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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7643-7663, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571869

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. It is a highly regulated process as determined by the interplay between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Under certain conditions the balance between angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors is altered, which results in a shift from physiological to pathological angiogenesis. Therefore, the goal of therapeutic targeting of angiogenic process is to normalize vasculature in target tissues by enhancing angiogenesis in disease conditions of reduced vascularity and blood flow, such as tissue ischemia, or alternatively to inhibit excessive and abnormal angiogenesis in disorders like cancer. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are special particles that are generated by nanotechnology and composed of an inorganic core containing gold which is encircled by an organic monolayer. The ability of AuNPs to alter vasculature has captured recent attention in medical literature as potential therapeutic agents for the management of pathologic angiogenesis. This review provides an overview of the effects of AuNPs on angiogenesis and the molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications associated with their effects. In addition, the main synthesis methods, physical properties, uptake mechanisms, and toxicity of AuNPs are briefly summarized.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Endocitose , Ouro/toxicidade , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
2.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(8): 917-921, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540838

RESUMO

Nanomedicine has undergone significant development since the 2000s and it is only very recently that two metallic nanoparticles have emerged in clinical trials. The mechanism of these radiosensitizing agents is based on the presence of atoms with a high atomic number (Z) allowing a higher dose deposition into the tumor during irradiation. The first nanoparticle used in humans is NBTXR3, composed of hafnium (Z=79), with intratumor injection for the treatment of sarcoma. Another gadolinium-based nanoparticle (Z=64), AGuIX, has been used for intravenous injection in the treatment of brain metastases. The preliminary results are promising in terms of feasibility, safety and efficacy, as evidenced by the significant number of ongoing clinical trials. The upcoming challenges for the development of nanoparticles will be the targeting of cancer cells, their biodistribution into the body, their eventual toxicity and their industrial production. In the coming years, modalities of administration and optimal combinations with radiotherapy should be defined in connection with fundamental research.


Assuntos
Nanomedicina , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Gadolínio/uso terapêutico , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Háfnio/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Radiossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Sarcoma/radioterapia
4.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2199-2209, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation therapy is of great interest in cancer therapy as it is non-ionizing radiation and can effectively penetrate into the tissue. However, the current RF ablation technique is invasive that requires RF probe insertion into the tissue and generates a non-specific heating. Recently, RF-responsive nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have led to tremendous progress in this area. They have been found to be able to absorb the RF field and induce a localized heating within the target, thereby affording a non-invasive and tumor-specific RF ablation strategy. In the present study, for the first time, we used a hybrid core-shell nanostructure comprising IONPs as the core and AuNPs as the shell (IO@Au) for targeted RF ablation therapy. Due to the magnetic core, the nanohybrid can be directed toward the tumor through a magnet. Moreover, IONPs enable the nanohybrid to be used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. RESULTS: In vitro cytotoxicity experiment showed that the combination of IO@Au and 13.56-MHz RF field significantly reduced the viability of cancer cells. Next, during an in vivo experiment, we demonstrated that magnetically targeting of IO@Au to the tumor and subsequent RF exposure dramatically suppressed the tumor growth. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the integration of targeting, imaging, and therapeutic performances into IO@Au nanohybrid could afford the promise to improve the effectiveness of RF ablation therapy.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Compostos Férricos/química , Ouro/química , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Animais , Compostos Férricos/uso terapêutico , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Nanocompostos/química , Nanocompostos/uso terapêutico , Nanoconchas/química , Nanoconchas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4157-4165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239674

RESUMO

Background: During decades, all improvements and developments in radiation therapy technologies have been focused on its main goal: maximize the dose in the tumor and minimize it in surrounding normal tissues. Recently, scientists have some approaches to nanoparticles, especially gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for dose localization. Purpose: Herein, the effect of GNPs in combination with electron brachytherapy in a model of eye tumor has been investigated. Materials and methods: Monte Carlo simulation was utilized and a complete anatomical model of the eye, a tumor with 5 mm thick, and a type of Ruthenium-106 beta emitter ophthalmic plaque were simulated. Simulation results have been validated by a Plexiglas eye phantom and film dosimetry, experimentally. Results: The results showed using GNPs causes the dose amplification in 2 mm from the plaque surface which the higher concentration has the higher enhancement. At more distances, Dose Enhancement Factors (DEFs) have the negative amounts, so that total delivered dose to the tumor has decreased with increasing of Au concentrations and the dose of organ at risk like sclera has increased. Conclusion: Therefore, using of GNPs along with a 106Ru/106Rh ocular plaque, as an electron emitter source, is a good choice only for superficial lesions, and it is not recommended for deeper tumors due to the parameters of radiation treatment and delivered dose to the tissues.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Elétrons , Neoplasias Oculares/radioterapia , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Olho/patologia , Olho/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rutênio/química , Prata/uso terapêutico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15311, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rapid advancement of nanotechnology in recent years has fuelled burgeoning interest in the field of nanoparticle research, particularly its application in cancer management. At present, there seems to be heightened interest in the application of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the management of cancer, encompassing diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. AuNPs could be used as drug delivery agents that target cancer cells or in gene therapy. These efforts are undertaken in the hope of revolutionizing current methods and strategies for cancer treatment. This review will focus on the current applications of AuNPs in cancer management. OBJECTIVES, DATA SOURCES, STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS, RESULTS:: objectives, data sources, study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions, study appraisal and synthesis methods, results are not required, as the study will be a literature review. Just introduction, ethics and dissemination, and conclusion are applicable. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval and informed consent are not required, as the study is a literature review and does not involve direct contact with patients or alterations to patient care. CONCLUSION: AuNPs have many properties that are of great value for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. AuNPs are small in size and can penetrate widely and deposit on the tumor site, bind to many proteins and drugs, target delivery drugs, and have good biocompatibility. The application of AuNPs in the diagnosis and treatment of tumors is very considerable. In the near future, AuNPs will certainly play an important role in the treatment of tumors.


Assuntos
Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Ouro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Experimentação Humana Terapêutica
7.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 21(11): 1441-1449, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055713

RESUMO

A brief review of tumor immunotherapies shows significant advancements in academic research and preclinical studies. Analysis of different immune cell pathways, including macrophage activation, natural killer cells, and dendritic cell presentation show promising clinical results when targeted with different nanoparticle polymer and gold materials. Following a brief discussion on immuno-oncology successes, detailed results are discussed in macrophage activation, dendritic cell presentation, and lysis of tumor cells with natural killer cells. Common targets include tumor-associated macrophages and induction of the proinflammatory phenotype, dual targeting of cell and humoral immunity with dendritic cells, and creating chimeric antigen receptors on natural killer cells. An analysis of the results shows a variety of nanoparticle synthesis methods are required depending on drug type and tissue type affected by tumors. Future research is discussed in conjunction with a brief analysis of completed clinical trial data on cancer therapies using nanoparticles to date. Although paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles are most frequently studied, academic research shows there may be additional mechanisms of action to elicit anti-tumor activity.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Galectina 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Ativação de Macrófagos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia
8.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1098): 20180745, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate feasibility of using bioerodable/bioerodible spacers (BES) over biodegradable spacers (BDS) loaded with gold nanoparticles for radiotherapy applications with in situ dose-painting, and to explore dosimetric impact on dose enhancement ratio of different radioisotopes. METHODS: Analytical models proposed were based on experimentally reported erosion rate constant (k 0 = 5. 5E-7 kgm- 2s- 1 ) for bioerodible polymeric matrix. An in vivo determined diffusion coefficient (2.2E-8 cm2/s) of 10 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) of concentration 7 mg/g was used to estimate diffusion coefficient of other AuNP sizes (2, 5, 14 nm) using the Stoke-Einstein diffusion equation. The corresponding dose enhancement factors (DEF) were used to study dosimetric feasibility of employing AuNP-eluting BPS for radiotherapy applications. RESULTS: The results showed AuNP release period from BES was significantly shorter (116 h) compared to BDS (more than a month) reported previously. The results also agree with reported Hopfenberg equation for a cylindrical matrix undergoing surface erosion. The DEF at tumour distance 5 mm for Cs-131 (DEF > 2.2) greater than that of I-125 (DEF > 2) and Pd-103 (DEF ≥ 2) could be achieved for AuNP sizes (2, 5, 10, and 14 nm) respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that BES could be used for short-lived radioisotopes like Pd-103 and Cs-131 in comparison to eluting BDS which is feasible for long-lived radioisotopes like I-125. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The study provides scientific basis for development of new generation eluting spacers viable for enhancing localized tumour dose. It concludes that BES gives higher DEF for Cs-131, and good candidate for replacing conventional fiducials/spacers.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Braquiterapia/instrumentação , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Modelos Teóricos , Próteses e Implantes , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
9.
Neurochem Res ; 44(7): 1549-1566, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093902

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) on rat cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) and to elucidate the corresponding mechanisms. Primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to OGD/R, which is commonly used in vitro to mimic ischemic injury, and then treated with 5- or 20-nm Au-NPs. We then evaluated cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial respiration in these neurons. We found that 20-nm Au-NPs increased cell viability, alleviated neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress, and improved mitochondrial respiration after OGD/R injury, while opposite effects were observed for 5-nm Au-NPs. In terms of the underlying mechanisms, we found that Au-NPs could regulate Akt signaling. Taken together, these results show that 20-nm Au-NPs can protect primary cortical neurons against OGD/R injury, possibly by decreasing apoptosis and oxidative stress, while activating Akt signaling and mitochondrial pathways. Our results suggest that Au-NPs may be potential therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Ouro/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3145-3154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118628

RESUMO

Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) are promising agents for prostate cancer therapy. Herein, the in vivo effects of 20 and 50 nm sized AuNps on experimentally induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was examined. Materials and methods: Adult male rats were divided into four groups (n=6-8 each). A negative control group and three groups were injected daily with testosterone (3 mg/kg/subcutaneously) to induce BPH. Animals receiving testosterone were randomized to untreated BPH group and two BPH groups which were treated intraperitoneally with 20 and 50 nm AuNps (5 mg/kg/daily) in addition to testosterone. After three weeks, histopathological changes and serum levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were analyzed. In addition, the prostate tissue levels of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), vascular endothelial growth factor-a (VEGF-A) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured using ELISA. Results: There were significant increases in the prostate weight/body weight ratio, serum testosterone and DHT and in the prostate tissue content of TGF-ß1, IL-6 and VEGF-A in the untreated BPH group. histological examination showed morphological abnormalities with more proliferation in the glandular epithelial and stromal area and with abundant epithelial papillary folds in the BPH group. Simultaneous administration of 50 nm AuNps with testosterone tended to increase the prostate weight/body weight ratio and increase the tissue level of IL-6 in compared to the BPH group. Conversely, treatment with 20 nm AuNps significantly reduced the elevated tissue content of TGF-ß1, IL-6, and VEGF-A. Histopathological examination also showed that 20 nm but not the 50 nm AuNps administration ameliorates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions: In experimentally induced BPH, AuNps can inhibit the progression of BPH in a size-dependent manner. while 20 nm AuNps ameliorate BPH by its inhibitory effects on the prostatic cell proliferation, inflammation and angiogenesis, the 50 nm AuNps could potentially exacerbate the development of BPH in rats, mainly through enhancing the inflammatory process.


Assuntos
Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Animais , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Eletricidade Estática , Testosterona/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
11.
Biomater Sci ; 7(5): 2009-2022, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839987

RESUMO

In this work, we took advantage of a one-pot reaction to prepare tumor-targeting nanoparticles (Au@T), which could respond to the intracellular acidic environment and form aggregates to enhance the retention effect of nanoparticles in tumor cells. Au@T is composed of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MCBA), p-hydroxythiophenol (HTP), LA (lipoic acid)-PEG2K-OCH3 and LA-PEG2K-biotin. During blood circulation, Au@T remains well dispersed, making it inconspicuous. Then, with the help of active targeted transport, much more Au@T becomes internalized at the tumor site. After being internalized by tumor cells, Au@T aggregates under the condition of pH = 6.0, thereby improving the retention effect of Au@T, stymieing exocytosis and reducing the amount of nanoparticles returned to the blood stream. Furthermore, the in vivo experimental results showed that aggregated Au@T exhibits excellent photothermal effects, with a tumor inhibition rate of 86.40%. The computed tomography (CT) value was found to be 1.5 times higher than that of the control group (Au@Bio), as Au@Bio was unable to aggregate in tumor cells. In conclusion, this work provides a simple method for synthesizing a type of gold nanoparticles (Au@T) with promising potential for tumor diagnosis and treatment through enhancing the retention effect in tumor cells.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Ouro/metabolismo , Ouro/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Teste de Materiais , Fototerapia , Distribuição Tecidual , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Future Med Chem ; 11(2): 119-135, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644327

RESUMO

Despite improvements in the 5-year survival rate to over 80% in cancers, such as Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer, more aggressive tumors including pancreatic and brain cancer still have extremely low survival rates. The establishment of chemoresistance, responsible for the reduction in treatment efficiency and cancer relapse, is one possible explanation for this setback. Metal-based compounds, a class of anticancer drugs, are largely used in the treatment of cancer. Herein, we will review the use of metal-based small molecules in chemotherapy, focusing on recent studies, and we will discuss how new nonplatinum-based agents are prompting scientists to increase drug specificity to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metais/química , Metais/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/química , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/química , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Cobre/química , Cobre/farmacologia , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irídio/química , Irídio/farmacologia , Irídio/uso terapêutico , Ferro/química , Ferro/farmacologia , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Metais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Rênio/química , Rênio/farmacologia , Rênio/uso terapêutico , Ródio/química , Ródio/farmacologia , Ródio/uso terapêutico , Rutênio/química , Rutênio/farmacologia , Rutênio/uso terapêutico
13.
Chembiochem ; 20(5): 667-671, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447100

RESUMO

Manipulating the cross-coupling of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to maximize the photothermal effect is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Here, by taking advantage of the well-known tetrazole/alkene photoclick chemistry, we have demonstrated for the first time that small AuNPs (23 nm) decorated with both 2,5-diphenyltetrazole and methacrylic acid on their surfaces can form covalently crosslinked aggregates upon laser irradiation (λ=405 nm). In vitro studies indicated that the light-triggered assembling shifted the surface plasmon resonance of AuNPs significantly to near-infrared (NIR) regions, which as a consequence effectively enhanced the efficacy of photothermal therapy for 4T1 breast cancer cells. We thus believe that this new light-triggered cross-coupling approach might offer a valuable tool for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Ouro/uso terapêutico , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fototerapia/métodos , Células 3T3 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Tetrazóis/química
14.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 145: 39-46, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences between obtained percentage dose enhancements in areas around nanoparticles in GNPs (gold nanoparticles) enriched medium and percentage dose enhancements in the entire GNPs enriched medium including nanoparticles region. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To verify the accuracy of Ir-192 source simulation, the obtained values of air kerma strength, dose rate constants, and radial dose functions were compared against previously published results. Then a 1 cm × 1 cm× 1 cm tumor volume loaded with different diameters of GNPs were considered at a source to the tumor center of 1 cm. Finally, dose enhancements were obtained for 50, 100 and 200 nm GNPs as a function of various concentrations of the radiosensitizer and depth in phantom. RESULTS: Calculations showed that dose enhancement could be customized by varying the size of nanoparticles, concentrations and radial distance from the source. The highest PDEGNP (The ratio of the increased deposited dose in the tumor region to the dose deposition in the no nano gold-containing structure) was acquired by 50 nm nanoparticles, 30 mg/g concentrations and in the highest distance from the source. (PDEGNP) and (PDEaround-GNP) due to the presence of 7-30 mg/g concentration of GNPs ranged from 3-18.19% and 3.45-21.13%, respectively. The results of this study revealed that the correlation is significant at the 0.01 level and there is a non-negligible difference (up to 3%) between (Daround-GNP)and (DGNP). CONCLUSION: By considering exclusively determination of dose enhancement in the just tumor tissue, calculating (Daround-GNP) Instead of DGNP may be a strategy for clinical use of nanoparticles in the radiation therapy. The results showed that with the increasing trend of dose enhancement in the GNPs loaded-tumor, dose enhancement decreases with an increase in the size of GNPs.


Assuntos
Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Braquiterapia/métodos , Braquiterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Radioisótopos de Irídio/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
15.
Can J Diabetes ; 43(2): 82-89.e6, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles are known for their many applications in the fields of therapeutics and diagnosis. METHODS: This article focuses mainly on the green method of synthesizing gold nanoparticles by using the leaf powder extract of the insulin plant Chamaecostus cuspidatus and on the characterization of developed plant-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, we investigated the free-radical scavenging activity of green-synthesized gold nanoparticles. RESULTS: The free radicals were exhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% inhibition of free radicals by gold nanoparticles showed that it was similar to that of the standard inhibition. Toxicity studies generally examine changes in blood serum chemistry and cell populations in tissue morphology through histologic analysis without inducing any lethal effects in the mouse model, thereby accomplishing sustained control over the progression of diabetes mellitus, which plays a leading role in vascular complications in patients. The treatment by gold nanoparticles of the mice with diabetes for a period of 21 days restored their blood glucose, glycogen and insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The use of gold nanoparticles as antidiabetes materials has been achieved. Further studies are required before gold nanoparticle-based drugs are more widely used.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Radicais Livres/antagonistas & inibidores , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Glicogênio/sangue , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(8): 1311-1327, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28294042

RESUMO

With the emergence of nanotechnology, new methods have been developed for engineering various nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Nanotheranostics is a burgeoning research field with tremendous prospects for the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of various cancers. However, the development of biocompatible and efficient drug/gene delivery theranostic systems still remains a challenge. Green synthetic approach of nanoparticles with low capital and operating expenses, reduced environmental pollution and better biocompatibility and stability is a latest and novel field, which is advantageous over chemical or physical nanoparticle synthesis methods. In this article, we summarize the recent research progresses related to green synthesized nanoparticles for cancer theranostic applications, and we also conclude with a look at the current challenges and insight into the future directions based on recent developments in these areas.


Assuntos
Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Ferritinas/química , Ferritinas/uso terapêutico , Ouro/química , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Pontos Quânticos/uso terapêutico , Selênio/química , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/uso terapêutico , Prata/química , Prata/uso terapêutico
17.
Lasers Med Sci ; 34(2): 377-388, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215184

RESUMO

Using gold-silica nanoshell as a reference nano-agent, this work has performed preliminary numerical parametric study to investigate the feasibility and if feasible the efficiency of using a single nano-agent to achieve theranostic goals. In total, seven generics of gold-silica nanoshells have been tested including the R[50,10] (radius of the silica core is 50 nm and thickness of the gold shell is 10 nm), R[40,15], R[55,25], R[40,40], R[75,40], R[104,23], and R[154,24] nanoshells. A planar tissue model has been constructed as the platform for parametric study. For mathematical modeling, radiant transport equation (RTE) has been applied to describe the interactions among laser lights, the hosting tissue, and the hosted nanoshells and Penne's bio-heat equation has been applied to describe the hyperthermia induced by such interactions. Effects of different nanoshell generics on the diffuse reflectance signal and hyperthermia temperature transition have been simulated, basing on which the potential of a certain nanoshell generic as theranostic nano-agent has been evaluated. It has been found that it is highly feasible for gold-silica nanoshells to be engineered for theranostic purpose and nanoshell generics that are preferentially scattering should be explored for good theranostic candidates. On the condition that nanoshell generic with the right optical properties has been located, a moderate nanoshell retention in the target tissue site is already sufficient to induce effective theranostic effects, which indicates that theranostic nano-medicine might not have a stringent requirement for the delivery technique. Among nanoshells that have been tested, the R[55,25] nanoshell seems to be a promising candidate as theranostic nano-agent. Further testing on it is highly recommended. Nanoshells that are preferentially absorbing such as the R[50,10] and R[40,15] nanoshells are efficient photothermal agent and could be used for therapeutic purpose only. However, it is not recommended that preferentially absorbing nanoshells being used for theranostic purpose due to possible negative effects such nanoshells might bring to the diffuse reflectance signal.


Assuntos
Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanoconchas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Humanos , Dióxido de Silício , Temperatura de Transição
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551640

RESUMO

Cancers are heterogeneous at the cell level, and the mechanisms leading to cancer heterogeneity could be clonal evolution or cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are resistant to most anti-cancer treatments and could be preferential targets to reverse this resistance, either targeting stemness pathways or cancer stem cell surface markers. Gold nanoparticles have emerged as innovative tools, particularly for photo-thermal therapy since they can be excited by laser to induce hyperthermia. Gold nanoparticles can be functionalized with antibodies to specifically target cancer stem cells. Preclinical studies using photo-thermal therapy have demonstrated the feasibility of targeting chemo-resistant cancer cells to reverse clinical chemoresistance. Here, we review the data linking cancer stem cells and chemoresistance and discuss the way to target them to reverse resistance. We particularly focus on the use of functionalized gold nanoparticles in the treatment of chemo-resistant metastatic cancers.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(11)2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380664

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play a crucial role in the development of nanomedicine, principally due to their unique photophysical properties and high biocompatibility. The possibility to tune and customize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) toward near-infrared region by modulating the AuNP shape is one of the reasons for the huge widespread use of AuNPs. The controlled synthesis of no-symmetrical nanoparticles, named anisotropic, is an exciting goal achieved by the scientific community which explains the exponential increase of the number of publications related to the synthesis and use of such type of AuNPs. Even with such steps forward and the AuNP translation in clinic being done, some key issues are still remain and they are related to a reliable and scalable production, a full characterization, and to the development of nanotoxicology studies on the long run. In this review we highlight the very recent advances on the synthesis of the main classes of anisotropic AuNPs (nanorods, nanourchins and nanocages) and their use in the biomedical fields, in terms of diagnosis and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanomedicina/métodos , Animais , Anisotropia , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos
20.
Biomater Sci ; 7(1): 51-62, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398231

RESUMO

The cornea repair materials amniotic membrane, acellular corneal stroma, and natural polymer-based materials have excellent biocompatibility and support epithelization. However, few researchers have focused on corneal stromal wound healing repair with regard to scar formation and transparency improvements. Herein, we introduced nanocomplexes of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and microRNA-133b (miR-133b) into collagen-based material to achieve corneal repair and scar inhibition. We evaluated the cytocompatibility of AuNPs and the ability of miRNA-133b to inhibit myofibroblast transformation in vitro. The AuNPs had no cytotoxicity at working concentrations, and AuNP/miR-133b complexes down-regulated the expression of myofibroblast transformation genes (alpha-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen) in corneal stromal cells. We then loaded AuNP/miR-133b complexes into collagen using two methods: loading on the surface (Col-AMS) and loading inside (Col-AMI) the collagen membrane. The results showed that AuNP/miR-133b introduction did not affect water content, light transmittance, or the mechanical properties of the collagen membrane. MiR-133b can maintain its integrity during the preparation of materials. In vivo lamellar keratoplasty results showed that the cornea epithelized completely and rapidly. Corneas without transplantation and with the transplantation of a non-modified collagen membrane became cloudy after trauma to different degrees after approximately 14 days. Interestingly, cornea transparency was retained after transplantation with Col-AMS and Col-AMI. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained histologic sections revealed that the corneas transplanted with Col-AMS and Col-AMI were similar to healthy corneas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed lower a-SM and Col-1 expression in corneal stroma after transplantation with collagen combined with AuNP/miR-133b. Our results thus suggest that collagen membranes combined with AuNP/miR-133b complexes can rapidly repair corneas and effectively inhibit scar formation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Cicatriz/terapia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Córnea/patologia , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cicatriz/genética , Cicatriz/patologia , Córnea/citologia , Córnea/metabolismo , Feminino , Terapia Genética , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Coelhos
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