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1.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 51(1): 146-153, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a hackneyed chronic inflammatory disease of the airway. Chryseriol (CSR) is a kind of flavonoid, and has the effect of bronchiectasis, indicating its potential application for treating respiratory diseases. However, the functions of CSR in asthma have not been reported till now. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The histopathologic changes of the lung tissues were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The cell apoptosis was identified through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay. Total numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages were assessed under microscope. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay. The airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) was evaluated by the whole body plethysmography. The levels of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione in lung homogenates were confirmed by using corresponding commercial kits. The protein expressions were examined by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The ovalbumin (OVA) was utilized to establish asthma mouse model. At first, it was revealed that CSR treatment reduced lung injury in OVA-stimulated mice. Moreover, cell apoptosis was enhanced after OVA stimulation but was attenuated by CSR treatment. In addition, CSR treatment decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the production of inflammatory factors in OVA-treated mice. Further investigations demonstrated that CSR treatment relieved AHR in OVA-stimulated mice. The oxidative stress was strengthened in OVA-treated mice, but these effects were relieved by CSR treatment. Lastly, it was discovered that CSR treatment retarded nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathways in OVA-triggered asthma mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings proved that CSR attenuated the progression of OVA-induced asthma in mice through inhibiting NF-κB/HIF-1α and MAPK/STAT1 pathways. This work might highlight the functions of CSR in the treatment of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Flavonas , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória , Animais , Camundongos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Fator de Transcrição STAT1 , Flavonas/farmacologia
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(21): 5872-5881, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472006

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of Maxing Shigan Decoction(MXSGD) and its disassembled prescriptions against the airway inflammation in respiratory syncytial virus(RSV)-aggravated asthma and the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1(TRPV1). To be specific, ovalbumin(OVA) and RSV were used to induce aggravated asthma in mice(female, C57BL/6). Then the model mice were intervened by MXSGD and the disassembled prescriptions. The eosinophil(EOS) in peripheral blood, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF), enhanced pause(Penh) variation, and lung pathological damage in each group were observed, and the changes of interleukin(IL)-4, IL-13, substance P(SP), and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in BALF were mea-sured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein of TRPV1 in mouse lung tissue. In the in vitro experiment, 16 HBE cells were stimulated with IL-4 and RSV. Then the changes of TRPV1 expression after the intervention with the serum containing MXSGD and its disassembled prescriptions were observed. Besides, the intracellular Ca~(2+) level after the stimulation with TRPV1 agonist was evaluated. The results showed that the mice in the model group had obvious asthma phenotype, the levels of various inflammatory cells in the peripheral blood and BALF and Penh were significantly increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the lung tissue was severely damaged compared with the control group. Compared with the model group, the levels of EOS in the peripheral blood and BALF were significantly decreased in the MXSGD group, the SG group and the MXC group(P<0.05, P<0.01). The levels of WBC and neutrophils in BALF were significantly decreased in the MXSGD group and SG group(P<0.01), the levels of neutrophils in BALF were decreased in the MXC group(P<0.05). The improvement effect of the MXGSD on the level of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood and BALF was better than that of two disassembled groups(P<0.05, P<0.01). After 50 mg·mL~(-1) acetylcholine chloride stimulation, the Penh values of the MXSGD group and the MXC group significantly decreased(P<0.01), and the Penh value of the SG group decreased(P<0.05). The levels of IL-4, IL-13, PGE2 and SP in BALF could be significantly decreased in the MXSGD group(P<0.05, P<0.01), the levels of IL-13 and PGE2 in BALF could be decreased in the MXC group(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the levels of IL-13, PGE2 and SP in BALF could be decreased in the SG group(P<0.05, P<0.01). MXSGD could down-regulate the protein and mRNA expression of TRPV1 in lung tissue(P<0.05, P<0.01). The serum containing MXSGD and its disassembled prescriptions could down-regulate TRPV1 expression in 16 HBE cells stimulated by IL-4 combined with RSV and inhibit the inward flow of Ca~(2+) induced by TRPV1 agonist, especially the serum containing MXSGD which showed better effect than the serum containing disassembled ones(P<0.05). In vivo and in vitro experiments verified the protective effect of MXSGD and its disassembled prescriptions against airway inflammation in RSV-exacerbated asthma, the whole decoction thus possessed synergy in treating asthma, with better performance than the dissembled prescriptions. Different groups of prescription had made contributions in improving airway hyperresponsiveness, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. The mechanism is the likelihood that it regulates TRPV1 channel and levels of related inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Asma , Interleucina-13 , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Dinoprostona , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Prescrições , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/efeitos adversos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1024235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389706

RESUMO

The role of normal gut microbiota in asthma or ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma tolerance (OT) remains unclear. Here, we established mouse models of asthma and OT followed by 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment, to clear the gut microbiota. Antibiotic treatment was found to alleviate allergic asthma accompanied with a reduction of invariant natural killer (iNKT) cells. By RNA-seq analysis, we found that ß-adrenergic receptor (ADRB) genes, including Adrb1, Adrb2, and Adrb3, were downregulated in asthmatic lungs, but these changes were reversed in OT lungs. Moreover, Adrb2 and Adrb3 were significantly upregulated in asthmatic lungs after antibiotic treatment. Surprisingly, blocking ADRB with propranolol relieved allergic asthma while reducing T helper 2 (Th2) and Treg cell numbers. Further analyses using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that the protein expression level of ADRB2 was higher in asthmatic lungs than that in the control and OT lungs. Notably, dendritic cells (DCs), especially the ADRB2+ DCs, were increased in asthmatic lungs compared to that in the control and OT lungs. In addition, ADRB2+ DCs were significantly reduced following the administration of the ADRB2-specific antagonist ICI118551. Our findings suggest that antibiotic treatment can alleviate OVA-induced allergic asthma via reducing the frequency of iNKT cells and function of ADRB2.


Assuntos
Asma , Células T Matadoras Naturais , Camundongos , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Desmame , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Asma/genética , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Células Matadoras Naturais
4.
Mol Omics ; 18(10): 957-966, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36278797

RESUMO

The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Shegan Mahuang Decoction (SMD) has been used for treating asthma with significant clinical efficacy, but its mechanism of action has not been well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the anti-asthma effects of SMD on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in rats and its potential mechanisms using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics combined with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data mining. The results showed that the administration of SMD significantly attenuated OVA-induced lung histopathological changes. OVA-induced elevation of the immunoglobulin (IgE) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels was also inhibited by SMD. A total of 28 significantly changed metabolites in plasma were selected from metabolomics analysis. After treatment with SMD, 24 of them were negatively regulated and the related metabolisms were involved in multiple metabolic pathways such as sphingolipid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained by GEO data mining. The integrated pathway analysis highlighted 11 signaling pathways that were associated with the anti-asthma effect of SMD. Among them, the metabolite-gene-pathway network showed that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway might be the most significant one. This study revealed that SMD exerted an anti-asthma effect against OVA-induced AHR via comprehensively modulating the sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and PPAR signaling, which indicated the synergistic effect of multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway of TCM in the treatment of the disease. This study expands our understanding of SMD in the treatment of asthma from a metabolomics perspective.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Ratos , Animais , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/efeitos adversos , Ácido Araquidônico/efeitos adversos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/efeitos adversos
5.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234854

RESUMO

Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the lung worldwide. There has been considerable progress in recent studies to treat and prevent allergic asthma, however, various side effects are still observed in clinical practice. Six-week-old male BALB/c mice were orally administered with either sword bean pod extracts (SBP; 100 or 300 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (DEX; 5 mg/kg) once daily over 3 weeks, followed by ovalbumin sensitization (OVA/Alum.; intraperitoneal administration, 50 µg/2 mg/per mouse). Scoring of lung inflammation was performed to observe pathological changes in response to SBP treatment compared to OVA/Alum.-induced lung injury. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were quantified in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue using ELISA and Western blot analyses. SBP treatment significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells, and release of histamine, immunoglobulin E, and leukotriene in serum and BALF. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of SBP was also assessed to analyze the inflammatory changes in the lung tissues. SBP markedly suppressed the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and the expression of key inflammatory proteins (e.g., TNF-α) and Th2 type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). SBP was effective in ameliorating the allergic inflammation against OVA/Alum.-induced asthma by suppressing pulmonary inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma , Pneumonia , Compostos de Alúmen , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Canavalia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histamina/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina E , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-5/efeitos adversos , Pulmão , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
6.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 183(12): 1231-1240, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to determine the role and mechanism of runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) in the development of asthma. METHODS: An asthma mouse model was constructed and validated by hematoxylin-eosin analysis of lung tissue and noninvasive enhanced pause (Penh) evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness. Then, the levels of Runx3 and interleukin (IL)-12 in peripheral blood and lung tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. By use Runx3+/- mice, the effect of Runx3 downregulation on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. After stimulated by different doses of IL-12, the expressions of Runx3, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3) in BEAS-2B cells were tested through Western blot and immunofluorescence. Subsequently, BEAS-2B cells treated with 20 ng/mL IL-12 were divided into control, Runx3 overexpression negative control, Runx3 overexpression, HIF-1α inhibitor, and Runx3 overexpression + HIF-1α agonist groups. The Western blot, immunofluorescence, and ELISA indicators were tested repeatedly. RESULTS: The increased number of inflammatory cells and Penh value confirmed the success of the asthma mouse model. IL-12 expression was significantly increased, and Runx3 was reduced in asthma mice compared with wild-type mice. Meanwhile, the level of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and IL-12, HIF-1α, NLRP3 in the lung were significantly elevated in Runx3+/- mice. With the increase of IL-12 concentration, Runx3 protein expression decreased, while HIF-1α and NLRP3 expression increased. Further mechanistic studies suggest that Runx3 ameliorates IL-12-induced BEAS-2B injury by inhibiting HIF-1α/NLRP3 pathway. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that IL-12 contributes to the development of asthma by targeting HIF-1α/NLRP3 pathway through Runx3, thus providing a novel strategy for asthma therapy.


Assuntos
Asma , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/análise , Interleucina-12/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-12/análise , Transdução de Sinais , Asma/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças
7.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 1800401, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36213326

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can deteriorate asthma by inducing persistent airway inflammation. Increasing evidence elucidated that pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in asthma. Conciliatory anti-allergic decoction (CAD) exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma; however, the effects and mechanisms of CAD in RSV-infected asthmatic mice have not yet been elucidated. The RSV-infected asthmatic mice model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 16HBE cell pyroptosis model were established, respectively. Pulmonary function, ELISA, and histopathologic analysis were performed to assess the airway inflammation and remodeling in mice with CAD treatment. Furthermore, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was conducted to identify the chemical compounds of high-dose CAD (30 g/kg). Cell viability and apoptosis of 16HBE cells were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Finally, the expression levels of apoptosis-, pyroptosis-, and TLR3/NLRP3/NF-κB/IRF3 signaling-related genes were measured with qRT-PCR or western blotting, respectively. Pulmonary function tests showed that CAD significantly ameliorated respiratory dysfunction, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation cell recruitment in BALF, pulmonary inflammation, collagen deposition, and cell death in lung tissues. CAD significantly decreased the content of TNF-α, IL-13, IL-4, IL-1ß and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), IL-17, IL-6, and OVA-specific IgE in serum and increased serum IFN-γ in asthma mice. The results of UPLC-Q-TOF/MS showed that high-dose CAD had 88 kinds of chemical components. In vitro, CAD-contained serum significantly suppressed LPS-induced 16HBE cell apoptosis. Additionally, CAD and CAD-contained serum attenuated the up-regulated expressions of Bax, Cleaved caspase-3, NLRP3, ASC, Cleaved caspase-1, GSDMD-N, IL-18, IL-1ß, TLR3, p-P65, p-IκBα, and IRF3 but increased Bcl-1 and GSDMD levels in the asthma mice and LPS-induced 16HBE cells, respectively. These results illustrated that CAD may have a potential role in improving airway inflammation and pyroptosis through inhibition of the TLR3/NLRP3/NF-κB/IRF3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos , Asma , Animais , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-5 , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Piroptose , Transdução de Sinais , Sincalida/metabolismo , Sincalida/farmacologia , Sincalida/uso terapêutico , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 930103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090987

RESUMO

Objective: To address the role of methyl-CpG-binding domain 2 (MBD2) in the pathogenesis of asthma and its potential as a target for the asthmatic therapy. Methods: Studies were conducted in asthmatic patients and macrophage-specific Mbd2 knockout mice to dissect the role of MBD2 in asthma pathogenesis. Additionally, RNAi-based therapy with Mbd2 siRNA-loaded liposomes was conducted in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation mouse model. Results: Asthmatic patients and mice challenged with OVA exhibited upregulated MBD2 expression in macrophages, especially in alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. In particular, macrophage-specific knockout of Mbd2 protected mice from OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation and suppressed the M2 program. Notably, intratracheal administration of liposomes carrying Mbd2 siRNA decreased the expression of Mbd2 and prevented OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice, as indicated by the attenuated airway inflammation and mucus production. Conclusions: The above data indicate that Mbd2 implicates in the pathogenesis of asthma predominantly by regulating the polarization of M2 macrophages, which supports that Mbd2 could be a viable target for treatment of asthma in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Asma , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Lipossomos , Macrófagos , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(18): 4996-5007, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164910

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate mechanism of "Ephedrae Herba-Descurainiae Semen Lepidii Semen" combination(MT) in the treatment of bronchial asthma based on network pharmacology and in vivo experiment, which is expected to lay a theoretical basis for clinical application of the combination. First, the potential targets of MT in the treatment of bronchial asthma were predicted based on network pharmacology, and the "Chinese medicine-active component-target-pathway-disease" network was constructed, followed by Gene Oncology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment of the potential targets. Molecular docking was used to determine the binding activity of key candidate active components to hub genes. Ovalbumin(OVA, intraperitoneal injection for sensitization and nebulization for excitation) was used to induce bronchial asthma in rats. Rats were classified into control group(CON), model group(M), dexamethasone group(DEX, 0.075 mg·kg~(-1)), and MT(1∶1.5) group. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE), Masson, and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining were performed to observe the effect of MT on pathological changes of lungs and trachea and goblet cell proliferation in asthma rats. The levels of transforming growth factor(TGF)-ß1, interleukin(IL)6, and IL10 in rat serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the mRNA and protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 8(MAPK8), cyclin D1(CCND1), IL6, epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3 K), and protein kinase B(Akt) by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Network pharmacology predicted that MAPK8, CCND1, IL6, and EGFR were the potential targets of MT in the treatment of asthma, which may be related to PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway. Quercetin and ß-sitosterol in MT acted on a lot of targets related to asthma, and molecular docking results showed that quercetin and ß-sitosterol had strong binding activity to MAPK, PI3 K, and Akt. In vivo experiment showed that MT could effectively alleviate the symptoms of OVA-induced asthma rats, improve the pathological changes of lung tissue, reduce the production of goblet cells, inhibit the inflammatory response of asthma rats, suppress the expression of MAPK8, CCND1, IL6, and EGFR, and regulate the PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, MT may relieve the symptoms and inhibit inflammation of asthma rats by regulating the PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway, and quercetin and ß-sitosterol are the candidate active components.


Assuntos
Asma , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclina D1 , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/efeitos adversos , Ephedra , Receptores ErbB , Hematoxilina/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Ácido Periódico/efeitos adversos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quercetina , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 242, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecklonia cava is an edible marine brown alga harvested from the ocean that is widely consumed in Asian countries as a health-promoting medicinal food The objective of the present study is to evaluate the anti-asthma mechanism of a new functional food produced by bioprocessing edible algae Ecklonia cava and shiitake Lentinula edodes mushroom mycelia and isolated fractions. METHODS: We used as series of methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, cell assays, and an in vivo mouse assay to evaluate the asthma-inhibitory effect of Ecklonia cava bioprocessed (fermented) with Lentinula edodes shiitake mushroom mycelium and its isolated fractions in mast cells and in orally fed mice. RESULTS: The treatments inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, suggesting anti-asthma effects in vitro. The in vitro anti-asthma effects in cells were confirmed in mice following the induction of asthma by alumina and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA). Oral administration of the bioprocessed Ecklonia cava and purified fractions suppressed the induction of asthma and was accompanied by the inhibition of inflammation- and immune-related substances, including eotaxin; thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP); OVA-specific IgE; leukotriene C4 (LTC4); prostaglandin D2 (PGD2); and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and other fluids and organs. Th2 cytokines were reduced and Th1 cytokines were restored in serum, suggesting the asthma-induced inhibitory effect is regulated by the balance of the Th1/Th2 immune response. Serum levels of IL-10, a regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine, were increased, further favoring reduced inflammation. Histology of lung tissues revealed that the treatment also reversed the thickening of the airway wall and the contraction and infiltration of bronchial and blood vessels and perialveolar inflammatory cells. The bioprocessed Ecklonia cava/mushroom mycelia new functional food showed the highest inhibition as compared with commercial algae and the fractions isolated from the bioprocessed product. CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro cell and in vivo mouse assays demonstrate the potential value of the new bioprocessed formulation as an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic combination of natural compounds against allergic asthma and might also ameliorate allergic manifestations of foods, drugs, and viral infections.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antialérgicos , Antiasmáticos , Asma , Feófitas , Cogumelos Shiitake , Óxido de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-10 , Leucotrieno C4/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Micélio , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Feófitas/metabolismo , Prostaglandina D2/efeitos adversos , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/efeitos adversos
11.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 50(5): 75-83, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous and complex chronic airway disease with a high incidence rate, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Although the anti-inflammatory effect of zeaxanthin has been demonstrated in various disease models, its explicit role in allergic asthma remains elusive. METHODS: An allergic asthma model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) stimulation in BALB/c nude mice. The pathological examination, collagen deposition and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in lung tissues were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), MASSON and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Besides, the effect of zeaxanthin on inflammation and oxidative stress was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and spectrophotometry measure. Moreover, the underlying mechanism was analyzed by detecting the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), p38, ß-catenin, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and JNK with western blot assays. RESULTS: The distinct infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the OVA-induced asthma mice model with significantly increased concentrations of immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin (p˂0.001), which were prominently reversed by zeaxanthin treatment (p˂0.001). In addition, zeaxanthin treatment decreased the OVA-induced collagen deposition and α-SMA expression. A similar inhibitory effect of zeaxanthin on the oxidative stress was also observed in the OVA-induced asthma mice model, as evidenced by the prominent decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and the remarkable increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST) and Glutathione (GSH) concentrations (p˂0.001). Moreover, zeaxanthin introduction markedly reduced the relative expressions of p-p38/p38, ß-catenin and p-JNK/JNK in the OVA-induced asthma mice model (p˂0.001), indicating that zeaxanthin suppressed the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/ß-catenin signaling pathway in the OVA-induced asthma mice model. CONCLUSIONS: Zeaxanthin attenuated OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice via modulating the p38 MAPK/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma , beta Catenina , Animais , Asma/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/complicações , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais , Zeaxantinas/efeitos adversos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
12.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 50(5): 75-83, sept. 2022. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208628

RESUMO

Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous and complex chronic airway disease with a high inci-dence rate, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Although the anti-inflammatory effect of zeaxanthin has been demonstrated in various disease models, its explicit role in allergic asthma remains elusive.Methods: An allergic asthma model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) stimulation in BALB/c nude mice. The pathological examination, collagen deposition and expression of α-smooth mus-cle actin (α-SMA) in lung tissues were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), MASSON and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Besides, the effect of zeaxanthin on inflam-mation and oxidative stress was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and spectrophotometry measure. Moreover, the underlying mechanism was analyzed by detect-ing the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), p38, β-catenin, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and JNK with western blot assays.Results: The distinct infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the OVA-induced asthma mice model with significantly increased concentra-tions of immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin (p˂0.0 01), which were prominently reversed by zeaxanthin treatment (p˂0.001). In addition, zeaxanthin treat-ment decreased the OVA-induced collagen deposition and α-SMA expression. A similar inhibi-tory effect of zeaxanthin on the oxidative stress was also observed in the OVA-induced asthma mice model, as evidenced by the prominent decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and the remarkable increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST) and Glutathione (GSH) concentrations (p˂0.001). Moreover, zeaxanthin introduction markedly reduced the relative expressions of p-p38/p38, β-catenin and p-JNK/JNK in the OVA-induced asthma mice model (p˂0.001) (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung diseases are characterized by airway inflammation and remodelling of the lung parenchyma that triggers considerable impairment of respiratory function. OBJECTIVE: In this study, two compounds belonging to the N-acylhydrazone class were evaluated, aiming to identify new therapeutic agents for pulmonary inflammatory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute toxicity of 2-cyano-N'-(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)- acetohydrazide (JR-12) and N'-benzylidene-2-cyano-3-phenylacrylohydrazide (JR09-Bz) was evaluated. Afterwards, they were tested in models of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and pleurisy, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to mucolytic activity. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The compounds did not show toxicity at the dose of 2,000 mg/kg, and no animal died. On OVA-induced pleurisy, animals treated with JR-12 or JR09-Bz at a dose of 10 mg/kg (orally) showed significant inhibition of the leukocyte infiltrate in the bronchoalveolar lavage by 62.5% and 61.5%, respectively, compared to the control group. The compounds JR-12 and JR09-Bz were also active in blocking the allergic asthmatic response triggered by OVA, reducing the leukocyte infiltrate by 73.1% and 69.8%, respectively. Histopathological changes and mast cell migration in treated animals with JR-12 or JR09-Bz were similar to treatment with the reference drugs dexamethasone and montelukast. JR-12 and JR09-Bz also reversed airway remodeling in animals on the bleomycin-induced fibrosis model compared to the control group. Furthermore, it was observed that N-arylhydrazone derivatives showed expectorant and mucolytic activities, increasing mucus secretion by 45.6% and 63.8% for JR-12 and JR09-Bz, respectively. CONCLUSION: Together, the results show that JR-12 and JR09-Bz showed promising activity against airway inflammation, as well as low toxicity.


Assuntos
Asma , Pleurisia , Pneumonia , Animais , Camundongos , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Expectorantes/efeitos adversos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/patologia , Alérgenos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona , Pleurisia/tratamento farmacológico , Pleurisia/patologia , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Citocinas
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113476, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977054

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic allergic respiratory disease with limited treatment options. Emerging findings indicate an important interaction between the gut microbiota and the lungs, and that the development of asthma causes changes in the gut environment. Hylocereus undatus flower (HUF) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of pulmonary and intestinal diseases. Our previous studies have demonstrated significant anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory activity, but the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. In the current study, we validated the potential therapeutic asthma properties of HUF in vivo using an ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma mouse model. We found that HUF treatment significantly reduced the key features of allergic asthma, including an elevated respiratory rate, inflammatory cell accumulation, airway inflammation, and the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. Histological analysis of mouse lungs showed that HUF attenuated lung inflammatory cell infiltration. Periodic acid-Schiff staining confirmed the reduced mucus secretion in lung mucosa, and Masson's staining confirmed the reduced collagen deposition in the lungs after HUF treatment. Western blot and immunohistochemistry confirmed that HUF increased lung SIRT1 and reduced p38MAPK, NF-κBp65, and caspase-1 proteins. 16 S rDNA sequencing showed that HUF improved the endostasis of the disrupted gut microbiota composition in asthmatic mice. Surprisingly, an inflammatory response was found in the gut of asthmatic mice, along with alterations in inflammation-associated SIRT1 and caspase-1 proteins, and HUF was able to ameliorate these lesions. In conclusion, these findings suggest that HUF may be a new drug candidate for the treatment of allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Caspases/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flores , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 243: 114005, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029577

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) can be widely used as a plasticizer, surfactant, antioxidant, textile printing, dyeing additive, and pesticide emulsifier. Animal studies have shown that NP aggravates ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR); however, the exact mechanism underlying its action has not yet been detailed. This study aimed to explore the aggravation of the AR inflammatory response following NP exposure and its possible mechanism. The AR mouse model was constructed using OVA. Under NP exposure, allergic nasal symptoms were observed, eosinophil infiltration was assessed by Sirius red staining, and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in nasal mucosa samples were detected using cytometric bead array. The mRNA levels of OX40/OX40L and GATA3 in nasal mucosa were detected by qPCR, and the expression levels of the TSLP and JAK1/2-STAT3 signaling pathway components were also identified. Our results suggest that NP exposure exacerbated allergic nasal symptoms and that eosinophils accumulated in nasal mucosa after OVA challenge. The levels of the typical T helper 2 cytokines, as well as the mRNA levels of OX40/OX40L and GATA3, were elevated in the nasal mucosa of OVA-challenged mice exposed to NP. In addition, NP exposure elevated the TSLP, TSLPR, IL-7R, p-JAK1, p-JAK2, and p-STAT3 levels in the nasal mucosa after OVA stimulation. Overall, the present study suggests NP can exacerbate OVA-induced AR inflammatory responses; furthermore, this aggravating effect of NP may be related to the TSLP-TSLPR/IL-7R and JAK1/2-STAT3 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Fenóis , Rinite Alérgica , Células Th2 , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulinas , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 2320-2329, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850571

RESUMO

Dimerized translationally controlled tumor protein (dTCTP) initiates a variety of allergic responses in mouse models and that dTCTP-binding peptide 2 (dTBP2) attenuates the allergic inflammation by targeting dTCTP. However, the usefulness of peptide-based drugs is often limited due to their short half-lives, rapid degradation, and high levels of clearance after systemic administration. In this study, we chemically conjugated dTBP2 with 10 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve its therapeutic potential. N-terminal mono-PEGylated dTBP2 (PEG-dTBP2) was characterized by in vitro bioactivity assay, pharmacokinetics study, and in vivo efficacy. When compared to the unmodified dTBP2, PEG-dTBP2 reduced proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 secretion in human bronchial cells by 10 to 15% and increased plasma half-life by approximately 2.5-fold in mice. This study specifically demonstrated that PEG-dTBP2 shows higher inhibitory action against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in mice compared to dTBP2. Importantly, PEG-dTBP2, when administered once at 1 mg/kg, significantly reduced the migration of inflammatory cells and the levels of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids as well as OVA-specific IgE levels in serum. In addition, the degree of goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus secretion were significantly attenuated in the PEG-dTBP2 group compared with the control group. These results suggest that PEG-dTBP2 can be considered a potential candidate drug for regulating allergic inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Proteína Tumoral 1 Controlada por Tradução , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico
17.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744915

RESUMO

Renifolin F is a prenylated chalcone isolated from Shuteria involucrata, a traditional minority ethnic medicine used to treat the respiratory diseases and asthma. Based on the effects of the original medicine plant, we established an in vivo mouse model of allergic asthma using ovalbumin (OVA) as an inducer to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Renifolin F. In the research, mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to establish an allergic asthma model to evaluate the effects of Renifolin F on allergic asthma. The airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) to methacholine, cytokine levels, ILC2s quantity and mircoRNA-155 expression were assessed. We discovered that Renifolin F attenuated AHR and airway inflammation in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model by inhibiting the regulation of ILC2s in the lung, thereby, reducing the upstream inflammatory cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP; the downstream inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 of ILC2s; and the co-stimulatory factors IL-2 and IL-7; as well as the expression of microRNA-155 in the lung. The findings suggest a therapeutic potential of Renifolin F on OVA-induced airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , MicroRNAs , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Chalcona/farmacologia , Chalcona/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Pulmão/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos
18.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(16): 1479-1488, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658632

RESUMO

Allergic asthma which is induced by ovalbumin (OVA) is a chronic airway inflammation disease. Isoorientin (Iso) is a natural C-glucosyl flavone with many biological properties. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Iso on OVA-induced allergic asthma. A total of 30 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, OVA group, Dex (dexamethasone, 10 mg/kg) group, low-dose Iso group (Iso-L, 25 mg/kg), and high-dose Iso group (Iso-H, 50 mg/kg). The serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for biochemical parameters, the lung tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Iso-L and Iso-H groups were significantly lower than that in model group (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were higher than that in model group (p < 0.05). Iso significantly ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness. Meanwhile, H&E staining revealed that mice treated with Iso resulted in the ameliorated inflammatory cell infiltration and a reduction in interstitial thickening. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 protein expression in Iso-L and Iso-H groups were enhanced over that in model group, while p-NF-κB-p65 and p-IκB-α protein expression was decreased (p < 0.05). Our research indicated that Iso alleviated the OVA-induced allergic asthma, and this effect can be explained by the modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB signaling pathway; thus, the results providing a therapeutic rationale for the treatment of Iso on allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Luteolina , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/uso terapêutico , Glutationa Peroxidase , Hematoxilina/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-5 , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Malondialdeído , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 853848, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711428

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling. MicroRNA (miRNA) has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the mechanisms of different miRNAs in asthma are complicated, and the mechanism of miRNA-182-5p in asthma is still unclear. Here, we aim to explore the mechanism of miRNA182-5p in asthma-related airway inflammation. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model was established. MiRNA Microarray Analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs in the asthma model. We found that the expression of miRNA-182-5p was significantly decreased in OVA-induced asthma. In vitro, IL-13 stimulation of BEAS-2B cells resulted in a significant up-regulation of NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4), accompanied by mitochondrial damage-induced apoptosis, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3)/IL-1ß activation, and reduced miRNA-182-5p. In contrast, overexpression of miRNA-182-5p significantly inhibited epithelial cell apoptosis and NLRP3/IL-1ß activation. In addition, we found that miRNA-182-5p could bind to the 3' untranscripted region of NOX4 mRNA and inhibit epithelial cell inflammation by reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. In vivo, miRNA-182-5p agomir treatment significantly reduced the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and down-regulated Th2 inflammatory factors, including IL-4, IL-5, and OVA induced IL-13. Meanwhile, miRNA-182-5p agomir reduced the peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell proliferation and collagen deposition. In summary, targeting miRNA-182-5p may provide a new strategy for the treatment of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , MicroRNAs , Animais , Asma/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/genética , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2506: 1-18, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771460

RESUMO

Aeroallergens are common inducers of asthma in humans and are widely used in experimental research to generate animal models of this disease. In this chapter, we describe four mouse models of aeroallergen-induced asthma. These models differ in type and number of allergens used, route and duration of allergen exposure, and utilization of an adjuvant, representing different mechanistic variants of asthma. In addition, we describe several basic methods that are commonly used in mechanistic studies of asthma in mice. These methods include tracheotomy and bronchoalveolar lavage, cytospin and morphologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and lung harvest and digestion for generation of single-cell suspension.


Assuntos
Asma , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos
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