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1.
Gene ; 740: 144535, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156529

RESUMO

Many human epidemiology and animal model studies have reported that bisphenol A (BPA) exerts adverse effects on reproduction through different regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways in adults. In recent years, the exposure risk has increased for the general population, and little is known about how BPA affects ovarian development in adolescent animals and humans. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BPA exposure on ovarian development and the transcriptome in adolescent mice. Four-week-old ICR female mice were randomly divided into two groups and orally administered BPA (200 ng/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. The BPA and estrogen (E2) levels in sera from the two groups were subsequently determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). An immunohistochemical study showed that several obvious ovarian structural and developmental abnormalities were observed in the treatment group with changes in the E2 receptor gene and protein expression levels. A total of 4266 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the possible functions of these DEGs were explored by bioinformatics analyses based on the RNA-Seq data. The two most significant expression profiles were identified by Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) software, and the genes in these two profiles were enriched in actin filament-based processes, behaviour and membrane potential regulation according to Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that these DEGs are particularly involved in the endocrine system, the calcium and cAMP signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/sangue , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Fenóis/sangue , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058017

RESUMO

The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a critical role in egg development by mediating endocytosis of the major yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vg). Therefore, identifying the VgR of beneficial insects and its characterization could lead to the development of novel egg production strategies to enhance their commercial values. Here, we present the cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the VgR from an economically important eri silkworm, Samia ricini. The complete mRNA sequence was 6002 bp with an ORF of 5484 bp, encoding a protein of 1827 amino acids. Sequence analyses revealed that the SrVgR contained all of the conservative structural motifs characteristics of LDLR family members. The SrVgR was specifically expressed in the ovary, and the mRNA level increased steadily in pupal stages, reached its peak on day 9, and then declined to a bare minimum in adults. RNA interference (RNAi) clearly reduced the VgR transcript levels, disrupted the ovarian development resulting in malformed ovarioles and abnormal development of eggs. Taken together, these data provide conclusive evidence for the essential roles of VgR in insect reproduction.


Assuntos
Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
3.
Gene ; 732: 144350, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935505

RESUMO

THO complex is a multisubunit family with a function in transcription and mRNA export. In the present study, transcripts of THO complex (thoc) were identified in developing ovary of common carp and their role during ovarian development and growth has been characterized for the first time in a teleost using expression profiling and transient siRNA silencing. Thoc expression revealed a spatiotemporal pattern in the gonads with high levels at 120 days post-hatch, with moderately high levels thereafter. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical localization revealed the presence of thoc3 in follicular layer of stage-III/IV oocytes. High levels of thoc3, thoc5, and thoc7 genes in the follicular layer suggest a possible role in ovarian growth. Reduced levels of serum estradiol-17ß and 17α, 20ß-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one after thoc3 transient silencing indicated differential action on steroidogenic enzyme, transcription factor, and growth factor genes. Furthermore, transient silencing of thoc3, in vivo and in vitro, downregulated ad4bp/sf1, amh, cyp19a1a, foxl2, hsd3b, hsd11b1, hsd20b, hsd17b1, rspo1, and vtg. Incidentally, gdf9 and igf1 were upregulated, while no change was seen in esr1/2, nanos, and vasa. These observations imply that thoc3 seems to regulate ovarian function including steroidogenesis, either directly or indirectly.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Estradiol/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano , Ovário/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Diferenciação Sexual
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910233

RESUMO

Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) cause profound psychological and reproductive consequences for the affected individuals, however, most are still unexplained at the molecular level. Here, we present a novel gene, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase 2 (HMGCS2), encoding a metabolic enzyme in the liver important for energy production from fatty acids, that shows an unusual expression pattern in developing fetal mouse gonads. Shortly after gonadal sex determination it is up-regulated in the developing testes following a very similar spatial and temporal pattern as the male-determining gene Sry in Sertoli cells before switching to ovarian enriched expression. To test if Hmgcs2 is important for gonad development in mammals, we pursued two lines of investigations. Firstly, we generated Hmgcs2-null mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and found that these mice had gonads that developed normally even on a sensitized background. Secondly, we screened 46,XY DSD patients with gonadal dysgenesis and identified two unrelated patients with a deletion and a deleterious missense variant in HMGCS2 respectively. However, both variants were heterozygous, suggesting that HMGCS2 might not be the causative gene. Analysis of a larger number of patients in the future might shed more light into the possible association of HMGCS2 with human gonadal development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal/genética , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Sintase/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal/patologia , Gônadas/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/patologia , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/patologia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109898, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711775

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a critical role in regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) through GABAA receptor (GABAAR). Nitric oxide (NO) production has correlation with GABA and regulates GnRH secretion. This study was performed to examine the mechanisms by which manganese (Mn) accelerate puberty onset involves GABAAR/NO pathway in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) in immature female rats. First, female rats received daily dose of MnCl2 0 (saline), 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg b.w by oral gavage during postnatal day (PND) 21-32. Animals administered with 10 mg/kg MnCl2 exhibited earlier puberty onset age and advanced ovary and uterus development than these in saline-treatment group. Furthermore, we found that decrease of GABAAR result in elevated production of nitric oxide synthase1 (NOS1), NO and GnRH in the POA-AH. Second, we recorded the neuronal spikes alternation after perfusion with GABAAR inhibitor bicuculline (BIC), GABAAR agonist isoguvacine (isog), and MnCl2 from the POA-AH in acute brain slices of PND21 rats. Spontaneous firing revealed a powerful GABAAR-mediated action on immature POA-AH and confirm that MnCl2 has a significant effect on GABAAR. Third, we revealed that decrease in NOS1 and NO production by treatment with isog-alone or isog+MnCl2 contribute to the decrease of GnRH in the POA-AH and a delayed puberty onset age compared to treatment with MnCl2-alone. Together, these results suggested that excessive exposure to MnCl2 stimulates NO production through decreased GABAAR in the POA-AH to advance puberty onset in immature female rats.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloretos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Compostos de Manganês , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Área Pré-Óptica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desmame
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124935, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563720

RESUMO

Increasing studies have established the toxic effects of BPA on development and reproduction in animals. In present study, we investigated epigenetic effects on the transcription of several ovarian steroidogenic genes in rare minnows Gobiocypris rarus after BPA exposure at 15 µgL-1 for 21, 42 and 63 d. Results showed that short term BPA exposure (21 d) caused significant increase of both estradiol and testerone levels whereas long term exposure (63 d) led to significant decrease of them. The oocytes development was hindered after BPA exposure. BPA treatments for 21 and 42 d resulted in significant increase of genome DNA methylation in ovary while 63-d exposure caused marked decrease. The histone trimethylation levels (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) in the ovary were also disturbed by BPA. H3K9me3 was significantly decreased after 21 d whereas it was markedly increased after 42 and 63 d. The 42-d exposure caused significant decrease for H3K4me3. Meanwhile, 42- and 63-d BPA exposure led to significant decrease of H3K27me3. DNA methylation could involve in gene expression regulation of cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a after BPA exposure. After short (21 d) and long term (63 d) BPA exposure, the respective mRNA expression down-regulation and up-regulation of star, cyp11a1, and cyp17a1 were mediated by H3K9me3. This study suggests that epigenetic modulation including DNA and histone methylation could be responsible for the detrimental effects on ovary development upon BPA exposure in G. rarus. It is speculated that BPA exposures for short or long term duration could disturb the steroidogenesis in entirely different mechanisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(1): e21636, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612557

RESUMO

As a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) superfamily, vitellogenin (Vg) receptor (VgR) is responsible for the uptake of Vg into developing oocytes and is a potential target for pest control. Here, a full-length VgR complementary DNA (named as CsVgR) was isolated and characterized in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. The composite CsVgR gene contained an open reading frame of 5,484 bp encoding a protein of 1,827 amino acid residues. Structural analysis revealed that CsVgR contained two ligand-binding domains (LBDs) with four Class A (LDLRA ) repeats in LBD1 and seven in LBD2, which was structurally different from most non-Lepidopteran insect VgRs having five repeats in LBD1 and eight in LBD2. The developmental expression analysis showed that CsVgR messenger RNA expression was first detectable in 3-day-old pupae, sharply increased in newly emerged female adults, and reached a peak in 2-day-old female adults. Consistent with most other insects VgRs, CsVgR was exclusively expressed in the ovary. Notably, injection of dsCsVgR into late pupae resulted in fewer follicles in the ovarioles as well as reduced fecundity, suggesting a critical role of CsVgR in female reproduction. These results may contribute to the development of RNA interference-mediated disruption of reproduction as a control strategy of C. suppressalis.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Mariposas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
8.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 285: 113264, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469997

RESUMO

Thyroid hormone (TH) is involved in regulating the reproduction of vertebrates. Its physiological action in the target tissues is due to the conversion of TH by iodothyronine deiodinases. In this study, we aimed to clone and characterize type 2 (sdDio2) and type 3 (sdDio3) of the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, a tropical damselfish that undergoes active reproduction under long-day conditions, and to study the involvement of THs in the ovarian development of this species. When the cDNAs of sdDio2 and sdDio3 were partially cloned, they had deduced amino acid sequences of lengths 271 and 267, respectively, both of which were characterized by one selenocysteine residue. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that both genes are highly expressed in the whole brain, and sdDio2 and sdDio3 are highly transcribed in the liver and ovary, respectively. In situ hybridization analyses showed positive signals of sdDio2 and sdDio3 transcripts in the hypothalamic area of the brain. Little change in mRNA abundance of sdDio2 and sdDio3 in the brain was observed during the vitellogenic phases. It is assumed that simultaneous activation and inactivation of THs occur in this area because oral administration of triiodothyronine (T3), but not of thyroxine (T4), upregulated mRNA abundance of both genes in the brain. The transcript levels of sdDio2 in the liver and sdDio3 in the ovary increased as vitellogenesis progressed, suggesting that, through the metabolism of THs, sdDio2 and sdDio3 play a role in vitellogenin synthesis in the liver and yolk accumulation/E2 synthesis in the ovary. Taken together, these results suggest that iodothyronine deiodinases act as a driver for vitellogenesis in tropical damselfish by conversion of THs in certain peripheral tissues.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Perciformes/genética , Clima Tropical , Vitelogênese/genética , Animais , Feminino , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/administração & dosagem , Hormônios Tireóideos/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Vitelogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478781

RESUMO

D-Aspartate, aspartate racemase activity, and D-aspartate oxidase activity were detected in tissues from several types of starfish. Aspartate racemase activity in male testes of Patiria pectinifera was significantly elevated in the summer months of the breeding season compared with spring months. We also compared aspartate racemase activity with the gonad index and found that activity in individuals with a gonad index ≥6% was four-fold higher than that of individuals with a gonad index <6%. The ratio of the D-form of aspartate to total aspartate was approximately 25% in testes with a gonad index <6% and this increased to approximately 40% in testes with a gonad index ≥6%. However, such changes were not observed in female ovaries. Administration of D-aspartate into male starfish caused testicular growth. These results indicate the possible involvement of aspartate racemase and D-aspartate in testicular maturation in echinoderm starfish.


Assuntos
Isomerases de Aminoácido/metabolismo , Ácido D-Aspártico/metabolismo , Ácido D-Aspártico/farmacologia , Estrelas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Aspártico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Aspártico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido D-Aspártico/administração & dosagem , Estrona/administração & dosagem , Estrona/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/farmacologia
10.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(4): 524-529, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800179

RESUMO

The article presents the results of studies of the expression hormones-kisspeptins and their receptors in human ovarian tissues during ontogenesis of this organ. Kisspeptins regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the most important function of which is to launch the mechanism of puberty. Verification of kisspeptins and their receptors in ovarian tissue, suggests that they promote ovulation, as well as controls the expression of matrix metalloproteinases involved in tissue remodeling. The KISS1/KISS1R system begins be active in the period of prenatal development, so that already at week 22 a positive reaction with antibodies to kisspeptin was recorded in the ovarian tissue. It has been established that, at reproductive age, the expression of kisspeptins remains at a consistently high level, whereas during menopause, the expression of kisspeptins in the ovaries has its peak, which may be due to a compensatory mechanism for reducing the synthesis of ovarian estrogens. In postmenopausal period defined minimum values. Further studies of the metabolism of kisspeptins during menopause will contribute to the expansion of knowledge about their mechanism and the possibility of using them as targeted therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Kisspeptinas , Ovário , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226698, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856263

RESUMO

Estradiol is an important sex steroid hormone that is involved in the regulation of crustacean ovarian development. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of estradiol on ovarian development are largely unknown. This study performed transcriptome sequencing of ovary, hepatopancreas, brain ganglion, eyestalk, and mandibular organ of crabs after estradiol treatment (0.1µg g-1 crab weight). A total of 23, 806 genes were annotated, and 316, 1300, 669, 142, 383 genes were expressed differently in ovary, hepatopancreas, brain ganglion, eyestalk, and mandibular organ respectively. Differentially expressed gene enrichment analysis revealed several crucial pathways including protein digestion and absorption, pancreatic secretion, insect hormone biosynthesis, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 and signal transduction pathway. Through this study, some key genes in correlation with the ovarian development and nutrition metabolism were significantly affected by estradiol, such as vitelline membrane outer layer 1-like protein, heat shock protein 70, Wnt5, JHE-like carboxylesterase 1, cytochrome P302a1, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, neuropeptide F2, trypsin, carboxypeptidase B, pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase-like, and lipid storage droplet protein. Moreover, RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that expression of transcripts related to ovarian development (vitelline membrane outer layer 1-like protein and cytochrome P302a1) and nutrition metabolism (trypsin, glucose dehydrogenase and lipid storage droplet protein) were significantly affected by estradiol treatment. This study not only has identified relevant genes and several pathways that are involved in estradiol regulation on ovarian development of P. trituberculatus, but also provided new insight into the understanding of the molecular function mechanisms of estradiol in crustacean.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Braquiúros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745557

RESUMO

Juvenile hormone (JH) is responsible for repressing larval metamorphosis and inducing vitellogenesis and egg production in insects. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) is known to be an intracellular receptor and transducer of JH. We examined the role of Met in ovarian development in the rice pest Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). We first cloned and sequenced S. furcifera Met (SfMet). The SfMet protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family with a bHLH domain and two PAS domains (PAS-A and PAS-B). SfMet was expressed in all developmental stages and tissues but was most highly expressed in the ovaries of adult females. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) mediated silencing of SfMet substantially reduced the expression of SfVg, decreased yolk protein deposition and blocked oocyte maturation and ovarian development. These results demonstrate that SfMet plays a key role in female reproduction in S. furcifera and suggest that targeting this gene could be an effective way of controlling this pest.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10514-10529, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521363

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate the carryover effects of differing pre- and postweaning planes of nutrition on prepubertal reproductive tract development and postpubertal estrous cycle characteristics in Holstein heifers. Heifer calves (n = 36) were randomly assigned to receive either a low or a high (5 or 10 L of whole milk/d, respectively) preweaning diet from 1 to 7 wk of age and either a low or a high (70 or 85% of concentrate dry total mixed ration, respectively) postweaning diet from 11 to 25 wk of age. Starting at wk 26 of age, heifers were subjected to weekly transrectal ultrasonography until wk 33 or until first ovulation to assess endometrial thickness and ovarian follicular count and size in the prepubertal phase. In a subset of heifers (n = 28), ovarian ultrasonography continued weekly until at least the second ovulation was confirmed; thereafter, ovarian dynamics (through ultrasonography) and blood progesterone (P4) were assessed every 2 d throughout 1 complete estrous cycle in the postpubertal phase. In the prepubertal phase, endometrial thickness (12.0 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.3 mm) and largest follicle size (11.8 ± 0.3 vs. 10.9 ± 0.2 mm) were greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet. Furthermore, the number of class 2 (6-9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high preweaning diet than in those fed the low preweaning diet (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1), whereas the number of class 3 (>9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1). In the postpubertal phase, overall corpus luteum and P4 dynamics did not differ among pre- or postweaning treatments; however, P4 at 4 d preceding luteolysis was lesser in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (6.1 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.4 ng/mL). In addition, compared with heifers fed the low postweaning diet, those fed the high postweaning diet had a greater number of antral follicles (31.4 ± 2.2 vs. 21.4 ± 2.3) and tended to have more class 3 follicles (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 2.7 ± 0.3). Results indicate positive carryover effects of increasing the preweaning plane of nutrition from 5 to 10 L of whole milk/d on prepubertal follicular growth in Holstein heifers. Furthermore, an increased postweaning plane of nutrition (85 vs. 70% of concentrate dry total mixed ration) advanced reproductive development through greater endometrial thickness and follicular growth in the prepubertal phase and increased the population of antral follicles in the postpubertal estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Lúteo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estado Nutricional , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Progesterona/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
14.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(12): 2790-2804, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418797

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma proteins are eukaryotic transcriptional corepressors that play central roles in cell cycle control, among other functions. Although most metazoan genomes encode a single retinoblastoma protein, gene duplications have occurred at least twice: in the vertebrate lineage, leading to Rb, p107, and p130, and in Drosophila, an ancestral Rbf1 gene and a derived Rbf2 gene. Structurally, Rbf1 resembles p107 and p130, and mutation of the gene is lethal. Rbf2 is more divergent and mutation does not lead to lethality. However, the retention of Rbf2 >60 My in Drosophila points to essential functions, which prior cell-based assays have been unable to elucidate. Here, using genomic approaches, we provide new insights on the function of Rbf2. Strikingly, we show that Rbf2 regulates a set of cell growth-related genes and can antagonize Rbf1 on specific genes. These unique properties have important implications for the fly; Rbf2 mutants show reduced egg laying, and lifespan is reduced in females and males. Structural alterations in conserved regions of Rbf2 gene suggest that it was sub- or neofunctionalized to develop specific regulatory specificity and activity. We define cis-regulatory features of Rbf2 target genes that allow preferential repression by this protein, indicating that it is not a weaker version of Rbf1 as previously thought. The specialization of retinoblastoma function in Drosophila may reflect a parallel evolution found in vertebrates, and raises the possibility that cell growth control is equally important to cell cycle function for this conserved family of transcriptional corepressors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 65, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399145

RESUMO

Kisspeptin and its G protein-coupled receptor KISS1R play key roles in mammalian reproduction due to their involvement in the onset of puberty and control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, recent studies have indicated a potential role of extra-hypothalamic kisspeptin in reproductive function. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the physiological significance of kisspeptin/KISS1R in the peripheral reproductive system (including the ovary, testis, uterus, and placenta) and the potential role of kisspeptin/KISS1R in reproductive diseases. A comprehensive understanding of the expression, function, and potential molecular mechanisms of kisspeptin/KISS1R in the peripheral reproductive system will contribute to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of reproductive diseases.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas/fisiologia , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovulação , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/genética , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/metabolismo , Espermatogênese , Testículo/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo
16.
Genetics ; 213(2): 529-553, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399485

RESUMO

Fetal mammalian testes secrete Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), which inhibits female reproductive tract (Müllerian duct) development. Amh also derives from mature mammalian ovarian follicles, which marks oocyte reserve and characterizes polycystic ovarian syndrome. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) lacks Müllerian ducts and the Amh receptor gene amhr2 but, curiously, retains amh To discover the roles of Amh in the absence of Müllerian ducts and the ancestral receptor gene, we made amh null alleles in zebrafish. Results showed that normal amh prevents female-biased sex ratios. Adult male amh mutants had enormous testes, half of which contained immature oocytes, demonstrating that Amh regulates male germ cell accumulation and inhibits oocyte development or survival. Mutant males formed sperm ducts and some produced a few offspring. Young female mutants laid a few fertile eggs, so they also had functional sex ducts. Older amh mutants accumulated nonvitellogenic follicles in exceedingly large but sterile ovaries, showing that Amh helps control ovarian follicle maturation and proliferation. RNA-sequencing data partitioned juveniles at 21 days postfertilization (dpf) into two groups that each contained mutant and wild-type fish. Group21-1 upregulated ovary genes compared to Group21-2, which were likely developing as males. By 35 dpf, transcriptomes distinguished males from females and, within each sex, mutants from wild types. In adult mutants, ovaries greatly underexpressed granulosa and theca genes, and testes underexpressed Leydig cell genes. These results show that ancestral Amh functions included development of the gonadal soma in ovaries and testes and regulation of gamete proliferation and maturation. A major gap in our understanding is the identity of the gene encoding a zebrafish Amh receptor; we show here that the loss of amhr2 is associated with the breakpoint of a chromosome rearrangement shared among cyprinid fishes.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Genitália Feminina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Feminino , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106122, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405473

RESUMO

The vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), also known as gonad-inhibiting hormone, is a neuropeptide hormone in crustaceans that belongs to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family peptide. There is regulation vitellogenesis by VIH during gonad maturation in crustaceans. A full-length Scylla olivacea VIH (Scyol-VIH) was identified through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame consists of 378 nucleotides, which encodes a 126-amino acid precursor protein, including a 22-residue signal peptide and a 103-amino acid mature peptide in which 6 highly conserved cysteine residues are present. There was expression of the Scyol-VIH gene in immature female Scylla olivacea in the eyestalk, brain and ventral nerve cord. The Scyol-VIH gene expression was localized to the eyestalk X-organ, brain neuronal clusters 6 and 11, and in multiple neuronal clusters of the ventral nerve cord. The relative abundance of Scyol-VIH mRNA transcript in the eyestalk was relatively greater in immature stage females, then decreased as ovarian maturation progressed. Furthermore, eyestalk Scyol-VIH increased after dopamine (5 µg/g BW) injection. The present research provides fundamental information about Scyol-VIH and its potential effect in controlling reproduction.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/fisiologia , Dopamina/farmacologia , Hormônios de Invertebrado/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Braquiúros/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios de Invertebrado/genética , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Serotonina/farmacologia , Serotoninérgicos/administração & dosagem , Serotoninérgicos/farmacologia , Maturidade Sexual , Espiperona/administração & dosagem , Espiperona/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109544, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400720

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke can affect female reproductive health by causing follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction. Third-hand smoke has received increasing attention as a public health issue. However, the effects of third-hand smoke on the female reproductive system, particularly the ovaries, remain unclear. 1-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-4-butanal (NNA) can be used as a biomarker of third-hand smoke. We studied the in vivo toxic effects of NNA on mice ovaries and offspring development. Three-week-old premature female mice were exposed to NNA at two different concentrations (0.075 µg/kg and 0.15 µg/kg body weight) and tap water (blank control) and diluted dimethylsulfoxide (solvent control) for 30 days. We found that oral administration of NNA (0.075 µg/kg and 0.15 µg/kg) significantly reduced ovary weight (the 0.15 µg/kg group was reduced to 18.69% ±â€¯0.89%) and ovarian follicle number (reduced by about 30%) (p < 0.05). Consumption of 0.15 µg/kg NNA reduced the survival rate of superovulated oocytes from 91.36% to 60.55% (p < 0.05). In addition, treated female mice in each group were mated with normal male mice to observe the effects of NNA on the F1 offspring, and during mating and lactation, all groups were given tap water. Two different concentrations of NNA exposure also significantly reduced body weight and impaired ear opening, tooth eruption and eye opening in F1 offspring, especially those exposed to 0.15 µg/kg NNA (p < 0.05). Our study suggested that NNA exposure had toxic effects on the reproductive health of female mice and their offspring. The results obtained may help evaluate the risks of third-hand smoke to women's reproductive health and to the health of their offspring.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Piridinas/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação , Masculino , Camundongos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Tabaco/química
19.
Reprod Toxicol ; 88: 91-128, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386883

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for wild type mice and mouse models of disease that may be more representative of human conditions but there is little information on neonatal and juvenile mouse anatomy. This project produces sound and comprehensive histology background data on the developing neonatal mouse at different time points from Day 0 until Day 28. The work describes optimal methods for tissue harvesting, fixation and processing from the neonatal and juvenile mice which can be used in routine toxicology studies. A review of the available literature revealed inconsistencies in the developmental milestones reported in the mouse. Although it is true that the sequence of events during the development is virtually the same in mice and rats, important developmental milestones in the mouse often happen earlier than in the rat, and these species should not be used interchangeably.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/anatomia & histologia , Vesícula Biliar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Grosso/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Grosso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Estômago/anatomia & histologia , Estômago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxicologia/normas , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10207-10213, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426637

RESUMO

Forchlorfenuron (FCF) is a synthetic plant cytokine-like growth regulator that is massively used in agriculture to increase fruit size and weight. There is an insufficiency of published data on the safety profile of FCF, especially as it is involved in ovarian function. In our study, a chronic toxicity study on FCF was conducted and designed by feeding at dosage levels of 0, 0.6, and 60 mg/kg body weight in Sprague-Dawley rats for 180 days. During the 180 day FCF administration, no biologically relevant changes were observed in the body weight, clinical signs, food consumption, organ weight, hematology, and clinical biochemistry of the tested animals. However, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations revealed the presence of severe hydrometra in the uterus and pathological changes in the ovaries. In addition, it was found that FCF inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) and H295R cells, as well as downregulated the expression of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 in estradiol and progesterone production, resulting in decreased steroidogenesis in GCs and H295R cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that FCF has potential adverse effects on the ovaries and on steroidogenesis.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/toxicidade , Piridinas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Aromatase/genética , Aromatase/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/patologia
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