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1.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 245-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981280

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of repeated immobilization stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in female rats. Methods: Forty female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=20) and experimental group (n=20). One group was fed normally, the other group was subjected to incremental load restraint stress. Brake stress once a day in the retainer (starting at 9: 00 a.m.), braking for 2 hours on the first day, increasing load by 0.5 hours a day for two weeks. Body weight, estrous cycle, sex hormone, organ coefficient, pathology and expression of related genes were detected to explore the harm of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Results: Repeated immobilization stress caused weight loss, prolonged estrous cycle, and changed the organ coefficient and morphology of ovaries and uterus. QPCR technique was used to detect the related genes. It was found that the expressions of gonadotropin releasing hormone, pituitary gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone mRNA were decreased significantly, while the expressions of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA were increased significantly. The expression of estrogen receptor mRNA in ovary and uterus was decreased significantly. Conclusion: Repeated immobilization stress may disrupt the estrous cycle by interfering with the endocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, thus damaging the gonadal and reproductive endocrine function of female animals.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipotálamo , Imobilização , Ovário , Hipófise , Hormônios Hipofisários , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Imobilização/fisiologia , Imobilização/psicologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1207: 463-466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671768

RESUMO

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common obesity-related reproductive disease in women of child-bearing age,which is usually accompanied with endocrine and metabolic abnormalities such as hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia. The abnormal reproductive function of PCOS is mainly characterized by the morphological and functional changes of ovary. Autophagy is involved in the maintenance of human ovarian physiological function as well as in the process of luteal degeneration, and affects the survival of granulosa cells. This chapter introduces the latest research progress of the relationship between autophagy and PCOS. How autophagy is involved in the occurrence and development of PCOS remains to be further studied.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Células da Granulosa , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(7): 717-20, 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of herb-separated moxibustion on dysmenorrhea in ovarian endometriosis. METHODS: A total of 54 patients with ovarian endometriosis dysmenorrhea were randomized into a herb-separated moxibustion group and a waiting-list group, 27 cases in each one (3 cases dropped off in the herb-separated moxibustion group, 4 cases dropped off in the waiting-list group). Herb-separated moxibustion was applied at hypogastrium and lumbosacral area for 30 min in the herb-separated moxibustion group, once a week for 3 months, and oral ibuprofen sustained-release capsule was given to relieve pain when necessary. Excepting giving ibuprofen sustained-release capsule when necessary, no more intervention was adopted in the waiting-list group. Before and after treatment and in 3 months follow-up, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, days of dysmenorrhea, total dose of oral painkiller were observed. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the VAS scores after tratment and in follow-up were decreased in the herb-separated moxibustion group (P<0.05), and were less than those in the waiting-list group (P<0.05); the days of dysmenorrhea and the total doses of oral painkiller after tratment and in follow-up were decreased in the herb-separated moxibustion group (P<0.05), and were less than those in the waiting-list group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Herb-separated moxibustion can effectively improve dysmenorrhea symptom and shorten dysmenorrhea days in patients with ovarian endometriosis.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/terapia , Endometriose/terapia , Moxibustão , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico
5.
Maturitas ; 137: 1-6, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the significant improvement of the cure rate and survival rate of cancer patients, the survivors face quality-of-life problems, such as a significant decline in reproductive system development, ovarian reserves and function, and even fertility loss and early menopause. These problems are often highly associated with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in cancer treatment. However, there are no ideal treatment strategies at present. In our attempt to develop reagents and approaches for delaying ovarian aging and protecting chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury, we recently found that metformin may be the most promising drug to protect female malignant tumor patients from chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury. This trial aims to test whether administration of metformin during chemotherapy can protect the normal ovarian function of patients with early breast cancer. METHODS: This study is prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. Female patients with early breast cancer (N = 314) will be randomly assigned to two groups (placebo, metformin 2000 mg). Metformin will be administered during and after chemotherapy for patients with stage I-IIIa breast cancer. The primary outcome will be the menstruation recovery rate 12 months after chemotherapy, defined as recovery of menstruation twice in a row within 1 year. Patients will be followed up for 5 years to observe long-term ovarian function and prognosis, such as overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease-free survival (DFS). Quality of life and safety will also be assessed. DISCUSSION: Our research will provide a new treatment strategy for fertility protection, and clinical treatment guidance for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Ovariana , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 199: 110675, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402895

RESUMO

An oral painless dietary therapy is also indispensable in the management of arsenic toxicity despite of its conventional painful therapeutic management. The present study focused on the management of arsenic mediated female reproductive dysfunctions by dietary therapy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Here, sodium arsenite was given at the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight orally for the first 8 day. Day 9 onwards up to day 16 these arsenicated rats were provided with NAC (250 mg/kg body weight) enriched basal diet once daily. Arsenic intoxicated group exhibited a comparable inactivation of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) due to oxidative stress in reproductive organs along with a simultaneous elevation of lipid peroxidation state and decline in non-protein soluble thiols (NPSH) level in female reproductive organs. Arsenic intoxication also accomplished with the up-regulation of inflammatory markers tumour necrosis factor (TNF α) and nuclear factor κB (NF κB). Pro-apoptotic Bax gene and p53 gene expressions were also raised due to arsenic intoxication while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression was suppressed. In fact, arsenication decreased the circulating level of vitamin B12 and folic acid. Dietary NAC supplementation significantly reversed back the activity of antioxidant enzymes in arsenite fed rats towards normalcy and also sustained the normal reproductive cyclicity, utero-ovarian histo-morphology and estradiol receptor α (ER-α) expression in these reproductive organs. Dietary NAC exerted its positive action against arsenic intoxication by up-regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression along with the suppression of pro-apoptotic Bax gene and p53 gene. Thus, dietary NAC also plays anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative role against arsenic toxicity. NAC also regulates the components (vitamin B12 and folic acid) of S-adenosylmethionine pool in the way of probable removal of arsenic from the system.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/patologia , Útero/fisiopatologia
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110595, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304918

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR) toxicity is quite common due to its widespread use in industry and due to the Maillard browning reaction that occurs in foods containing high concentrations of hydrocarbons subjected to high temperatures. This study aimed to elucidate the female reproductive toxicity of ACR in vivo. Fifty-day-old Wistar-Albino female rats were treated with different dosages of ACR (2.5, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and serum and ovary samples were collected for histological examination, hormone analysis, TUNEL analysis, and RT-PCR studies. We found that ACR acts by significantly reducing ovarian weight and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. In addition, ACR treatment led to pyknotic, heterochromatic characteristics and nuclear fragmentation, as evidenced by hematoxylin staining. The TUNEL assay revealed that granulosa cells were affected after the oral administration of ACR, leading to the apoptosis of follicles at different stages of growth. Compared with the control condition, high doses of ACR (50 mg/kg/day) significantly induced the overexpression of INSL3, CYP17a, IGF1, ESR1, ESR2, ATG5, ATG12 and LC3 in the ovary. Moreover, LC3 mRNA levels significantly increased with increasing doses of ACR (2.5, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day), suggesting that ACR treatment induced autophagy. In conclusion, ACR induced ovarian dysfunction by affecting steroid hormone release, increasing apoptosis and mRNA levels of autophagy-related genes. The eventual correlation between apoptotic granulosa cell death and autophagy needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/biossíntese , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/patologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
J Endocrinol ; 245(2): 281-289, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163914

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome involving both endocrine and metabolic disorders. Gut microbiota and the intestinal immune factor IL-22 play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the therapeutic role of IL-22 in high androgen-induced PCOS mice is not clear. We aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of IL-22 on the DHEA-induced PCOS mouse model and to explore the possible mechanism of IL-22 in regulating hyperandrogenism-associated PCOS. Insulin resistance levels and ovarian functions were investigated in DHEA-induced PCOS mice with or without additional IL-22 treatment. We found that IL-22 could reverse insulin resistance, disturbed estrous cycle, abnormal ovary morphology, and decreased embryo number in DHEA mice. Mechanistically, IL-22 upregulated the browning of white adipose tissue in DHEA mice. This study demonstrated that IL-22-associated browning of white adipose tissue regulated insulin sensitivity and ovarian functions in PCOS, suggesting that IL-22 may be of value for the treatment of PCOS with a hyperandrogenism phenotype.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Androgênios , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hiperandrogenismo/induzido quimicamente , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia
9.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 400-407.e1, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of lymphoma aggressiveness on ovarian response during fertility preservation treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated tertiary hospital. PATIENT(S): Women with lymphoma who underwent ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation in the period from 2009 to 2018. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Primary outcome: the number of mature oocytes; secondary outcomes: the number of retrieved oocytes, estradiol level, and number of follicles >14 mm on the day of oocyte maturation trigger. RESULT(S): Patients with stage I-II lymphoid neoplasms (localized disease) were compared with those with stage III-IV lymphomas (advanced disease). Women with favorable levels of biochemical prognostic markers were also compared with those with unfavorable levels. Women with favorable levels of biochemical prognostic markers (n = 74) had a higher number of mature oocytes compared with patients with unfavorable serum levels (n = 67): 11 (7.8-16) versus 9 (5-11), respectively. The number of mature oocytes was similar between patients with localized (n = 75) and advanced (n = 66) lymphomas. Women with unfavorable combination of stage and biochemical factors had lower number of mature oocytes compared to patients with favorable combination: 8 (5-10) versus 11 (7-16), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that favorable levels of biochemical markers as well as a combination of extent and biochemical parameters were statistically significantly associated with the result of over 10 mature oocytes. CONCLUSION(S): Highly-aggressive lymphoid neoplasms have a negative impact on ovarian function and response during fertility preservation treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/uso terapêutico , Preservação da Fertilidade , Linfoma/complicações , Recuperação de Oócitos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma/patologia , Linfoma/fisiopatologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1019-1027, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036959

RESUMO

To investigate the etiopathogenesis of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) against FLHS in laying hens, 144 healthy 90-day-old laying hens were randomly divided into 4 groups including control (Con) group, high-energy low-protein (HELP) group, RSV group, and HELP + RSV group, each of which contained 36 hens with 3 replicates. Birds in the 4 groups were fed a basal diet, HELP diet, basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg RSV, and HELP diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg RSV. The histopathology of the ovary lesions on day 120, egg production, antioxidative function, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines on days 40, 80, and 120 were determined. The lipid accumulation and hemorrhaging were more severe in the HELP group than those in the HELP + RSV group. The laying rate was markedly decreased in the HELP group compared with that in the Con and HELP + RSV groups. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the HELP group compared with those in the Con and HELP + RSV groups. The mRNA levels of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, SOD-1, and HO-1) were markedly increased (P < 0.05) in the HELP + RSV group compared with those in the HELP group. In addition, the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the HELP group compared with those in the Con and HELP + RSV groups. Collectively, these results indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the occurrence and development of FLHS in the ovaries of laying hens, but RSV effectively attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in hens with FLHS. Hence, RSV can be used as an effective feed additive to protect against FLHS.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Expressão Gênica , Hemorragia/veterinária , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 417-425.e1, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare live birth and multiple gestation in patients diagnosed with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination after ovarian stimulation (OS-IUI) with oral medications versus gonadotropins. DESIGN: Systemic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Patients undergoing OS-IUI for treatment of unexplained infertility. INTERVENTION(S): Clomiphene, letrozole, or gonadotropins for OS-IUI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth and multiple gestation. RESULT(S): Eight total trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria and comprised 2,989 patients undergoing 6,590 cycles. One study reported a significant increase in both live births and multiple gestations with the use of gonadotropins, two studies found an increased likelihood of live birth with the use of gonadotropins, and two studies found an increased risk of twins with gonadotropins. The relative risk of live birth in subjects receiving gonadotropins was 1.09. The relative risk of multiple gestation in subjects receiving gonadotropins was 1.06. Clinical pregnancy was higher in protocols with lax cancellation policies or higher gonadotropin doses, with subsequent increased relative risks of multiple gestations of 1.20 and 1.15, respectively. Singleton births per subject were similar between the two groups. The results did not change in per-protocol, per cycle, or fixed-effect model sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION(S): For every birth gained with the use of gonadotropins, a similar increased risk of multiple gestation occurs. The randomized data do not support the use of gonadotropin for OS-IUI in women with unexplained infertility. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Prospero CRD4201911998.


Assuntos
Clomifeno/administração & dosagem , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Gonadotropinas/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade/terapia , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Clomifeno/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/efeitos adversos , Gonadotropinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/etiologia , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Inseminação Artificial , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Indução da Ovulação/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 61(3): 369-392, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916619

RESUMO

Insecticides, a heterogeneous group of chemicals, are widely used in agriculture and household practices to avoid insect-inflicted damage. Extensive use of insecticides has contributed substantially to agricultural production and the prevention of deadly diseases by destroying their vectors. On the contrary, many of the insecticides are associated with several adverse health effects like neurological and psychological diseases, metabolic disorders, hormonal imbalance, and even cancer in non-target species, including humans. Reproduction, a very selective process that ensures the continuity of species, is affected to a greater extent by the rampant use of insecticides. In females, exposure to insecticides leads to reproductive incapacitation primarily through disturbances in ovarian physiology. Disturbed ovarian activities encompass the alterations in hormone synthesis, follicular maturation, ovulation process, and ovarian cycle, which eventually lead to decline in fertility, prolonged time-to-conceive, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects. Insecticide-induced ovarian toxicity is effectuated by endocrine disruption and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to suppression of antioxidant defense system, and upsurge of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, potentiates DNA damage and expression of apoptotic and inflammatory markers. Insecticide exposure, in part, is responsible for ovarian malfunctioning through disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The current article is focused on the adverse effects of insecticides on ovarian functioning, and consequently, on the reproductive efficacy of females. The possible strategies to combat insecticide-induced toxicity are also discussed in the latter part of this review. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 61:369-392, 2020. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Pragas , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 290: 113393, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982398

RESUMO

In the lacertid Podarcis siculus the reproductive cycle is typically biphasic, with alternate recrudescence (Spring and Fall) and resting (Summer and Winter) phases. This study aimed to shed some light on the role exerted by progesterone during the two recrudescence periods; to this purpose, exogenous progesterone was administered intraperitoneally and the effects on oogonial proliferation, oocyte recruitment, and follicle cells apoptosis were determined. The presence and distribution of progesterone receptors was also investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results indicate that progesterone would play different roles and follow different route of action in the two recrudescence periods thus confirming the complexity of the mechanisms controlling oogenesis in this species of vertebrate.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Recidiva , Estações do Ano
14.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 49(6): 785-793, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882430

RESUMO

Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia has a direct damaging effect on ovarian function. Despite its deadly impact on ovaries, the mechanism of this condition has not been fully elucidated. Glucose transporters are involved in glucose uptake and utilization. Many transporters have been detected in the ovaries, but their roles in diabetes-induced ovarian impairment are still unclear. In this study, the goal is to analyze glucose transporter expression in the ovarian follicles of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and determine their roles within ovarian function impairment. The ovarian function of a mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus was evaluated by observing its estrus cycle, follicular development, and ovulation. Subtypes of the glucose transporter (GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, SGLT1, and SGLT2), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phosphorylated AMPK (Thr172) were found to be simultaneously present in follicle cells. Compared with nondiabetic control mice, the diabetic mice showed a dysregulated estrus cycle and a significantly higher number of abnormal ova. Furthermore, the expression of multiple glucose transporters was lower than that of phosphorylated AMPK. Phosphorylated AMPK possessed more follicular granulosa cells and oocytes of diabetic mice than in those of the control mice. These results suggest that diabetes-induced hyperglycemia reduces the capability of ovarian follicle cells by downregulating glucose transporter expression, causing decreased glucose uptake and energy deprivation. This impact can potentially impair egg maturation and ovulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Feminino , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 3/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovulação , Fosforilação , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo
15.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 230, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: How to protect the ovarian function during radiotherapy is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the location of the transposed ovary and the ovarian dose in patients with cervical cancer received radical hysterectomy, ovarian transposition, and postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 150 young patients with cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy, intraoperative ovarian transposition, and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Association between location of the transposed ovaries and ovarian dose was evaluated. The transposed position of ovaries with a satisfactory dose was explored using a receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Patients' ovarian function was followed up 3 months and 1 year after radiotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 32/214 (15%) transposed ovaries were higher than the upper boundary of the planning target volume (PTV). The optimum cutoff value of > 1.12 cm above the iliac crest plane was significantly associated with ovaries above the upper PTV boundary. When the ovaries were below the upper boundary of PTV, the optimum cutoff value of transverse distance > 3.265 cm between the ovary and PTV was significantly associated with ovarian max dose (Dmax) ≤ 4Gy, and the optimum cutoff value of transverse distance > 2.391 cm was significantly associated with ovarian Dmax≤5Gy. A total of 77 patients had received complete follow-up, and 56 patients (72.7%) showed preserved ovarian function 1 year after radiotherapy, which was significantly increased compared with 3 months (44.2%) after radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The location of transposed ovaries in patients with cervical cancer is significantly correlated with ovarian dose in adjuvant radiotherapy. We recommend transposition of ovaries > 1.12 cm higher than the iliac crest plane to obtain ovarian location above PTV. When the transposed ovary is below the upper boundary of PTV, ovarian Dmax ≤4Gy may be obtained when the transverse distance between the ovary and PTV was > 3.265 cm, and the ovarian Dmax≤5Gy may be obtained when the transverse distance was > 2.391 cm.


Assuntos
Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Ovário/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pélvicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Ovário/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/patologia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17901, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salpingectomy is routinely performed in ectopic pregnancy (EP). However, the effect of the surgery on the ovarian reserve and ovarian response in EP patients is still uncertain and has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to provide a comparison of the ovarian reserve and ovarian response between the pre-salpingectomy and post-salpingectomy in EP patients. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for all relevant articles published up to December 2018. We retrieved the basic information and data of the included studies. The data was analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). RESULTS: A total of 243 articles were extracted from the databases, and 7 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The ovarian reserve including anti-Mullerian hormone (inverse variance [IV] -0.7 [95% confidence interval [CI] -0.63, 0.49]), antral follicle count (IV 1.7 [95% CI -2.02, 5.42]) and basal follicle stimulating hormone (IV 0.02 [95% CI -0.63, 0.68]) was comparable between the pre-salpingectomy group and the post-salpingectomy group. The amount of gonadotropin was significantly higher in the post-salpingectomy group when compared with that in the pre-salpingectomy group (IV -212.65 [95% CI -383.59, -41.71]). There was no significant difference in the left parameters of the ovarian response including the duration of gonadotropin stimulation (IV -0.32 [95% CI -0.76, 0.12]), the estrogen level on the human chorionic gonadotropin triggering day (IV -4.12 [95% CI -236.27, -228.04]) and the number of retrieved oocytes (IV 0.35 [95% CI -0.76, 1.46]) between 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that salpingectomy has no negative effect on the ovarian reserve and ovarian response.


Assuntos
Reserva Ovariana , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Gravidez Ectópica/fisiopatologia , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Salpingectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 46(4): 607-624, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677745

RESUMO

Ovarian lesions are common and require a consistent approach to diagnosis and management for best patient outcomes. In the past 20 years, there has been an evolution in the approach to abnormal ovarian lesions, with increasing emphasis on reducing surgery for benign disease, standardizing terminology, assessing risk of malignancy through use of evidence-based scoring systems, and triaging suspicious abnormalities to dedicated oncology centers. This article provides an evidence-based review of how these changes in diagnosis and management of ultrasound-detected abnormal ovarian lesions have occurred. Current recommended practices are summarized. The current literature on transvaginal screening for ovarian cancer also is reviewed and summarized.


Assuntos
Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/normas , Carcinogênese/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Cistos Ovarianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos Ovarianos/patologia , Cistos Ovarianos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Ovarianas/patologia , Doenças Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
18.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 816-826, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549680

RESUMO

Societal changes regarding the role of women have significant impacts on women's willingness and the timing of childbearing. Ovarian reserve in woman typically begins to decline at the age of 35, and it is primarily characterized by a reduction in the number of ovarian follicles and a decline in oocyte quality. The clinical diagnosis of ovarian insufficiency relies on multiple variables including changes of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, antral follicle count, menstruation and age. It is proven that ovarian cells demonstrate dysfunction associated with aging including mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening, impaired DNA repair, epigenetic changes and metabolic/energetic disorders. In this review, we introduce the clinical diagnosis and management of ovarian insufficiency. We mainly discuss the molecular mechanism and potential interventions. We are optimistic that this information and knowledge will inform the important decisions for women and society regarding childbearing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Folículo Ovariano , Reserva Ovariana
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 60-72, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520699

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a significant decrease in bile flow. The liver is the primary organ affected by cholestasis. Chronic cholestasis could entail to tissue fibrotic changes and liver cirrhosis. Other organs, including heart, kidneys, nervous system, skeletal muscles, as well as the reproductive system, might also be affected during cholestasis. Although the cholestasis-associated pathological and biochemical alterations in organs such as liver have been widely investigated, there is little information about complications such as cholestasis-induced reproductive toxicity. The current study aimed to evaluate the pathologic effects of cholestasis on reproductive organs in both male and female animals. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. Markers of reproductive toxicity, including serum hormonal changes, tissue histopathological alterations, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and markers of mitochondrial impairment, were evaluated. Increased serum markers of liver injury and elevated level of cytotoxic molecules such as bile acids and bilirubin were evident in BDL animals. On the other hand, the serum level of hormones such as testosterone was suppressed in BDL rats. Significant histopathological alterations were also evident in the testis and ovary of BDL animals. A significant increase in oxidative stress markers, including ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and depleted glutathione and antioxidant reservoirs were also detected in BDL rats. Moreover, mitochondrial depolarization decreased dehydrogenases activity, and depleted ATP content was detected in sperm isolated from the BDL group. These data indicate that cholestasis-associated reproductive toxicity in male and female rats is restrictedly coupled with severe oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Reprodução , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ligadura , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Carbonilação Proteica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia
20.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 67, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420039

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hormonal disorder of premenopausal women worldwide and is characterized by reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. The clinical manifestations of PCOS include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, ovarian polycystic changes, and infertility. Women with PCOS are at an increased risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes; me\tabolic syndrome; cardiovascular events, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia; gynecological diseases, including infertility, endometrial dysplasia, endometrial cancer, and ovarian malignant tumors; pregnancy complications, such as premature birth, low birthweight, and eclampsia; and emotional and mental disorders in the future. Although numerous studies have focused on PCOS, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease remain unclear. Mitochondria play a key role in energy production, and mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level can affect systemic metabolic balance. The recent wide acceptance of functional mitochondrial disorders as a correlated factor of numerous diseases has led to the presupposition that abnormal mitochondrial metabolic markers are associated with PCOS. Studies conducted in the past few years have confirmed that increased oxidative stress is associated with the progression and related complications of PCOS and have proven the relationship between other mitochondrial dysfunctions and PCOS. Thus, this review aims to summarize and discuss previous and recent findings concerning the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and PCOS.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/metabolismo , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Pré-Menopausa/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
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