor, a especificidade dos testes, porém, não difere estatisticamente. O modelo, a priori informativo, demonstrou ser o mais plausível e reduziu consideravelmente o intervalo de credibilidade das estimativas dos parâmetros. Conclui-se que a análise bayesiana é efetiva na estimativa da prevalência e características dos testes diagnósticos...


Mites of the genus Otodectes are parasites found frequently in the ear of dogs and cats, being recognized as the main causers of external otitis in these animals. Three hundred and twenty dogs, deriving of the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, had been examined through the otoscopy and of the examination of parasitological swab, with the objective to evaluate through the bayes'analysis for the estimate of the prevalence, sensitivity and especificity of these methods in the diagnosis of the infestation caused for the mite, using dates informative and not informative a priori. Each animal was considered an experimental unit. Of the total of examined dogs, 142 (44.37%) had been presented positive for otocariosis. In 100 animals (31.25%) the infestation was diagnosed by the two methods, in 31 (9.69%) only for the examination of parasitological swab, in 11 (3.44%) only for the otoscopy and in 178 (55.62%) animal the result was negative for both the methods. The sensitivity of the otoscopy, when compared with the examination of parasitological swab, was considered lesser, however the especificity of tests they do not differ. The informative model with priori it demonstrated to be most reasonable and considerably reduced the interval of credibility of the estimates of the parameters. It can be concluded that Bayes'analysis is effective in the estimation of prevalence and characteristics of the diagnostic tests...


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Otite/diagnóstico , Otite/parasitologia , Otite/veterinária , Otoscopia/métodos , Otoscopia/veterinária , Teorema de Bayes , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Vet Dermatol ; 26(3): 193-7, e39-40, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25688833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Otitis externa is frequently accompanied by otitis media, yet it can be difficult to evaluate the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube without the use of advanced radiographic imaging. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The objective was to develop techniques for tympanometry testing in conscious dogs and to present normative data for clinical use of this equipment to enable assessment of the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube. ANIMALS: Sixteen hounds (14 female) from a school teaching colony. METHODS: Dogs were gently restrained in a standing position. After cleaning of the ear canal, a tympanometer probe tip extension was placed in the vertical canal and automated testing performed using a handheld device. Both ears were tested in all dogs. RESULTS: Acceptable recordings were obtained from both ears of 13 dogs, from one ear in each of two dogs and from neither ear of one dog, resulting in data from 28 of 32 (88%) ears. Otoscopic examination confirmed the absence of inflammation or any other obvious explanation for the noncompliant dogs. No significant differences were seen between ears for any measure. Normative data are reported for peak compliance, peak compliance pressure, gradient and ear canal volume. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Tympanograms can be recorded in conscious dogs to assist in the evaluation of the middle ear structures.


Assuntos
Testes de Impedância Acústica/veterinária , Cães/fisiologia , Orelha Média/fisiologia , Tuba Auditiva/fisiologia , Testes de Impedância Acústica/instrumentação , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Otite/diagnóstico , Otite/fisiopatologia , Otite/veterinária
20.
Braz J Microbiol ; 45(3): 1101-3, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25477949

RESUMO

Ear infections in cats are uncommon, especially involving yeasts. This report describes the first isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii, teleomorph of the Candida genus, in a case of feline otitis in Brazil. The identification and characterization of Stephanoascus ciferrii were confirmed by the Vitek2 System (BioMerieux ®).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Otite/veterinária , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Microscopia , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Micoses/microbiologia , Otite/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/citologia , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo
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