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1.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127361, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947662

RESUMO

In female mammals, puberty and fertility are regulated by the synthesis of estradiol (E2) by the ovaries at the infantile stage and at the approach of puberty, a process which may be affected by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC)s acting through the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, there is no information on AhR-mediated regulation of ovarian estrogenic activity during these developmental periods. Here, we assessed in mouse models, the intrinsic and exogenous ligand-induced AhR action on E2 synthesis at the infantile stage (14 days postnatal (dpn)) and at the approach of puberty (28 dpn). Intrinsic AhR pathway became activated in the ovary at the approach of puberty, as suggested by the decreased intra-ovarian expression in prototypical and steroidogenesis-related AhR targets and E2 contents in Ahr knockout (Ahr-/-) mice versus Ahr+/+ mice exclusively at 28 dpn. Accordingly, AhR nuclear localization in granulosa cells, reflecting its activity in cells responsible for E2 synthesis, was much lower at 14 dpn than at 28 dpn in C57BL/6 mice. However, AhR signaling could be activated by exogenous ligands at both ages, as revealed by FICZ- and TCDD-induced Ahrr and Cyp1a1 expression in C57BL/6 mice. Nevertheless, TCDD impacted ovarian estrogenic activity only at 28 dpn. This age-related AhR action may be ligand-dependent, since FICZ had no effect on E2 synthesis at 28 dpn. In conclusion, AhR would not regulate ovarian estrogenic activity before the approach of puberty. Its activation by EDCs may be more detrimental to reproductive health at this stage than during infancy.


Assuntos
Ovário/fisiologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 175-179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816279

RESUMO

Malignancy may unfortunately present quite early in a woman's life. In the case of breast cancer, rescue of the breast cancer patient's life is the top priority, but after completion of the effective treatment , the question about the ability to accomplish a pregnancy arises. The treatment strategies in breast cancer patients include surgical interventions, chemotherapy , radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and other special types of mainly targeted biologic therapies. Under normal circumstances, surgery for breast cancer does not involve any intervention in the ovaries or the uterus. Thus, even after an extended operation, the anatomic integrity of the gynecological system is guaranteed, and fertility is unaffected.The chemotherapeutic factors that influence fertility are the drug category used, the total dose given, the patient's age at treatment , the drug combination and finally whether targeted therapy is used or not. Alkylating agents are considered to be the most toxic ones. In young breast cancer patients there is a trend to modify regimens to achieve less gonadotoxicity.Evidence regarding tamoxifen, the main used endocrine drug, is scarce and controversial on its direct effect on ovarian reserve. There are not enough studies on the impact of aromatase inhibitors on fertility. Also, HER2-directed agents have not yet demonstrated significant ovarian toxicity and there are scarce data on their effect on fertility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Preservação da Fertilidade , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiologia , Gravidez , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 110973, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781346

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) exerts a wide range of adverse effects on biological systems, including the reproductive organs in males and females. However, the mechanisms of As-induced reproductive toxicity are mostly obscure. Recently, we showed that autophagy is an essential route for As2O3-induced reprotoxicity through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-sperm (HPG-S) axis in pubertal and matured F1-male mice. However, the role of autophagy in As2O3- induced ovarian toxicity is mostly unknown. Hence, this study aimed to elucidate the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, and autophagic processes in the ovary of As-exposed female mice. For this purpose, mature female mice were challenged with 0, low (0.2), medium (2), and high (20 ppm) As2O3 from 35-days before mating till weaning their pups, and the F1- females from weaning until maturity. Then, all the mice were sacrificed, and oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial indices, electron microscopic evaluation of the ovaries, expression of autophagic-related genes and proteins, and autophagosome formation were assessed. It was shown that medium and high As2O3 doses were a potent inducer of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy in the ovary of F1-generation. A dose-dependent increment in the gene expression of PDK1, PI3K, TSC2, AMPK, ULK1, ATG13, Beclin1, ATG12, ATG5, LC3, P62, ATG3, ATG7, and p62, as well as protein expression of Beclin1, and LC3- I, II, was evident in the ovaries of the As-treated animals. Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of mTOR and Bcl-2 genes, and mTOR protein was detected with increasing doses of As, suggesting that As treatment-induced autophagy. Along with a dose-dependent increase in the number of MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles, transmission electron microscopy also confirmed more autophagosomes and injured mitochondria in medium and high As2O3 doses groups. As2O3 also negatively affected the mean body weight, litter size, organ coefficient, and stereological indices in female mice. Finally, in physiological conditions, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) leads to an increased level of autophagy in the oocyte when many oocytes were being lost. These findings indicated that an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system, mitochondrial impairment, and the autophagic process, through inhibition of mTOR, dependent and independent pathways, and Bcl-2, as well as activation of AMPK/PI3K/Beclin1/LC3 routes, could play a pivotal role in As-induced reproductive toxicity through ovarian dysfunction in females.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105557, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645606

RESUMO

Extensive studies have shown that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt testis differentiation and even cause feminization in vertebrates. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which estrogenic EDCs disrupt testis differentiation. Here, we employed Xenopus laevis, a model amphibian species sensitive to estrogenic EDCs, to explore the molecular and cellular events by which 17ß-estradiol (E2) disrupts testis differentiation and causes feminization. Following waterborne exposure to E2 from stage 45/46, genetically male X. laevis were confirmed to undergo testis differentiation inhibition and ovary differentiation activation at stages 52 and 53, ultimately displaying gonadal feminization at stage 66. Using a time-course RNA sequencing approach, we then identified thousands of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in genetically male gonad-mesonephros complexes at stages 48, 50 and 52 (the window for testis differentiation) between E2 treatment and the control. Enrichment analysis suggests alterations in cell proliferation, extracellular matrix, and cell motility following E2 exposure. Further verification by multiple methods demonstrated that E2 inhibited cell proliferation, disrupted extracellular matrix, and altered cell motility in the genetically male gonads compared with controls, implying that these events together contributed to testis differentiation disruptions and feminization in X. laevis. This study for the first time uncovered some of the early molecular and cellular events by which estrogen disrupts testicular differentiation and causes feminization in X. laevis. These new findings improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which estrogenic EDCs disrupt testicular differentiation in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/toxicidade , Feminização , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Feminização/induzido quimicamente , Feminização/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenopus laevis
5.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615454

RESUMO

Due to its unique properties, graphene oxide (GO) has potential for biomedical and electronic applications, however environmental contamination including aquatic ecosystem is inevitable. Moreover, potential risks of GO in aquatic life are inadequately explored. Present study was designed to evaluate GO as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) using the model Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). GO was injected intraperitoneally (25-200 µg/g) once to breeding pairs and continued pair breeding an additional 21 days. Eggs laid were analyzed for fecundity and the fertilized eggs were evaluated for developmental abnormalities including hatching. Histopathological evaluation of gonads, liver, and kidneys was made 21 days post-injection. LD50 was found to be sex-dependent. Fecundity tended to reduce in a dose-dependent manner during early post-injection days; however, the overall evaluation showed no significant difference. The hatchability of embryos was reduced significantly in the 200 µg/g group; edema (yolk and cardiovascular) and embryo-mortality remained unaltered. Histopathological assessment identified black particles, probably agglomerated GO, in the gonads of GO-treated fish. However, folliculogenesis in stromal compartments of ovary and the composition of germinal elements in testis remained almost unaltered. Moreover, granulosa and Leydig cells morphology did not indicate any significant EDC-related effects. Although liver and kidney histopathology did not show GO as an EDC, some GO-treated fish accumulated proteinaceous fluid in hepatic vessels and induced hyperplasia in interstitial lymphoid cells (HIL) located in kidneys. GO agglomerated in medaka gonads after 21-days post-injection. However, gonad histopathology including granulosa and Leydig cells alterations were associated with GO toxicity rather than EDC effects.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 39(3): 277-283, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525821

RESUMO

With the increasing incidence of premature ovarian failure (POF) seriously threaten the women's health. Whether cryptotanshinone decreased the granulosa cell apoptosis to improve the POF would be explored. POF mice were conducted with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The body weight and ovarian weight were recorded. The estrus was detected by vaginal smears. The pathological changes of ovarian were observed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. ELISA assay analyzed the levels of LH, FSH, AMH, E2 and AzpAB in mice serum. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, KI67 and PCNA in ovarian tissues was detected by Western blot analysis and KI67 expression was also determined by immunohistochemistry. The body weight and ovarian weight were decreased and the pathological results of ovarian were worsen in POF mice. The estrus was decreased in POF mice. The levels of LH, FSH and AzpAB were increased and the levels of AMH and E2 were decreased in POF mice serum. The expression of Bcl-2, KI67 and PCNA was decreased and Bax expression was increased in ovarian tissues of POF mice. Those changes affected by cyclophosphamide could be reversed by cryptotanshinone. Cryptotanshinone could decrease the granulosa cell apoptosis to restore ovarian function.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Camundongos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110826, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521368

RESUMO

As an effective feed additive in the livestock industry, olaquindox (OLA) has been widely used in domestic animal production. However, it is unclear whether OLA has negative effects on mammalian oocyte quality and fetal development. In this study, toxic effects of OLA were tested by intragastric gavage ICR mice with water, low-dose OLA (5 mg/kg/day), or high-dose OLA (60 mg/kg/day) for continuous 45 days. Results showed that high-dose OLA gavage severely affected the offspring birth and growth. Significantly, high-dose OLA impaired oocyte maturation and early embryo development, indicated by the decreased percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown, first polar body extrusion and blastocyst formation. Meanwhile, oxidative stress levels were increased in oocytes or ovaries, indexed by the increased levels of ROS, MDA, H2O2, NO, and decreased levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH-Rd. Furthermore, aberrant mitochondria distribution, defective spindle assembly, abnormal H3K4me2/H3K9me3 levels, increased DNA double-strand breaks and early apoptosis rate, were observed after high-dose OLA gavage. Taken together, our results for the first time illustrated that high-dose OLA gavage led to sub-fertility of females, which means that restricted utilization of OLA as feed additive should be considered.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinoxalinas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oócitos/patologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(6): e1007848, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598357

RESUMO

Contraceptive drugs intended for family planning are used by the majority of married or in-union women in almost all regions of the world. The two most prevalent types of hormones associated with contraception are synthetic estrogens and progestins. Hormonal based contraceptives contain a dose of a synthetic progesterone (progestin) or a combination of a progestin and a synthetic estrogen. In this study we use mathematical modeling to understand better how these contraceptive paradigms prevent ovulation, special focus is on understanding how changes in dose impact hormonal cycling. To explain this phenomenon, we added two autocrine mechanisms essential to achieve contraception within our previous menstrual cycle models. This new model predicts mean daily blood concentrations of key hormones during a contraceptive state achieved by administering progestins, synthetic estrogens, or a combined treatment. Model outputs are compared with data from two clinical trials: one for a progestin only treatment and one for a combined hormonal treatment. Results show that contraception can be achieved with synthetic estrogen, with progestin, and by combining the two hormones. An advantage of the combined treatment is that a contraceptive state can be obtained at a lower dose of each hormone. The model studied here is qualitative in nature, but can be coupled with a pharmacokinetic/pharamacodynamic (PKPD) model providing the ability to fit exogenous inputs to specific bioavailability and affinity. A model of this type may allow insight into a specific drug's effects, which has potential to be useful in the pre-clinical trial stage identifying the lowest dose required to achieve contraception.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Contracepção Hormonal , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to improved treatment, there is an increasing focus on the reproductive potential of survivors of childhood cancer. Cytotoxic chemotherapy accelerates the decline in the number of primordial follicles within the mammalian ovary at all ages, but effects on the developmental potential of remaining oocytes following prepubertal cancer treatment are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether cyclophosphamide (CY) exposure in the prepubertal period in female mice influences ovarian function and the functional competence of oocytes in adulthood. METHODS: This study used Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. Female mice were treated with 200 mg/kg CY on either postnatal day 14 (CY14), 21 (CY21) or 28 (CY28) i.e at a prepubertal and 2 young postpubertal ages. At 14 weeks of life, ovarian function, functional competence of oocytes, and embryo quality were assessed. RESULTS: The number of primordial follicles decreased significantly in CY14 and CY21 groups compared to control (p < 0.01). The number of oocytes from superovulated was 8.5 ± 1.4, 24.1 ± 2.9 and 26.8 ± 2.1 in CY14, CY21 and CY28 respectively which was significantly lower than control (50.2 ± 3.2; p < 0.001). In vitro culture of CY14 embryos demonstrated only 55.4% blastocyst formation (p < 0.0001) and reduced ability of inner cell mass (ICM) to proliferate in vitro (p < 0.05) at 120 and 216 h post insemination respectively. On the other hand, ICM proliferation was unaltered in 2 young postpubertal ages. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate long-term effects on the developmental competence of oocytes exposed to CY in early but not adult life. These data provide a mechanism whereby long-term fertility can be impaired after chemotherapy exposure, despite the continuing presence of follicles within the ovary, and support the need for fertility preservation in prepubertal girls before alkylating agent exposure.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Camundongos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102981, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485429

RESUMO

The topic of fertility preservation in patients with a lymphoproliferative disease offers new aspects of debate, due to the introduction of novel chemotherapeutic regimens and small molecules in the clinical landscape. Cancer related infertility is mostly dependent on gonadotoxic treatments and fertile female patients are today addressed to the oocyte cryopreservation or to ovarian cortex fragment cryopreservation. These methods present advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed in the present review, together with the options for male patients. The recent discovery of functional ovarian stem cells (OCSs) in woman ovarian cortex, opens new avenues offering a innovative procedure for fertility preservation through as model of regenerative medicine. Here, we review the gonadotoxic potential of "classical" chemotherapeutic treatments as well as of "novel" targeted therapies actually employed for lymphoproliferative neoplasms in young patients and revisit both the today available and future chances to preserve and restore fertility after the cancer healing.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Preservação da Fertilidade , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Criopreservação , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Masculino , Oócitos
13.
Maturitas ; 137: 1-6, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the significant improvement of the cure rate and survival rate of cancer patients, the survivors face quality-of-life problems, such as a significant decline in reproductive system development, ovarian reserves and function, and even fertility loss and early menopause. These problems are often highly associated with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in cancer treatment. However, there are no ideal treatment strategies at present. In our attempt to develop reagents and approaches for delaying ovarian aging and protecting chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury, we recently found that metformin may be the most promising drug to protect female malignant tumor patients from chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury. This trial aims to test whether administration of metformin during chemotherapy can protect the normal ovarian function of patients with early breast cancer. METHODS: This study is prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. Female patients with early breast cancer (N = 314) will be randomly assigned to two groups (placebo, metformin 2000 mg). Metformin will be administered during and after chemotherapy for patients with stage I-IIIa breast cancer. The primary outcome will be the menstruation recovery rate 12 months after chemotherapy, defined as recovery of menstruation twice in a row within 1 year. Patients will be followed up for 5 years to observe long-term ovarian function and prognosis, such as overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease-free survival (DFS). Quality of life and safety will also be assessed. DISCUSSION: Our research will provide a new treatment strategy for fertility protection, and clinical treatment guidance for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Ovariana , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407420

RESUMO

In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipocina/genética , Receptores de Adipocina/metabolismo , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tecais/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 199: 110675, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402895

RESUMO

An oral painless dietary therapy is also indispensable in the management of arsenic toxicity despite of its conventional painful therapeutic management. The present study focused on the management of arsenic mediated female reproductive dysfunctions by dietary therapy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Here, sodium arsenite was given at the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight orally for the first 8 day. Day 9 onwards up to day 16 these arsenicated rats were provided with NAC (250 mg/kg body weight) enriched basal diet once daily. Arsenic intoxicated group exhibited a comparable inactivation of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) due to oxidative stress in reproductive organs along with a simultaneous elevation of lipid peroxidation state and decline in non-protein soluble thiols (NPSH) level in female reproductive organs. Arsenic intoxication also accomplished with the up-regulation of inflammatory markers tumour necrosis factor (TNF α) and nuclear factor κB (NF κB). Pro-apoptotic Bax gene and p53 gene expressions were also raised due to arsenic intoxication while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression was suppressed. In fact, arsenication decreased the circulating level of vitamin B12 and folic acid. Dietary NAC supplementation significantly reversed back the activity of antioxidant enzymes in arsenite fed rats towards normalcy and also sustained the normal reproductive cyclicity, utero-ovarian histo-morphology and estradiol receptor α (ER-α) expression in these reproductive organs. Dietary NAC exerted its positive action against arsenic intoxication by up-regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression along with the suppression of pro-apoptotic Bax gene and p53 gene. Thus, dietary NAC also plays anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative role against arsenic toxicity. NAC also regulates the components (vitamin B12 and folic acid) of S-adenosylmethionine pool in the way of probable removal of arsenic from the system.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/patologia , Útero/fisiopatologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127105, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450357

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that waterborne fluoride exposure has adverse effects on the reproductive system of zebrafish. However, the underlying toxic mechanisms were still not clear. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of 0.787 (Control), 18.599, 36.832 mg/L of fluoride for 30 d and 60 d, and the effects of different doses of fluoride on ovary development, reproductive hormones, oogenesis, ROS content, antioxidant levels, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins in the ovaries of female zebrafish were analyzed. The results showed that ovarian weight and GSI were significantly decreased, FSH, LH and VTG levels were significantly reduced, the transcriptional profiles of oogenesis-related genes (tgfß1, bmp15, gdf9, mprα, mprß, ptg2ß) were remarkably altered, ROS levels was notably increased, the SOD, CAT, GPx activities and GSH content as well as their mRNA expressions were significantly decreased, MDA content was remarkably increased, the expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins (caspase3, caspase8, caspase9, Fas-L, Cytochrome C, Bax and Bcl-2) were significantly changed, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels were notably increased. Taken together, this study demonstrated that fluoride exposure significantly affected ovarian development, decreased the reproductive hormones, affected oogenesis, induced oxidative stress, caused apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in ovary of zebrafish. Indicating that oogenesis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were responsible for the impairment of ovarian development.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365144

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in gametogenesis, fertility and embryonic development. The current study investigated the effect of different doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/human chorionic gonadotrophin (PMSG/hCG) and repeated ovarian stimulation (OS) on the expression of the Mili, Miwi, Mael, Tdrd1, Tdrd9, qnd Mitopld genes, which have crucial roles in the biogenesis and function of piRNAs. Here, we found that after treatment with 7.5 I.U. PMSG/hCG and two repeated rounds of OS, both the mRNA and protein levels of Tdrd9, Tdrd1 and Mael showed the greatest decrease in the ovarian tissue, but the plasma E2 levels showed the strongest increases (p<0.05). However, we found that the Mitopld, Miwi and Mili gene levels were decreased significantly after treatment with 12.5 I.U. PMSG/hCG. Our results suggested that exogenous gonadotropin administration leads to a significant decrease in the expression of the Mili, Miwi, Mael, Tdrd1, Tdrd9 and Mitopld genes, which are critically important in the piRNA pathway, and the changes in the expression levels of Tdrd9, Tdrd1 and Mael may be associated with plasma E2 levels. New comprehensive studies are needed to reduce the potential effects of OS on the piRNA pathway, which silences transposable elements and maintains genome integrity, and to contribute to the safety of OS.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Estradiol/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonadotropinas/farmacologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Indução da Ovulação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1317-1324, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although cancer predominantly affects people at older ages, a substantial number of patients, like breast cancer patients, are diagnosed before they have completed their families or even before giving birth. Furthermore, cytotoxic chemotherapy may be required in addition to treat cancer survivors. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of oxytocin (OT) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced ovarian toxicity in rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. All rats were divided randomly into three groups. The control group (n = 6) received no treatment. The remaining 12 rats received a single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX. Half of the rats (n = 6) were treated with 1 mg/kg/day of saline, and the other half (n = 6) were treated with 160 µg/kg/day of OT for 21 days. Then, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and an ovariectomy was performed for histopathological examination. RESULTS: Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) levels were significantly lower in the MTX + OT group compared to the MTX + saline group (p = 0.000036 for MDA; p = 0.0044 for TGF-ß). AMH levels were also significantly higher in the MTX + OT group than in the MTX + saline group (p = 0.000036). The ovarian fibrosis percent was also notably lower in the MTX + OT group than in the MTX + saline group (p = 0.000036). CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, OT is a promising agent for ameliorating harmful effects of MTX on rat ovaries in an experimental model.


Assuntos
Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110595, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304918

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR) toxicity is quite common due to its widespread use in industry and due to the Maillard browning reaction that occurs in foods containing high concentrations of hydrocarbons subjected to high temperatures. This study aimed to elucidate the female reproductive toxicity of ACR in vivo. Fifty-day-old Wistar-Albino female rats were treated with different dosages of ACR (2.5, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and serum and ovary samples were collected for histological examination, hormone analysis, TUNEL analysis, and RT-PCR studies. We found that ACR acts by significantly reducing ovarian weight and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. In addition, ACR treatment led to pyknotic, heterochromatic characteristics and nuclear fragmentation, as evidenced by hematoxylin staining. The TUNEL assay revealed that granulosa cells were affected after the oral administration of ACR, leading to the apoptosis of follicles at different stages of growth. Compared with the control condition, high doses of ACR (50 mg/kg/day) significantly induced the overexpression of INSL3, CYP17a, IGF1, ESR1, ESR2, ATG5, ATG12 and LC3 in the ovary. Moreover, LC3 mRNA levels significantly increased with increasing doses of ACR (2.5, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day), suggesting that ACR treatment induced autophagy. In conclusion, ACR induced ovarian dysfunction by affecting steroid hormone release, increasing apoptosis and mRNA levels of autophagy-related genes. The eventual correlation between apoptotic granulosa cell death and autophagy needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/biossíntese , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/patologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324793

RESUMO

Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been the most common Salmonella serotype associated with foodborne infections in the last several years. Dietary applications of yeast-based preparations in feed have shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens augmenting SE control strategies. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a mannan-rich yeast cell wall-derived preparation (Actigen®) administered in feed at a rate of 400 g/ton on SE colonization in the cecum and internal organs of commercial layer chickens. Sixteen week-old layer pullets were orally challenged with a selected nalidixic acid resistant SE strain at a dose of 1.7×10^9 colony forming units (CFU) per bird. SE colonization was assessed by evaluating isolation rates from ovary and pooled liver/spleen samples as well as enumeration of SE in cecal pouches one week post-challenge. Recovery rates of SE from the ovaries of directly challenged birds receiving Actigen® were significantly lower (P <0.02) than those in directly challenged birds fed an unsupplemented control diet. Recovery rates of SE from pooled liver/spleen samples were not significantly different between Actigen®-treated pullets and controls (P = 0.22). Using direct plate count methods, cecal SE concentrations were 1 log10 lower (P <0.001) in challenged pullets in the Actigen®-supplemented group than in the challenged controls. The SE concentration distributions in the ceca were similar in groups testing positive and groups testing negative for SE in the ovaries and liver/spleens tissues. As a result, SE concentrations in the ceca could not be directly related to the occurrence or prevalence of SE in these tissues. In conclusion, Actigen® supplementation appears to decrease the prevalence of SE in ovarian tissue and concentrations of SE in cecal contents and may be useful as a tool for reducing the risk of eggshell contamination and transovarian transmission of SE in eggs.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Mananas/farmacologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ovário/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
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