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1.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861348

RESUMO

The potential of the parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek for the biological control of the eucalyptus pest Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) nymphs is high. This research sought to analyze the courtship, male competition, and mating behavior of P. bliteus at the proportions of 1:1 and 2:1 males to female in a Petri dish (5 cm diameter), and to describe the ovary histology of virgin and mated females of this parasitoid. At 1:1, males touch the antennae and thorax-abdomen of females during courtship, but females avoid mate attempts before they are 48 h old. At 2:1, the competition between male parasitoids inhibits mating. The histology of ovaries of virgin and mated P. bliteus females is similar, with two well-defined germarium and vitellarium regions, with oocytes at different developmental stages, including mature ones rich in yolk and with eggshell. A clearer understanding of the reproductive behavior and histology of P. bliteus aids in the use of this parasitoid for the biological control of G. brimblecombei.


Assuntos
Himenópteros/anatomia & histologia , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Corte , Feminino , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Ninfa/parasitologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1098-1108, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518069

RESUMO

In contrast to the later stages of follicle development, little is known about the characteristics and mechanisms associated with early folliculogenesis in avian species. The objectives of the present study were to examine and compare the histomorphological and molecular changes of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles from duck and goose ovaries during the first 6 post-hatching week. Morphological analysis showed that the length and width of both duck and goose ovaries increased steadily during weeks 1 to 5 but increased acutely at week 6, whereas a greater increment was observed in the ovarian length of ducks than that of geese during weeks 4 to 5. Furthermore, smaller diameters of the 3 categories of follicles were observed in ducks than those in geese at the first appearance, but they reached a similar size at week 6. More importantly, secondary follicles were found in the ovaries of ducks 1 wk earlier than in those of geese. These results indicated a more rapid growth rate for ovarian follicles in ducks than in geese during early post-hatching development. At the molecular level, it was found that the mRNAs encoding follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and cysteine-dependent aspartate specific protease 3 (CASPASE3) were ubiquitously expressed in all ovarian follicles of ducks and geese with different expression profiles in each follicular category during the first 6 post-hatching week. Notably, transcript levels of FSHR, AMH, and CASPASE3 changed differently between ducks and geese during weeks 5 to 6, which was postulated to be one of the mechanisms inducing more rapid growth of ovarian follicles in ducks rather than in geese. In conclusion, our results revealed, for the first time, differences in early folliculogenesis, including the rate of growth of each follicular category and the timing of transition of primary to secondary follicles, between ducks and geese, and these differences could result from different expression profiles of FSHR, AMH, and CASPASE3 during early post-hatching development.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Animais , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Patos/genética , Feminino , Gansos/anatomia & histologia , Gansos/genética , RNA/química , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 848-855, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480565

RESUMO

Evaluation of sex ratios is a critical component of chelonian captive breeding programs and may become increasingly useful to assess the demographics of free-living populations. In many reptile species, the sex of immature animals cannot be determined based on external features. Endoscopic sex identification is an accurate and safe method to identify the sex of immature individuals of some chelonian species. A number of studies describe this technique in controlled, hospital settings and report significant interspecies variations in gonad morphology; however, there are few reports describing this technique in field conditions. In the current study, the gonadal morphology of 40 immature Western Santa Cruz tortoises (Chelonoidis porteri) on Santa Cruz Island in Galapagos, Ecuador, was assessed. A previously described endoscopic protocol was used to perform sex identification under field conditions. Tortoises were anesthetized using an intramuscular injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg) and medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), which provided an adequate plane of anesthesia. The medetomidine was reversed with atipamezole (0.5 mg/kg). Field conditions presented challenges such as limited control over lighting, suboptimal patient positioning, and restricted power supply for endoscopy equipment. The immature testicle in Western Santa Cruz tortoises was oval, reddish pink, and tightly adhered to the coelomic membrane ventral to the kidney. The surface of the gonads resembled other species with the notable exception that the ovaries lacked a significant number of primordial follicles. These gonadal characteristics were consistent, with only one individual identified as undetermined sex of the 40 samples. This field-based endoscopic gonadal evaluation was a safe and sensitive technique for determining the sex of free-living immature Western Santa Cruz Galapagos tortoises.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Maturidade Sexual , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tartarugas/fisiologia
4.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(5): 333-342, sept. 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195270

RESUMO

Furan is an endocrine-disruptive chemical formed as a result of foods heat treatment as coffee, jarred and canned foods. It induces harmful effects on organisms. This study was intended to evaluate the effect of furan exposure on ovary, as a new rat polycystic ovary model (PCO), and the possible anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and estrogenic effects of red clover (RC) dry extracts on it. Sixty adult female rats were divided into five groups (Control, RC, Furan, Protected and Treated groups). At the end of the experiment, Ovarian tissues were taken for histological (Hx & E and Picro - Sirius red stains), immunohistochemical (Bcl2, Er-Beta & COX-2 immunoexpression), statistical & morphometrical studies. The ovarian sections of Furan group showed significant decrease in the number of the follicles and corpora lutea, follicular degeneration as well as many cysts and significant increased deposition of collagen fibers between the theca cells extending to the medulla. Bcl-2 and Er-Beta immunoexpression were significantly decreased. However, the surface area per-centage of COX-2 immunostain was significantly increased as compared to the control. The ovarian sections of the protected and treated groups with RC showed improvement in the histological andimmunohistochemical alterations of furan induced ovarian injury. However, the treated group is significantly different from the protected group. It could be concluded that RC is more effective as a protected than treated agent against ovarian injury induced by furan


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifolium , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/veterinária , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Imuno-Histoquímica
5.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764188

RESUMO

Recent examinations of marine perciform fishes from off the Florida coast in the Gulf of Mexico and Straits of Florida, USA, revealed the presence of the following six species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae): P. haemulontis sp. n. (males and females) from the ovary of Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède) (type host) and H. aurolineatum Cuvier (both Haemulidae); Philometra synagridis Moravec, Bakenhaster et Fajer-Ávila, 2014 (males and females) from the ovary and testes of Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae); P. margolisi Moravec, Vidal-Martínez et Aguirre-Macedo, 1995 (male) from the ovary of Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook) (Serranidae) (new host record; probably a paradefinitive host); P. andersoni sp. n. (male) from the ovary of H. nigritus; Philometra sp. 1 (male) from the ovary of Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier) (Lutjanidae); and Philometra sp. 2 (females) from the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior-most head sinuses of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes) (Serranidae). Specimens of species are described and illustrated based on light and (except for Philometra sp. 1) scanning electron microscopical examinations. Philometra haemulontis sp. n. differs from all congeners in the unique structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. andersoni sp. n. can be differentiated from other gonad-infecting congeners parasitising the Serranidae by a combination of morphological features. Females of P. synagridis are described for the first time. Gravid females of Philometra sp. 2 are similar to those of P. morii Moravec, Bakenhaster et Fajer-Ávila, 2010, a subcutaneous parasite of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.


Assuntos
Dracunculoidea/classificação , Dracunculoidea/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Perciformes , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Animais , Dracunculoidea/anatomia & histologia , Dracunculoidea/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Masculino , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/ultraestrutura
6.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720914

RESUMO

Two new species of Acanthobothrium Blanchard, 1848 were collected from rajiform batoids along the coast of Argentina. They are Acanthobothrium carolinae sp. n. from Bathyraja magellanica (Philippi) and Acanthobothrium domingae sp. n. from Dipturus brevicaudatus (Marini). Both belong to category 1 and 2 because their total length is lower than 15 mm, they have fewer than 50 proglottids, fewer than 80 testes and a symmetric or asymmetric ovary. Acanthobothrium carolinae sp. n. differs from all congeners by the following combination of features: proglottid apolysis, hook morphology, microthrix pattern on the cephalic peduncle and distribution of the vitelline follicles. Acanthobothrium domingae sp. n. is unique in the combination of proglottid apolysis, total length, number of proglottids, hook and septal morphology, microthrix pattern on the cephalic peduncle, number and distribution of testes, cirrus sac length, distribution of the vitelline follicles and genital pore position. The discovery of these species increases the number of species of Acanthobothrium parasitising rajiform batoids off Argentina from one to three. All three species have a unique pattern of distribution of the gladiate spinitriches along the length of the cephalic peduncle, i.e., gladiate spinitriches being interrupted in a medial line both dorsally and ventrally.


Assuntos
Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Rajidae , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Prevalência , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/ultraestrutura
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to improved treatment, there is an increasing focus on the reproductive potential of survivors of childhood cancer. Cytotoxic chemotherapy accelerates the decline in the number of primordial follicles within the mammalian ovary at all ages, but effects on the developmental potential of remaining oocytes following prepubertal cancer treatment are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether cyclophosphamide (CY) exposure in the prepubertal period in female mice influences ovarian function and the functional competence of oocytes in adulthood. METHODS: This study used Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. Female mice were treated with 200 mg/kg CY on either postnatal day 14 (CY14), 21 (CY21) or 28 (CY28) i.e at a prepubertal and 2 young postpubertal ages. At 14 weeks of life, ovarian function, functional competence of oocytes, and embryo quality were assessed. RESULTS: The number of primordial follicles decreased significantly in CY14 and CY21 groups compared to control (p < 0.01). The number of oocytes from superovulated was 8.5 ± 1.4, 24.1 ± 2.9 and 26.8 ± 2.1 in CY14, CY21 and CY28 respectively which was significantly lower than control (50.2 ± 3.2; p < 0.001). In vitro culture of CY14 embryos demonstrated only 55.4% blastocyst formation (p < 0.0001) and reduced ability of inner cell mass (ICM) to proliferate in vitro (p < 0.05) at 120 and 216 h post insemination respectively. On the other hand, ICM proliferation was unaltered in 2 young postpubertal ages. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate long-term effects on the developmental competence of oocytes exposed to CY in early but not adult life. These data provide a mechanism whereby long-term fertility can be impaired after chemotherapy exposure, despite the continuing presence of follicles within the ovary, and support the need for fertility preservation in prepubertal girls before alkylating agent exposure.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Camundongos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 165, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471976

RESUMO

The North Sea plaice, Pleuronectes platessa (Linnaeus, 1758), is a commonly studied commercial flatfish with poorly known ovarian histology. The following dataset is a collection of female plaice gonad images and their corresponding histological slides, collected during a complete season of the plaice's reproduction cycle. Stereology was used to determine the percentage of different structures found throughout the ovaries. Inter-agent calibrations were accomplished in order to harmonize the stereological readings, and were based on a comprehensive reading protocol and histological lexicon that were specifically written for the plaice's ovaries. The distribution and homogeneity of the different cell types found throughout the ovaries were also evaluated. This dataset can be used to automate the stereological reading process (through statistical learning methods for example) or to objectively determine the plaice's maturity phase, and link that information to either macroscopic measurements or through image analysis of the full ovaries.


Assuntos
Linguado , Imageamento Tridimensional , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Histologia , Ovário/citologia
9.
J Morphol ; 281(4-5): 491-499, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198946

RESUMO

Arapaima gigas is a giant air-breathing and bony tongue fish from the Amazon basin and a promising species for aquaculture. A. gigas farming industry is still not established because of the lack of information on its reproductive physiology. Reproduction in captivity cannot be manipulated or stimulated, and the identification of males and females in a broodstock is not easy. We aimed to reveal the morphological sex differentiation of pirarucu as studies involving gonad development are essential to understanding the reproductive physiology of any species. We performed histological analysis on the whole body and extracted the gonads of 150 juveniles. The first sign of ovary differentiation is the sex-specific rearrangement of the germ cells. In 9 cm total length females, the germ cells group into nests and are restricted to the lateral face of the gonad, in close contact with the abdomen wall. With further development, this region invaginates and that later develops into ovigerous lamellae. Meiosis starts soon after ovary differentiation. In males, the germ cells are scattered along the elongated differentiating testis at first, and later become more restricted to the central region where the spermatogonial cysts start to develop. Somatic and germ cells are jointly involved in the cellular reorganization during gonadal differentiation, specifically when the germ cells begin to establish new associations during the development of both the germinal epithelium and stroma. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: In Arapaima gigas, the ovary differentiation occurs in 9 cm TL females and it is marked by the rearrangement of germ and somatic cells; and the germ cells entering meiosis with no formation of ovarian cavity; testis differentiation occurs later and meiosis does not start in males smaller than 80 cm TL.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Diferenciação Sexual , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/fisiologia , Masculino , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitelogênese
10.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 453-459, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential associations between concentrations of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and T as well as the LH/FSH ratio and the unbiased precise ovarian volume obtained after unilateral ovariectomy. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A total of 765 patients having one ovary surgically removed for fertility preservation. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years and ovarian volume <25 mL; 386 women had one or more hormone parameter (AMH, LH, FSH, or total T) determined before oophorectomy. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): A precise weight of the ovary was equated with ovarian volume. Associations between ovarian volume and AMH, the LH/FSH ratio, T concentrations, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Patient characteristics in relation to ovarian volume cutoff values between 8 and 12 mL were also examined. RESULT(S): Ovarian volume was significantly positively associated with concentrations of AMH, the LH/FSH ratio, and T. Ovarian volume, concentrations of AMH and LH, and the LH/FSH ratio were significantly augmented in women having ovarian volumes above a threshold of 8, 9, and 10 mL compared with those below. Average age, FSH, and T concentrations did not differ between below and above the 10 mL threshold. There was a significant association between BMI and ovarian volume and BMI and T, while other hormone parameters were nonsignificant. CONCLUSION(S): The precise ovarian volume reflected ovarian activity measured as circulating concentrations of AMH and T as well as the LH/FSH ratio. These significant associations showed continuous progression, and a 10 mL threshold offered no clear difference compared with other volume threshold values.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Preservação da Fertilidade , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criopreservação , Feminino , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Ovariectomia , Ovário/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 141-154, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098447

RESUMO

Although Trachemys scripta elegans is an exotic species popular as a pet in Brazil, studies on reproductive biology and capacity are non-existent in the Brazilian Cerrado. This study analyzed ovarian and oviduct characteristics and the egg production capacity of T. scripta elegans grown in this biome. The findings will associate with the size of the specimens and the sexual maturity, aiming at comparisons with native and exotic populations, as well as interspecific and contributing to the understanding of its impact on the invaded ecosystems and the establishment of eradication programs. Thus, 39 females had evaluated the body biometry and the morphology and morphometry of the ovaries and oviducts. G2 (N=20): with Class I (>5-10mm) follicles, with Class I and Class II (>10-fold) follicles, 25mm) and G3 (N=9) with Class I, Class II and Class III (>25mm) follicles. Analysis of variance, Scott-Knott's test, and Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in body biometry; in the mean gonadosomatic index and gonadal morphometry, only the width of the oviducts in the right antimer and the mass and width in the left antimer were higher in G3, the only one that presented eggs. There was positive and harmonic development between body mass, carapace, and plastron, and gonadal growth occurred concomitantly with body growth, indicating a higher reproductive potential and a positive relationship between the size of the litter and the female litter. The gonadosomatic index proved to be an excellent reproductive indicator, and the ovarian evaluation was a better indicator of sexual maturity than the maximum carapace length. Ovaries were irregular structures, without delimitation between the cortical and medullary regions and filled with vitelogenic follicles of different diameters, atresic follicles, and corpora lutea, which reflected the ovarian complexity of the species and the presence of follicular hierarchy. In the scarce stroma, two germinative beds were observed per ovary and the presence of gaps very close to the follicles and associated with the blood vessels. Analysis of gonadal tissue revealed three types of oocytes according to cytoplasmic characteristics: homogeneous, vesicular or vesicular in the cortex with apparent granules. Oviducts were functional and separated, joining only in the final portion to form the cloaca and subdivided into infundibulum, tuba, isthmus, uterus, and vagina. The structure of the uterine tube was composed of serosa, muscular and mucous, which was full of glands. The presence of eggs in the oviducts indicated that the specimens can reproduce in the Brazilian Cerrado. This study provides necessary and relevant information on the reproductive biology and capacity of T. scripta elegans in the Brazilian Cerrado and can contribute to the understanding of its impact on the invaded ecosystems and the establishment of eradication programs. The extraction of females with capacity can reduce the annual reproductive yield of the species and decrease its effect on local biodiversity.(AU)


Embora Trachemys scripta elegans seja uma espécie exótica popular como animal de estimação no Brasil, estudos sobre biologia e capacidade reprodutivas são inexistentes no Cerrado brasileiro. Este estudo analisou características ovarianas e do oviduto e a capacidade de produção de ovos em T. scripta elegans criadas neste bioma, correlacionando estes achados ao tamanho dos espécimes e a maturidade sexual, visando comparações com populações nativas e exóticas, bem como interespecíficas e contribuir para a compreensão de seu impacto nos ecossistemas invadidos e com o estabelecimento de programas de erradicação. Assim, 39 fêmeas tiveram avaliadas a biometria corporal e a morfologia e morfometria dos ovários e ovidutos. De acordo com o tamanho dos folículos ovarianos as fêmeas foram separadas em G1 (N= 10): com folículos Classe I (>5-10 mm), G2 (N= 20): com folículos Classe I e Classe II (>10-25 mm) e G3 (N= 9) com folículos Classe I, Classe II e Classe III (>25 mm). À análise de variância, teste de Scott-Knott e à análise de correlação de Pearson verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos na biometria corporal; no índice gonadossomático médio e na morfometria gonadal, apenas a largura dos ovidutos no antímero direito e a massa e a largura no antímero esquerdo foram maiores no G3, o único que apresentou ovos. Houve desenvolvimento positivo e harmônico entre massa corporal, carapaça e plastrão e o crescimento gonadal ocorreu concomitante ao crescimento corporal, indicando maior potencial reprodutivo e relação positiva entre o tamanho da ninhada de ovos e o da fêmea. O índice gonadossomático mostrou-se um bom indicador reprodutivo e a avaliação ovariana um melhor indicador da maturidade sexual que o comprimento máximo da carapaça. Ovários foram estruturas irregulares, sem delimitação entre a região cortical e medular e repletos de folículos vitelogênicos de diferentes diâmetros, folículos atrésicos e corpos lúteos, que refletiram a complexidade ovariana da espécie e a presença de hierarquia folicular. No estroma escasso foram observados dois leitos germinativos por ovário e a presença de lacunas muito próximas aos folículos e associadas aos vasos sanguíneos. A análise do tecido gonadal revelou três tipos de oócitos de acordo com as características do citoplasma: homogêneo, vesicular ou vesicular no córtex com grânulos aparentes. Ovidutos eram funcionais e separados, unindo-se apenas na porção final para formar a cloaca e subdividiam-se em infundíbulo, tuba uterina, istmo, útero e vagina. A estrutura da tuba uterina era constituída de serosa, muscular e mucosa, a qual era repleta de glândulas. A presença de ovos nos ovidutos indicou que os espécimes podem se reproduzir no cerrado brasileiro. Este estudo fornece informações básicas e relevantes da biologia e capacidade reprodutivas de T. scripta elegans no Cerrado brasileiro e pode contribuir com a compreensão de seu impacto nos ecossistemas invadidos e com o estabelecimento de programas de erradicação, uma vez que a extração de fêmeas com capacidade reprodutiva pode contribuir com a diminuição do rendimento reprodutivo anual da espécie e diminuir seu efeito sobre a biodiversidade local.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Oviductos/anatomia & histologia , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Tubas Uterinas/anatomia & histologia , Maturidade Sexual , Corpo Lúteo/anatomia & histologia , Pradaria , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia
12.
Theriogenology ; 142: 328-337, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711706

RESUMO

The objective of this study was (1) to describe the US appearance and obtain reference values for the uterus and ovaries in nongravid and gravid queens with histologically confirmed reproductive tracts without disorders, (2) to provide US measurements of the reproductive tract compared to gross macroscopic and water-bath post-OVH US measurements in nongravid queens, and (3) to describe the sonographic appearance of the female reproductive tract during the different histopathologic phases of the reproductive cycle in nongravid and gravid queens. Ninety-three queens from a "trap, neuter, return" program were included in this study. Sonographic evaluation of the reproductive tract was performed in all queens, and measurements of the corpus uteri, uterine horns, and ovaries were recorded. Following OVH, macroscopic measurements were obtained, and a water-bath US evaluation of these tissues and measurements was recorded. Samples from the corpus uteri and both the uterine horns and ovaries were collected for histopathologic examination after all measurements had been recorded. Seventy-two reproductive tracts met the inclusion criteria by having a histopathologically confirmed normal reproductive tract. Sixty-three queens were nonpregnant and 9 were pregnant. The ovaries and uterus were sonographically visible in all queens regardless of reproductive status. The ovaries were ovoid in shape, and the uterus appeared as a tubular structure with distinct wall layers (serosa and indistinct myometrium and myometrium, or serosa, myometrium, and endometrium), with variable echogenicity of the inner layers. The layering of the uterine wall, observed during the second half of pregnancy, was described. Ovarian follicles were visible in 66/72 (92%) cats. However, the CL was only visible in 40/72 (55%) cats. The reference values of the left ovarian length, right ovarian length, uterine horn diameter, and uterine body are 7.1-13.9, 7.3-13.6, 1-5.8, and 1.5-5.3 mm, respectively, in a nongravid uterus. The uterine wall thickness during pregnancy varied from 2.4 to 6.8 mm. There was a significant positive correlation between US measurements obtained in vivo and those obtained macroscopically and in a water bath post-OVH. The body weight, follicular size, sonographic visibility of the uterine wall layering, the histopathologic luteal phase, and the active/inactive status on histopathology had a significant effect on the uterine measurements (p < 0.05). It was not possible to describe the exact US features of the reproductive tract during the different histopathologic phases. In conclusion, ultrasonographic reference values for the normal female reproductive tract in cats were determined. The results of this study indicated that the ovaries and uterus were visible in cats regardless of reproductive status.


Assuntos
Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Feminina/diagnóstico por imagem , Prenhez , Ultrassonografia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/citologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/citologia , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Theriogenology ; 142: 184-195, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604179

RESUMO

One of the dogmas of mammalian reproduction states is that primordial germ cells in females are restricted to the intrauterine phase, and that only a small portion of oocytes is available for ovulation during the adult life. Among the rare exceptions to this rule is the plains viscacha. This specie polyovulates up to 800 oocytes per cycle, from which 10 to 12 are implanted, but only 1-2 conceptuses survive. To better understand the key mechanisms of this pattern of embryonic to uterine interactions, we analyzed 19 female genital systems by means of gross morphology, histology, stereology and immunohistochemistry. Data showed that a specialized, highly convoluted structure of the ovarian cortex developed during the intrauterine phase as a prerequisite for the massive super-ovulation, likely associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and continued proliferation of germ cells, as well as maintenance of several corpora lutea during the adult life. In addition, specializations of uterine vasculature and musculature were demonstrated. Altogether, these key morphological characteristics evolved in order to contribute as compensatory or controlling mechanism for polyovulation and polyimplantation that led these species into becoming an unique enigma in reproductive biology, and a potential animal model to provide explanations regarding to developmental specializations.


Assuntos
Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Roedores , Superovulação/fisiologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/fisiologia , Animais , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Útero/irrigação sanguínea
14.
J Morphol ; 281(1): 81-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785033

RESUMO

Phreodrilidae is a small family uniting about 50 species of minute freshwater clitellate annelids inhabiting mainly the Southern hemisphere. Other than the male and spermathecal genitalia, their internal organization is poorly known. Here, we present results of our study of the ovaries and oogenesis in Insulodrilus bifidus, a phreodrilid from Western Australia using light and electron microscopy. The ovaries are paired and located in segment XII. They are inconspicuous and composed of several (10-12) spherical germ-line cysts loosely interconnected by flattened somatic cells. The cysts usually comprise 32 germ cells and each cell is connected via a cytoplasmic bridge (ring canal) to the central cytoplasmic mass (the cytophore). In ovaries, germ cells in a given cyst develop in full synchrony. However, there is no synchrony among cysts, so there is a developmental gradient of cysts (from oogonial to early meiotic) along the longitudinal ovary axis. Within the cysts that are located in the distal end of the ovary the synchrony is finally lost and interconnected cells diversify into two morphologically distinct categories: an oocyte and 31 nurse cells. Such cysts detach from the ovaries and further development occurs within the body cavity. The oocyte gathers nutrients, mainly in form of yolk spheres, whereas nurse cells grow slightly and do not gather yolk. Organelles such as ribosomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum pass freely through the ring canals and are present within the cytophore, which suggests cytoplasmic transfer towards the oocyte. The formation of female germ-line cysts equipped with cytophore and cells differentiated into oocyte and nurse cells matches the general pattern of oogenesis found in clitellates. In details, the ovary organization and oogenesis found in I. bifidus resembles the situation described in some representatives of Naidinae and Enchytraeidae.


Assuntos
Anelídeos/anatomia & histologia , Anelídeos/fisiologia , Oogênese , Ovário/fisiologia , Animais , Anelídeos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/ultraestrutura , Oócitos/citologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Vitelogênese
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(3): 652-656, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480540

RESUMO

Spontaneous ovulation has been identified in several wild felid species and domestic cats previously thought to undergo only induced ovulation. Two studies have assessed ovulation patterns in tigers (Panthera tigris) and have not found evidence of spontaneous ovulation in this species. However, uterine pathology typically associated with prolonged progesterone exposure has been identified in unbred tigers, suggesting spontaneous ovulation occurs. Ovaries from 47 tigers were reviewed with histologic examination. The presence or lack of active corpora lutea was documented and compared with social housing conditions for each animal. Social housing categories were as follows: female housed alone, female housed with other females, and female housed with at least one male. Active corpora lutea were identified in 66% (10/15) of females housed alone, 85% (6/7) of females housed with other females, and 58% of females housed with a male. A chi-squared test found the presence of active corpora lutea was independent of social housing condition. These results offer strong evidence of spontaneous ovulation in tigers. This finding suggests that a luteal control protocol with an early follicular inhibition agent may improve assisted reproduction efforts and supports spaying nonreproductive or postreproductive female tigers to reduce the rate of uterine infections.


Assuntos
Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovulação , Tigres/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/anatomia & histologia , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Ovário/fisiologia , Tigres/anatomia & histologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19668, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873164

RESUMO

Slow freezing (SF) is the reference method for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Vitrification (VT) constitutes an alternative but controversial method. This study compares SF and VT (open [VTo] and closed [VTc] systems) in terms of freezing damage and fertility restoration ability. In vitro analyses of C57Bl/6 SF or VTo-ovaries, immediately after thawing/warming or after culture (cult), revealed that event though follicular density was similar between all groups, nuclear density was decreased in VTo-ovaries compared to CT-ovaries (CT = 0.50 ± 0.012, SF = 0.41 ± 0.03 and VTo = 0.29 ± 0.044, p < 0.01). Apoptosis was higher in VTo-cult ovaries compared to SF-cult ovaries (p < 0.001) whereas follicular Bmp15 and Amh gene expression levels were decreased in the ovaries after culture, mostly after VTo (p < 0.001). Natural mating after auto-transplantation of SF, VTo and VTc-ovaries revealed that most mice recovered their oestrous cycle. Fertility was only restored with SF and VTo ovaries (SF: 68%; VTo: 63%; VTc: 0%; p < 0.001). Mice auto-transplanted with SF and VTo-ovaries achieved the highest number of pregnancies. In conclusion, in vitro, no differences between SF and VTo were evident immediately after thawing/warming but VTo ovaries displayed alterations in apoptosis and follicular specific proteins after culture. In vivo, SF and VTo ovary auto-transplantation fully restored fertility whereas with VTc-ovary auto-transplantation no pregnancies were achieved.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Congelamento , Ovário , Vitrificação , Animais , Apoptose , Autoenxertos , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovário/transplante , Gravidez
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 997-1004, Dec. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056922

RESUMO

The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1778) is one of the most studied species of elasmobranchs. However, the knowledge of their reproductive biology is still relatively rare, particularly in the western South Atlantic. This study aimed to describe the morphology of the uterus and the ovary of G. cirratum, based on specimens caught off at the Fortaleza/CE coast, northeast Brazil. Samples were collected from September 2012 to June 2013, from regular landings of artisanal fishing, which commercialize this species freely. A total of ten females were collected. The methodologies followed for analyzing the ovaries and uterus of those females included both macroscopic and histological analysis. G. cirratum has internal type ovary morphology, with invaginations of connective tissue, which defines compartments and separate oocyte groups in ovigerous lots. The epithelium lining the ovary changes from simple columnar ciliated in the area without ovigerous lots, which turns into a simple cubic epithelium in the coating portion of the epigonal organ where ovarian tissue is absent. The uterine mucosa has secretory cells denoted by Alcian Blue staining, indicating the production of mucopolysaccharides, even in immature individuals. This lecithotrophic shark has a uterine vascularized mucosa that is one characteristic of viviparous elasmobranch species.(AU)


O tubarão-lixa, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1778) é uma das espécies mais estudadas de elasmobrânquios. O conhecimento de sua biologia reprodutiva, no entanto, ainda é relativamente raro, particularmente no Oeste do Atlântico Sul. Este estudo objetivou a descrição morfológica do útero e ovário de G. cirratum, baseado em espécimes capturados na costa de Fortaleza/CE, no Nordeste do Brasil. Um total de dez fêmeas foi coletado de setembro de 2012 a junho de 2013, nos desembarques regulares da pesca artesanal, que comercializam essa espécie livremente. A metodologia foi de acordo com as analises macroscópica e histológica dos ovários e útero. G. cirratum tem o tipo de morfologia de ovário interno, com invaginações de tecido conjuntivo, que define compartimentos e separa grupos de oócitos em lotes ovígeros. O epitélio que reveste o ovário varia de epitélio simples colunar ciliado na área que não apresenta lotes ovígeros para epitélio simples cúbico na porção de revestimento do órgão epigonal, onde o tecido ovariano é ausente. A mucosa uterina possui células secretoras, evidenciadas pela coloração em Alcian Blue, indicando a produção de mucopolissacarídeos, mesmo em indivíduos imaturos. Este tubarão lecitotrófico apresenta a mucosa uterina vascularizada, sendo esta uma característica de espécies de elasmobrânquios vivíparos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia
18.
Curr Protoc Toxicol ; 82(1): e89, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765519

RESUMO

We describe a detailed protocol to establish a newborn rat whole ovary culture, which enables the study of direct effects (independent of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as benzophenone-3 (BP-3). This method is useful to understand changes in follicle formation, primordial to primary transition, and expression of regulatory molecules linked to these processes and also provides an alternative to animal models. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol 1: Rat ovarian surgery Basic Protocol 2: Whole organ/ovarian culture Basic Protocol 3: RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR Basic Protocol 4: Histological processing and staining.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Ovário/cirurgia , Ratos Wistar
19.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(12): 2583-2591, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Transplantation of ovarian tissue is a valuable method to rescue mouse strains with fertility problems and to revitalize archived strains. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (i) different sizes of transplanted ovary pieces on reproductive outcome, (ii) use of immunodeficient recipients to overcome the limitation of histocompatibility, and (iii) to compare different protocols for cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. METHODS: Halves, quarters, and eights of mouse ovaries were transplanted. Half ovaries from B6 donors were transferred into immunodeficient mice. Halves of ovaries were frozen according to four different protocols, thawed and transferred. RESULTS: Pregnancy rate after transplantation of ovarian tissue was high (90-100%) independent of the transplant size. Although, the average litter size was significantly lower for recipients of quarters and eights (4.4 and 4.6 vs. 6.5), the total number of offspring produced per donor ovary was higher compared with recipients of halves. Pregnancy rate of immunodeficient recipients was 40% (mean 4.7 offspring per litter). All four cryopreservation protocols used were able to preserve functionality of the ovarian tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of ovarian tissue smaller than halves resulted in reduced litter sizes. The distribution of ovarian tissue of one donor female to 4 or 8 recipients will therefore yield in a higher total number of offspring in a certain time period. The use of immunodeficient recipients is an option for non-histocompatible donors. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is generally feasible but the function of frozen-thawed ovary halves after transplantation differs depending on the freezing protocol used.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Ovário/transplante , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Histocompatibilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ovariectomia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/cirurgia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
20.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 68: 477-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598868

RESUMO

The subphylum Chelicerata represents one of the oldest groups among arthropods and comprises more than a dozen orders. Representatives of particular orders differ significantly in their external morphology, reproductive biology, behavior, and structure of internal organs, e.g. of the respiratory system. However, in almost all chelicerates (excluding some mites) the female gonads show a similar architecture. In this chapter, the chelicerate-type ovary structure and the course of oogenesis are described. Structural and functional diversities of the chelicerate-type ovary in non-matrotrophic and matrotrophic arachnids are also presented.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/citologia , Oogênese , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Animais , Aracnídeos/anatomia & histologia , Aracnídeos/citologia , Feminino
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