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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201506, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900308

RESUMO

The sea urchin embryo develops a calcitic endoskeleton through intracellular formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Intracellular precipitation of ACC, requires [Formula: see text] concentrating as well as proton export mechanisms to promote calcification. These processes are of fundamental importance in biological mineralization, but remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) use Na+/H+-exchange (NHE) mechanisms to control cellular pH homeostasis during maintenance of the skeleton. During skeleton re-calcification, pHi of PMCs is increased accompanied by substantial elevation in intracellular [Formula: see text] mediated by the [Formula: see text] cotransporter Sp_Slc4a10. However, PMCs lower their pHi regulatory capacities associated with a reduction in NHE activity. Live-cell imaging using green fluorescent protein reporter constructs in combination with intravesicular pH measurements demonstrated alkaline and acidic populations of vesicles in PMCs and extensive trafficking of large V-type H+-ATPase (VHA)-rich acidic vesicles in blastocoelar filopodial cells. Pharmacological and gene expression analyses underline a central role of the VHA isoforms Sp_ATP6V0a1, Sp_ATP6V01_1 and Sp_ATPa1-4 for the process of skeleton re-calcification. These results highlight novel pH regulatory strategies in calcifying cells of a marine species with important implications for our understanding of the mineralization process in times of rapid changes in oceanic pH.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Calcificação Fisiológica , Carbonato de Cálcio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Prótons , Água do Mar
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785267

RESUMO

Global climate change is driving the redistribution of marine species and thereby potentially restructuring endemic communities. Understanding how localised conservation measures such as protection from additional human pressures can confer resilience to ecosystems is therefore an important area of research. Here, we examine the resilience of a no-take marine reserve (NTR) to the establishment of urchin barrens habitat. The barrens habitat is created through overgrazing of kelp by an invading urchin species that is expanding its range within a hotspot of rapid climate change. In our study region, a multi-year monitoring program provides a unique time-series of benthic imagery collected by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) within an NTR and nearby reference areas. We use a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal modelling approach to estimate whether the NTR is associated with reduced formation of urchin barrens, and thereby enhances local resilience. Our approach controls for the important environmental covariates of depth and habitat complexity (quantified as rugosity derived from multibeam sonar mapping), as well as spatial and temporal dependence. We find evidence for the NTR conferring resilience with a strong reserve effect that suggests improved resistance to the establishment of barrens. However, we find a concerning and consistent trajectory of increasing barrens cover in both the reference areas and the NTR, with the odds of barrens increasing by approximately 32% per year. Thus, whereas the reserve is demonstrating resilience to the initial establishment of barrens, there is currently no evidence of recovery once barrens are established. We also find that depth and rugosity covariates derived from multibeam mapping provide useful predictors for barrens occurrence. These results have important management implications as they demonstrate: (i) the importance of monitoring programs to inform adaptive management; (ii) that NTRs provide a potential local conservation management tool under climate change impacts, and (iii) that technologies such as AUVs and multibeam mapping can be harnessed to inform regional decision-making. Continuation of the current monitoring program is required to assess whether the NTR can provide long term protection from a phase shift that replaces kelp with urchin barrens.


Assuntos
Ouriços-do-Mar , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846430

RESUMO

Indo-Pacific lionfish have become invasive throughout the western Atlantic. Their predatory effects have been the focus of much research and are suggested to cause declines in native fish abundance and diversity across the invaded range. However, little is known about their non-consumptive effects, or their effects on invertebrates. Lionfish use shelters on the reef, thus there is potential for competition with other shelter-dwelling organisms. We demonstrate similar habitat associations between invasive lionfish, native spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) and native long-spined sea urchins (Diadema antillarum), indicating the potential for competition. We then used a laboratory experiment to compare activity and shelter use of each species when alone and when lionfish were paired with each native species. Spiny lobsters increased their activity but did not change their shelter use in the presence of a lionfish, whilst long-spined sea urchins changed neither their activity nor shelter use. However, lionfish reduced their shelter use in the presence of spiny lobsters and long-spined sea urchins. This study highlights the importance not only of testing for the non-consumptive effects of invasive species, but also exploring whether native species exert non-consumptive effects on the invasive.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Espécies Introduzidas , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298339

RESUMO

Gonad size, color, texture and taste of Mesocentrotus nudus sea urchins collected from a barren can be improved by a short-term cage culture while being fed fresh Saccharina japonica kelp during May-July. We investigated the effect of S. japonica feeding during May-July on the improvement of gonad flavor in M. nudus collected from a barren. After feeding, we analyzed the odor-active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gonads using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and GC-sniffing analyses and compared to those from the gonads of wild sea urchins from an Eisenia kelp bed (fishing ground) and a barren. A total of 48 VOCs were detected from the gonads of cultured and wild sea urchins. Of them, a larger number of odor-active compounds were detected in the gonads of cultured sea urchins (25) than in those from the Eisenia bed (14) and the barren (6). Dimethyl sulfide from the gonads of sea urchins from the barren was described as having a strong, putrid odor. Sea urchin-like aromas were attributed to 2-butanol, 2-ethylhexanol, benzaldehyde and ethylbenzene from the gonads of cultured sea urchin and those of the Eisenia bed. Kelp feeding decreased the putrid odor from dimethyl sulfide, and enhanced pleasant, sweet aromas.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Kelp/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Alimentos , Gônadas/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0226173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130220

RESUMO

Trophic interactions can result in changes to the abundance and distribution of habitat-forming species that dramatically reduce ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone of the Aleutian Archipelago, overgrazing by herbivorous sea urchins that began in the 1990s resulted in widespread deforestation of the region's kelp forests, which led to lower macroalgal abundances and higher benthic irradiances. We examined how this deforestation impacted ecosystem function by comparing patterns of net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and the range between GPP and Re in remnant kelp forests, urchin barrens, and habitats that were in transition between the two habitat types at nine islands that spanned more than 1000 kilometers of the archipelago. Our results show that deforestation, on average, resulted in a 24% reduction in GPP, a 26% reduction in Re, and a 24% reduction in the range between GPP and Re. Further, the transition habitats were intermediate to the kelp forests and urchin barrens for these metrics. These opposing metabolic processes remained in balance; however, which resulted in little-to-no changes to NEP. These effects of deforestation on ecosystem productivity, however, were highly variable between years and among the study islands. In light of the worldwide declines in kelp forests observed in recent decades, our findings suggest that marine deforestation profoundly affects how coastal ecosystems function.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Kelp/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160219

RESUMO

The kelp forests of southern South America are some of the least disturbed on the planet. The remoteness of this region has, until recently, spared it from many of the direct anthropogenic stressors that have negatively affected these ecosystems elsewhere. Re-surveys of 11 locations at the easternmost extent of Tierra del Fuego originally conducted in 1973 showed no significant differences in the densities of adult and juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera kelp or kelp holdfast diameter between the two survey periods. Additionally, sea urchin assemblage structure at the same sites were not significantly different between the two time periods, with the dominant species Loxechinus albus accounting for 66.3% of total sea urchin abundance in 2018 and 61.1% in 1973. Time series of Landsat imagery of the region from 1998 to 2018 showed no long-term trends in kelp canopy over the past 20 years. However, ~ 4-year oscillations in canopy fraction were observed and were strongly and negatively correlated with the NOAA Multivariate ENSO index and sea surface temperature. More extensive surveying in 2018 showed significant differences in benthic community structure between exposed and sheltered locations. Fish species endemic to the Magellanic Province accounted for 73% of all nearshore species observed and from 98-100% of the numerical abundance enumerated at sites. Fish assemblage structure varied significantly among locations and wave exposures. The recent creation of the Yaganes Marine Park is an important step in protecting this unique and biologically rich region; however, the nearshore waters of the region are currently not included in this protection. There is a general lack of information on changes in kelp forests over long time periods, making a global assessment difficult. A complete picture of how these ecosystems are responding to human pressures must also include remote locations and locations with little to no impact.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Macrocystis/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , América do Sul , Temperatura
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5103, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198395

RESUMO

Despite the wide knowledge about prevalent effects of ocean acidification on single species, the consequences on species interactions that may promote or prevent habitat shifts are still poorly understood. Using natural CO2 vents, we investigated changes in a key tri-trophic chain embedded within all its natural complexity in seagrass systems. We found that seagrass habitats remain stable at vents despite the changes in their tri-trophic components. Under high pCO2, the feeding of a key herbivore (sea urchin) on a less palatable seagrass and its associated epiphytes decreased, whereas the feeding on higher-palatable green algae increased. We also observed a doubled density of a predatory wrasse under acidified conditions. Bottom-up CO2 effects interact with top-down control by predators to maintain the abundance of sea urchin populations under ambient and acidified conditions. The weakened urchin herbivory on a seagrass that was subjected to an intense fish herbivory at vents compensates the overall herbivory pressure on the habitat-forming seagrass. Overall plasticity of the studied system components may contribute to prevent habitat loss and to stabilize the system under acidified conditions. Thus, preserving the network of species interactions in seagrass ecosystems may help to minimize the impacts of ocean acidification in near-future oceans.


Assuntos
Alismatales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fontes Hidrotermais , Oceanos e Mares
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2632, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060309

RESUMO

Climate change is altering the intensity and variability of environmental stress that organisms and ecosystems experience, but effects of changing stress regimes are not well understood. We examined impacts of constant and variable sublethal hypoxia exposures on multiple biological processes in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a key grazer in California Current kelp forests, which experience high variability in physical conditions. We quantified metabolic rates, grazing, growth, calcification, spine regeneration, and gonad production under constant, 3-hour variable, and 6-hour variable exposures to sublethal hypoxia, and compared responses for each hypoxia regime to normoxic conditions. Sea urchins in constant hypoxia maintained baseline metabolic rates, but had lower grazing, gonad development, and calcification rates than those in ambient conditions. The sublethal impacts of variable hypoxia differed among biological processes. Spine regrowth was reduced under all hypoxia treatments, calcification rates under variable hypoxia were intermediate between normoxia and constant hypoxia, and gonad production correlated negatively with continuous time under hypoxia. Therefore, exposure variability can differentially modulate the impacts of sublethal hypoxia, and may impact sea urchin populations and ecosystems via reduced feeding and reproduction. Addressing realistic, multifaceted stressor exposures and multiple biological responses is crucial for understanding climate change impacts on species and ecosystems.


Assuntos
Kelp , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica , Hipóxia Celular , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Kelp/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reprodução , Ouriços-do-Mar/citologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999812

RESUMO

Green turtles are megaherbivores with a key role in the dynamics of tropical seagrass meadows, but little is known about their relevance as herbivores in tropical reef habitats. We conducted underwater censuses of green turtles, herbivorous fishes and sea urchins in two distinct tropical regions: Fernando de Noronha (Western Atlantic Ocean) and the Hawaiian Archipelago (Central Pacific Ocean), to assess the contribution of green turtles to the total herbivore biomass in shallow reef habitats of tropical oceanic islands. Juvenile green turtles ranging 40-60 cm were observed at most of the surveyed sites, and hence, could be considered typical components of the shallow reef fauna of tropical oceanic islands. Furthermore, they were usually one of the most abundant species of roving herbivores in many of the sites surveyed. However, the biomass of green turtles was usually much lower than the aggregated biomass of fishes or sea urchins, which usually constituted most of the total herbivore biomass. Green turtles made a major contribution to the total herbivore biomass only in sheltered sites with low rugosity, low coral cover and high algal cover. Further investigation on the trophic redundancy between herbivores is required to assess the actual relevance of green turtles in reef ecosystems of oceanic islands, compared to herbivorous fishes and sea urchins, because different herbivores may target different algal resources and complementarity may be needed to maintain ecosystem functioning across large, naturally varied reefscapes.


Assuntos
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ouriços-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tartarugas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biomassa , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Ilhas do Pacífico , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Tartarugas/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15050, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636286

RESUMO

Extreme climatic events have recently impacted marine ecosystems around the world, including foundation species such as corals and kelps. Here, we describe the rapid climate-driven catastrophic shift in 2014 from a previously robust kelp forest to unproductive large scale urchin barrens in northern California. Bull kelp canopy was reduced by >90% along more than 350 km of coastline. Twenty years of kelp ecosystem surveys reveal the timing and magnitude of events, including mass mortalities of sea stars (2013-), intense ocean warming (2014-2017), and sea urchin barrens (2015-). Multiple stressors led to the unprecedented and long-lasting decline of the kelp forest. Kelp deforestation triggered mass (80%) abalone mortality (2017) resulting in the closure in 2018 of the recreational abalone fishery worth an estimated $44 M and the collapse of the north coast commercial red sea urchin fishery (2015-) worth $3 M. Key questions remain such as the relative roles of ocean warming and sea star disease in the massive purple sea urchin population increase. Science and policy will need to partner to better understand drivers, build climate-resilient fisheries and kelp forest recovery strategies in order to restore essential kelp forest ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta , Kelp/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , California , Geografia , Fatores de Tempo , Água , Movimentos da Água
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133469, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635008

RESUMO

To make robust projectios of the impacts of climate change, it is critical to understand how abiotic factors may interact to constrain the distribution and productivity of marine flora and fauna. We evaluated the effects of projected end of the century ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) on the thermal tolerance of an important living marine resource, the sea urchin Loxechinus albus, a benthic shallow water coastal herbivore inhabiting part of the Pacific coast of South America. After exposing young juveniles for a 1-month period to contrasting pCO2 (~500 and 1400 µatm) and temperature (~15 °C and 20 °C) levels, critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and minimum (CTmin) as well as thermal tolerance polygons were assessed based on self-righting success as an end point. Transcription of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), a chaperone protecting cellular proteins from environmental stress, was also measured. Exposure to elevated pCO2 significantly reduced thermal tolerance by increasing CTmin at both experimental temperatures and decreasing CTmax at 20 °C. There was also a strong synergistic effect of OA × OW on HSP70 transcription levels which were 75 times higher than in control conditions. If this species is unable to adapt to elevated pCO2 in the future, the reduction in thermal tolerance and HSP response suggests that near-future warming and OA will disrupt their performance and reduce their distribution with ecological and economic consequences. Given the wider latitudinal range (6 to 56°S) and environmental tolerance of L. albus compared to other members of this region's benthic invertebrate community, OW and OA may cause substantial changes to the coastal fauna along this geographical range.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Mudança Climática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Invertebrados , Oceanos e Mares , América do Sul , Temperatura
13.
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol ; 332(7): 245-257, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532079

RESUMO

Mechanisms of cell mass (CM) formation were analyzed by microsurgery in two temnopleurid sea urchins, Mespilia globulus and Temnopleurus toreumaticus. The CM in temnopleurids is formed at the early larval stage from the left ectodermal invagination, and with the hydrocoel derived from the mesoderm, forms an adult rudiment. After serial removal of the CM, it was strongly regenerated until its attachment to the hydrocoel, with the same timing as in control larvae. Embryos that had the tip of the archenteron or the coelomic pouches removed formed a CM in the normal manner. Removal of the CM plus the left somatocoel or the hydrocoel allowed CM regeneration with and without adult rudiment formation. A transplanted CM enlarged autonomously but did not contribute to adult rudiment formation, and larvae formed a new CM. Our observations suggest that the hydrocoel recognizes its distance from the CM to induce the growth of the CM and controls the normal timing of adult rudiment formation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Larva/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12984, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506526

RESUMO

Reef restoration efforts, utilising sexual coral propagation need up-scaling to have ecologically meaningful impact. Post-settlement survival bottlenecks, in part due to competitive benthic algae interactions should be addressed, to improve productivity for these initiatives. Sea urchins are keystone grazers in reef ecosystems, yet feeding behaviour of adults causes physical damage and mortality to developing coral spat. To investigate if microherbivory can be utilised for co-culture, we quantitatively assessed how varying densities of juvenile sea urchins Mespilia globulus (Linnaeus, 1758), reared alongside the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) effected survival and growth of coral recruits. Spawning of both species were induced ex situ. A comparison of A. millepora spat reared in three M. globulus densities (low 16.67 m-2, medium 37.50 m-2, high 75.00 m-2) and a non-grazed control indicated coral survival is significantly influenced by grazing activity (p < 0.001) and was highest in the highest density treatment (39.65 ± 10.88%, mean ± s.d). Urchin grazing also significantly (p < 0.001) influenced coral size (compared to non-grazing control), with colonies in the medium and high-densities growing the largest (21.13 ± 1.02 mm & 20.80 ± 0.82, mean ± s.e.m). Increased urchin density did however have a negative influence on urchin growth, a result of limited food availability.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Sobrevivência , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura
15.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221730, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442294

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were: a) to describe the pathological and laboratory findings in a case series of stranding and mortality associated with ingestion of large amounts of sea urchins in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), and b) to alert veterinarians and biologists involved in sea turtle conservation of this cause of stranding and/or death. METHODS: The six loggerheads studied were stranded on the coasts of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, between 2008 and 2015. Post mortem studies included pathological, microbiological, and sea urchin species identification procedures. RESULTS: All turtles showed severe intestinal impaction caused by large amounts of sea urchins, mainly affecting the colon and the caudal half of the small intestine. Histologically, severe focal fibrinonecrotic enteritis was diagnosed in two turtles. In the remaining turtles, lesions ranged from mild desquamation of the intestinal epithelium to severe congestion of the blood vessels of lamina propria, submucosa, muscular and serosa, and edema. Vibrio sp. was isolated from the spleen and intestinal mucosa of a loggerhead in which focal fibrinonecrotic enteritis had been diagnosed. In five turtles, all the remains were fragments from long-spined sea urchins (Diadema africanum); the last turtle contained a mixture of long-spined sea urchin (90%) and purple sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis) (10%) remains. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of this cause of stranding was low (< 1.6%) compared to other mortality causes, continued overfishing and anthropogenic climate change could increase its incidence. Intestinal impaction with large amounts of sea urchins should be included in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases in sea turtles, and the possible toxic effect of some sea urchin species on sea turtles should also be investigated.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Enterite/patologia , Jejuno/patologia , Necrose
16.
Cell Tissue Res ; 377(3): 445-458, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446445

RESUMO

The emergence of a specialized system for food digestion and nutrient absorption was a crucial innovation for multicellular organisms. Digestive systems with different levels of complexity evolved in different animals, with the endoderm-derived one-way gut of most bilaterians to be the prevailing and more specialized form. While the molecular events regulating the early phases of embryonic tissue specification have been deeply investigated in animals occupying different phylogenetic positions, the mechanisms underlying gut patterning and gut-associated structures differentiation are still mostly obscure. In this review, we describe the main discoveries in gut and gut-associated structures development in echinoderm larvae (mainly for sea urchin and, when available, for sea star) and compare them with existing information in vertebrates. An impressive degree of conservation emerges when comparing the transcription factor toolkits recruited for gut cells and tissue differentiation in animals as diverse as echinoderms and vertebrates, thus suggesting that their function emerged in the deuterostome ancestor.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Estrelas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Vertebrados/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Trato Gastrointestinal/citologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Larva/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/genética , Estrelas-do-Mar/genética , Vertebrados/genética
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(30): 15080-15085, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285351

RESUMO

Understanding how trophic dynamics drive variation in biodiversity is essential for predicting the outcomes of trophic downgrading across the world's ecosystems. However, assessing the biodiversity of morphologically cryptic lineages can be problematic, yet may be crucial to understanding ecological patterns. Shifts in keystone predation that favor increases in herbivore abundance tend to have negative consequences for the biodiversity of primary producers. However, in nearshore ecosystems, coralline algal cover increases when herbivory is intense, suggesting that corallines may uniquely benefit from trophic downgrading. Because many coralline algal species are morphologically cryptic and their diversity has been globally underestimated, increasing the resolution at which we distinguish species could dramatically alter our conclusions about the consequences of trophic dynamics for this group. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to compare the diversity and composition of cryptic coralline algal assemblages at sites that differ in urchin biomass and keystone predation by sea otters. We show that while coralline cover is greater in urchin-dominated sites (or "barrens"), which are subject to intense grazing, coralline assemblages in these urchin barrens are significantly less diverse than in kelp forests and are dominated by only 1 or 2 species. These findings clarify how food web structure relates to coralline community composition and reconcile patterns of total coralline cover with the widely documented pattern that keystone predation promotes biodiversity. Shifts in coralline diversity and distribution associated with transitions from kelp forests to urchin barrens could have ecosystem-level effects that would be missed by ignoring cryptic species' identities.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Lontras/fisiologia , Filogenia , Rodófitas/classificação , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Algas/genética , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Kelp/classificação , Kelp/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Rodófitas/genética
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1907): 20190785, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337311

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to be a major driver of ocean biodiversity change. At projected rates of change, sensitive marine taxa may not have time to adapt. Their persistence may depend on pre-existing inter-individual variability. We investigated individual male reproductive performance under present-day and OA conditions using two representative broadcast spawners, the sea urchins Lytechinus pictus and Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Under the non-competitive individual ejaculate scenario, we examined sperm functional parameters (e.g. swimming speed, motility) and their relationship with fertilization success under current and near-future OA conditions. Significant inter-individual differences in almost every parameter measured were identified. Importantly, we observed strong inverse relationships between individual fertilization success rate under current conditions and change in fertilization success under OA. Individuals with a high fertilization success under current conditions had reduced fertilization under OA, while individuals with a low fertilization success under current conditions improved. Change in fertilization success ranged from -67% to +114% across individuals. Our results demonstrate that while average population fertilization rates remain similar under OA and present-day conditions, the contribution by different males to the population significantly shifts, with implications for how selection will operate in a future ocean.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fertilização , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lytechinus/fisiologia , Masculino , Reprodução
19.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 157-164, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331514

RESUMO

Toxopneustes roseus performs a key role in the eastern tropical Pacific as a strategic herbivore and bioturbation promoter. We evaluated the effect of temperature on the fertilization success, embryonic development and larval survival of T. roseus under laboratory conditions, to understand how the increase in ocean temperature could affect it in a global warming. The highest percentage of fertilization occurred in gametes that were exposed to 30 °C, and a significant negative effect of 32 °C was evidenced by the lowest percentage. There was also a deleterious effect in embryos exposed to 32 °C, resulting in an abnormal development at all the time points. The highest percentage of larval survival occurred at 30 °C, while the lowest percentage occurred at 32 °C. The results suggest that T. roseus probably lives near its upper thermal limit, and future ocean warming could threaten the permanence of the species in the eastern tropical Pacific, or at least lead to contraction or fragmentation of its range limits. Therefore if sea temperature rises globally, it could cause the disappearance of these populations that are living at the edge of their thermal tolerance, but for other populations located in more temperate latitudes, it could propitiate favorable conditions for fertilization and survival of embryos and larvae.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fertilização , Temperatura Alta , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Ouriços-do-Mar/embriologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Termotolerância
20.
Exp Gerontol ; 122: 92-98, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063808

RESUMO

Negative senescence, a decrease in size-specific mortality of large individuals, is shown by sea urchins. Sea urchins have indeterminate growth and size-specific gamete production increases throughout life. These characteristics are present in short-lived species, Lytechinus pictus and L. variegatus as well as ones that are long-lived: Mesocentrotus franciscanus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Echinometra mathaei, and Stomopneustes variolaris. Both short and long-lived species have cellular mechanisms that counter senescence. Many groups of organisms have species that are short-lived as well species with individuals that may attain ages of many hundreds of years. Generally it is assumed that short-lived species show senescence but results for sea urchins indicate that lack senescence may be present even when mortality is high.


Assuntos
Longevidade/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Especificidade da Espécie
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