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1.
Life Sci ; 241: 117120, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825792

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study explored the function and regulatory mechanism of High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in asthma. MAIN METHODS: OVA (ovalbumin)-induced asthmatic mice model and LPS-treated cellular model were established in this study. Airway inflammation was measured through detecting the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in serum and BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) by ELISA kits. Bioinformatics predictive analysis, ChIP assays, Luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting were used to explore the relation between HMGB1 and HSF1 (Heat shock factor 1). KEY FINDINGS: HMGB1 expression was increased in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Silencing HMGB1 attenuated the increasing of IgE, inflammatory factors (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), and airway hyperresponsiveness that induced by OVA. In addition, our study found that HSF1 directly bind with the HMGB1 promoter and negatively regulation of HMGB1. HSF-1 were upregulated in OVA-induced asthmatic mice, and knockdown of HSF1 aggravated the OVA-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in mice may through promoting the expression of HMGB1 and the activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signal pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of HMGB1 could be negatively regulated by HSF1, and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signal pathway was involved in HSF1/HMGB1-mediated regulation of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/etiologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/metabolismo , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
2.
Life Sci ; 241: 117172, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843529

RESUMO

AIMS: Allergic airway inflammation is one of the major pathological events involved in asthma, and dysregulation of regulatory T cells (Treg) plays a crucial role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. Here, we attempted to investigate the regulatory effects of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) on Tregs in allergic airway inflammation. MAIN METHODS: BAFF expression was analyzed by ELISA, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays. The levels of IL-4, TGF-ß, IL-2, and IL-10 were tested using ELISA kits. Flow cytometry was conducted to analyze the populations of CTLA4+ Foxp3+ Tregs. KEY FINDINGS: BAFF was found to be aberrantly expressed in sputum and lungs in patients with asthma as well as OVA sensitized mice. BAFF silencing by lentiviral BAFF shRNA reduced the number of eosinophils and levels of IL-4 in the BAL fluid, as well as the Fizz1 expression in the lungs of OVA mice. Additionally, the population of CTLA4+ Foxp3+ Tregs were significantly decreased in OVA mice and had a negative correlation to BAFF levels in asthmatic patients and OVA mice. BAFF silencing in vivo increased levels of CTLA4+ Foxp3+ Tregs and the secretion of IL-10, and improved the regulatory phenotype and suppressor function of Tregs in vitro. Furthermore, BAFF can affect Tregs generation by regulating the production of the pro-Treg cytokines IL-2 and TGF-ß. SIGNIFICANCE: BAFF has an inhibitory effect on the generation and suppressor function of Tregs by affecting pro-Tregs cytokines, thereby contributing to the development of allergic airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Fator Ativador de Células B/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Asma/etiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovalbumina/toxicidade
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 229-238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679310

RESUMO

Asthma has affected more than 300 million people worldwide and is considered one of the most debilitating global public health problems based on a recent statistical report from the Global Initiative for Asthma. Inflammation of the airways leads to the various interrelated mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity acting mutually with the epithelium of the respiratory organ. Fucoxanthin is an orange or brown pigment which is naturally found in various seaweeds. To the best of our knowledge, there are no scientific claims or evidence of the curative effects of fucoxanthin against asthma. Hence, this present research was designed to investigate the curative activity of fucoxanthin against ovalbumin-induced asthma in a mouse model. Fucoxanthin (50 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.001) antiasthma activity. It effectively decreased intracellular secretion of reactive oxygen species and increased antioxidant enzyme activity. Fucoxanthin also decreased inflammatory cytokine markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Because fucoxanthin showed effective antiasthma activity against ovalbumin-induced asthma in experimental animals, further research on this natural antioxidant could lead to development of a novel drug for the treatment of asthma in humans.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/imunologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Ovalbumina/toxicidade
4.
Life Sci ; 236: 116790, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626791

RESUMO

AIMS: Although the bulk of research into the biology of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors has focused on its role in the CNS, selective activation of these receptors in peripheral tissues can produce profound anti-inflammatory effects. We previously demonstrated that the small molecule 5-HT2 receptor agonist (R)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine [(R)-DOI] inhibits TNF-α-mediated proinflammatory signaling cascades and inflammation via 5-HT2A receptor activation and prevents the development of, and inflammation associated with, acute allergic asthma in a mouse ovalbumin (OVA) model. Here, we investigated the ability of (R)-DOI to reverse inflammation and symptoms associated with established asthma in a newly developed model of chronic asthma. METHODS: An 18-week ovalbumin challenge period was performed to generate persistent, chronic asthma in BALB/c mice. Four once daily intranasal treatments of (R)-DOI were administered one week after allergen cessation, with respiratory parameters being measured by whole-body plethysmography (WBP). Cytokine and chemokine levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in homogenized lung tissue, bronchoalveolar (BALF) fluid was analyzed for chemokine modulation by multiplex assays, and Periodic Acid-Schiff and Masson's Trichrome staining was performed to determine goblet cell infiltration and overall changes to lung morphology. KEY FINDINGS: 5-HT2 activation via (R)-DOI attenuates elevated airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, reduces pulmonary inflammation and mucus production, and reduces airway structural remodeling and collagen deposition by nearly 70%. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these data provide support for the therapeutic potential of (R)-DOI and 5-HT2 receptor activation for the treatment of asthma, and identifies (R)-DOI as a novel therapeutic compound against pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfetaminas/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Receptores 5-HT2 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/imunologia , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia
5.
Life Sci ; 238: 116953, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626793

RESUMO

AIMS: This study focused on investigating whether NS8593 reverses airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and the underlying mechanism. MAIN METHODS: ASM contraction in mouse tracheal rings and lung slices was measured. Currents mediated by voltage dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) and ACH-activated channels were measured using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in single tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs). Intracellular Ca2+ level and cell length were measured using an LSM 700 laser confocal microscope and a Zen 2010 software. Mouse respiratory system resistance (Rrs) was assessed using a FlexiVent FX system. KEY FINDINGS: High K+ (80 mM K+) and ACH induced ASM contraction in mouse tracheal rings and lung slices, which was partially relaxed by nifedipine (blocker of L-type VDCCs, LVDCCs), YM-58483 (blocker of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) and TRPC5 channels), respectively. However, the contraction was completely reversed by NS8593, whereas, slightly relaxed by formoterol. ACH activated inward currents, which displayed linear and reversed around 0 mV, indicating the currents were mediated by non-selective cation channels (NSCCs). Moreover, these currents were blocked by YM-58483. In addition, such currents were abolished by NS8593, implicating that NS8593 inhibits the same channels. Besides, NS8593 inhibited increases of intracellular Ca2+ and the associated cell shortening. Finally, NS8593 inhibited ACH-induced increases of mouse respirator system resistance (Rrs). SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that NS8593 inhibits LVDCCs and NSCCs, resulting in decreases of intracellular Ca2+ and then leading to ASM relaxation. These data suggest that NS8593 might be a new bronchodilator.


Assuntos
1-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , 1-Naftilamina/farmacologia , Animais , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/patologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/patologia , Ovalbumina/toxicidade
6.
Life Sci ; 236: 116901, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610206

RESUMO

AIMS: Allergic rhinitis is a global cause of disability, characterized by airway inflammation. Sumatriptan is a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5HT1B/1D) agonist used as a treatment for migraine headaches. Activation of 5HT1B/1D receptors can inhibit the release of neuropeptides and inhibit the inflammation cascades. This study investigated the effect of sumatriptan on ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis model in mice and the role of nitric oxide. METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal ovalbumin and challenged by intranasal ovalbumin. Mice received sumatriptan in doses 3, 10, 30 µg/kg intraperitoneally, 30 min before the last ovalbumin challenge. KEY FINDINGS: Intraperitoneal injection of sumatriptan significantly decreased the nasal scratching, IL-4 and serum IgE levels of allergic mice, but it increased IFNγ levels. Histopathological analysis showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly elevated in nasal mucosa of ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, while sumatriptan treatment significantly reduced the number of eosinophils. GR-127935, a selective 5-HT1B/1D-receptor antagonist, reversed the anti-allergic effects of sumatriptan. Acute administration of l-NAME, a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, along with sumatriptan attenuated the anti-allergic effects of sumatriptan but chronic administration of l-NAME did not affect the influences of sumatriptan. Furthermore, sumatriptan decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in allergic mice, but it did not change the concentration of eNOS protein. SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that sumatriptan administration is associated with anti-allergic effects which are through 5HT1B/1D receptors. Decrease in iNOS expression and changes in T-helper 1&2 cytokines levels may indicate the involvement of inducible NOS and inflammation.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Rinite Alérgica/prevenção & controle , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sumatriptana/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/patologia
7.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1138-1149, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427775

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-1R3 is the co-receptor in three signaling pathways that involve six cytokines of the IL-1 family (IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36ß and IL-36γ). In many diseases, multiple cytokines contribute to disease pathogenesis. For example, in asthma, both IL-33 and IL-1 are of major importance, as are IL-36 and IL-1 in psoriasis. We developed a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) to human IL-1R3 (MAB-hR3) and demonstrate here that this antibody specifically inhibits signaling via IL-1, IL-33 and IL-36 in vitro. Also, in three distinct in vivo models of disease (crystal-induced peritonitis, allergic airway inflammation and psoriasis), we found that targeting IL-1R3 with a single mAb to mouse IL-1R3 (MAB-mR3) significantly attenuated heterogeneous cytokine-driven inflammation and disease severity. We conclude that in diseases driven by multiple cytokines, a single antagonistic agent such as a mAb to IL-1R3 is a therapeutic option with considerable translational benefit.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Peritonite/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imiquimode/toxicidade , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-33/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/patologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/patologia , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Ácido Úrico/toxicidade
8.
Brain Behav ; 9(6): e01295, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway on olfactory mucosa function and apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in an allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. METHOD: Fifty-five BALB/c mice were used to establish AR models by ovalbumin, and their olfactory function was confirmed by the buried food pellet test. Then, 28 mice with hyposmia were selected. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, and normal saline (NS) were injected into mice with olfactory defects. The olfactory function, apoptosis of OSNs in olfactory mucosa, and the expression of the olfaction marker protein (OMP), p38MAPK, and p-p38MAPK were detected after the intervention. RESULT: SB203580 treatment significantly upregulated OMP expression and significantly improved the olfactory function of AR mice by reducing the percentage of apoptotic OSNs. In addition, SB203580 attenuated the activation of the p38MAPK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: SB203580 protected olfactory function in an AR mouse model. This protective effect may be associated with the antiapoptotic effects of SB203580 via the p38MAPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Irritantes/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/enzimologia , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 4927430, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073274

RESUMO

Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion. Curcumin possessed a potent anti-inflammatory property involved in the PPARγ-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. Then, the aim of the current study was to explore the value of curcumin in asthmatic airway inflammation and mucus secretion and its underlying mechanism. In vivo, mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) to induce chronic asthma. Airway inflammation and mucus secretion were analyzed. In vitro, BEAS-2B cells were obtained. MCP-1, MUC5AC, and PPARγ expression and the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity were measured in both the lungs and BEAS-2B cells. shRNA-PPARγ was used to knock down PPARγ expression. We found that OVA-induced airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in mice, OVA and IL-4-induced upregulation of MCP-1 and MUC5AC, suppression of PPARγ, and activation and translocation of NF-κB p65 were notably improved by curcumin both in vivo and in vitro. Our data also showed that these effects of curcumin were significantly abrogated by shRNA-PPARγ. Taken together, our results indicate that curcumin attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in mice and suppressed OVA- and IL-4-induced upregulation of MCP-1 and MUC5AC both in vivo and in vitro, most likely through a PPARγ-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-5/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 91, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchoconstriction and cough, a characteristic of the asthmatic response, leads to development of compressive stresses in the airway wall. We hypothesized that progressively pathological high mechanical stress could act on mechanosensitive cation channels, such as transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) and then contributes to airway remodeling. METHODS: We imitate the pathological airway pressure in vitro using cyclic stretch at 10 and 15% elongation. Ca2+ imaging was applied to measure the activity of TRPC1 after bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cyclic stretch for 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 h. To further clarify the function of channnel TRPC1 in the process of mechano-transduction in airway remodeling, the experiment in vivo was implemented. The TRPC1 siRNA and budesonide were applied separately to asthmatic models. The morphological changes were measured by HE and Massion method. The expression levels of TRPC1 were evaluated by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The protein expression level of IL-13, TGF-ß1 and MMP-9 in BALF were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The result showed that cyclic stretch for 15% elongation at 1.5 h could maximize the activity of TRPC1 channel. This influx in Ca2+ was blocked by TRPC1 siRNA. Higher TRPC1 expression was observed in the bronchial epithelial layer of ovalbumin induced asthmatic models. The knockdown of TRPC1 with TRPC1 siRNA was associated with a hampered airway remodeling process, such as decreased bronchial wall thickness and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia, a decreased ECM deposition area and inflammation infiltration around airway wall. Meantime, expression of IL-13, TGF-ß1 and MMP-9 in OVA+TRPC1 siRNA also showed reduced level. TRPC1 intervention treatment showed similar anti-remodeling therapeutic effect with budesonide. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that most TRPC1 channels expressed in bronchial epithelial cells mediate the mechanotransduction mechanism. TRPC1 inducing abnormal Ca2+ signal mediates receptor-stimulated and mechanical stimulus-induced airway remodeling. The inhibition of TRPC1 channel could produce similar therapeutic effect as glucocortisteroid to curb the development of asthmatic airway remodeling.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/fisiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPC/fisiologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Cobaias , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Pressão
11.
Phytomedicine ; 61: 152835, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Siraitia grosvenorii fruits are used in traditional medicine to treat cough, sore throat, bronchitis, and asthma. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of S. grosvenorii residual extract (SGRE) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice. METHODS: Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by systemic sensitization to OVA, followed by intratracheal, intraperitoneal, and aerosol allergen challenges. SGRE was orally administered for four weeks. We investigated the effects of SGRE on airway hyper-responsiveness, OVA-specific IgE production, histological analysis of lung and trachea, immune cell phenotyping, Th1/Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) fluid and splenocytes, and gene expression in the lung. RESULTS: SGRE ameliorated OVA-driven airway hyper-responsiveness, serum IgE production, and histopathological changes in the lung and trachea. SGRE reduced the total number of cells in the lung and BAL, the total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils in the lung and BAL, the absolute number of CD4+/CD69+ T cells in the lung, and the absolute number of CD4+/CD8+ T cells and CD11b+/Gr-1+ granulocytes in the lung and BAL. SGRE also reduced Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and increased the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in the BAL fluid and supernatant of splenocyte cultures. SGRE decreased the OVA-induced increase of IL-13, TARC, MUC5AC, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression in the lung. CONCLUSION: SGRE exerts anti-asthmatic effects via the inhibition of Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the increase of Th1 cytokines, suggesting that SGRE may be a potential therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation, such as asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Cucurbitaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucina-5AC/genética , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/patologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th17/patologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974772

RESUMO

Synthetic therapeutic drugs for asthma, a chronic airway inflammation characterised by strong eosinophil, mast cell, and lymphocyte infiltration, mucus hyper-production, and airway hyper-responsiveness, exhibit numerous side effects. Alternatively, the high antioxidant potential of palm oil phytonutrients, including vitamin E (tocotrienol-rich fractions; TRF) and carotene, may be beneficial for alleviating asthma. Here, we determined the therapeutic efficacy of TRF, carotene, and dexamethasone in ovalbumin-challenged allergic asthma in Brown Norway rats. Asthmatic symptoms fully developed within 8 days after the second sensitization, and were preserved throughout the time course via intranasal ovalbumin re-challenge. Asthmatic rats were then orally administered 30 mg/kg body weight TRF or carotene. TRF-treated animals exhibited reduced inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. TRF- and carotene-treated rats exhibited notable white blood cell reduction comparable to that from dexamethasone. TRF- and carotene-treatment also downregulated pro-inflammatory markers (IL-ß, IL-6, TNF-α), coincident with anti-inflammatory marker IL-4 and IL-13 upregulation. Treatment significantly reduced asthmatic rat plasma CRP and IgE, signifying improved systemic inflammation. Asthmatic lung histology displayed severe edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial wall, whereas treated animals retained healthy, normal-appearing lungs. The phytonutrients tocotrienol and carotene thus exhibit potential benefits for consumption as nutritional adjuncts in asthmatic disease.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Óleo de Palmeira/farmacologia , Tocotrienóis/farmacologia , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Ratos
14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 51, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845921

RESUMO

Agriculture exposures are associated with reducing the risk of allergy and asthma in early life; yet, repeated exposures later in life are associated with chronic bronchitis and obstructive pulmonary diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the airway inflammatory response to organic dust extract (ODE) in mice with established ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental asthma. C57BL/6 mice were either OVA sensitized/aerosol-exposed or saline (Sal) sensitized/aerosol-challenged. Both groups were then subsequently challenged once with intranasal saline or swine confinement ODE to obtain 4 treatment groups of Sal-Sal, Sal-ODE, OVA-Sal, and OVA-ODE. Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to methacholine, bronchiolar lavage fluid, lung tissues, and serum were collected. Intranasal inhalation of ODE in OVA-treated (asthmatic) mice (OVA-ODE) increased AHR and total cellular influx marked by elevated neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that populations of CD11chi dendritic cells (DC), CD3+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and NKp46+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) were increased in lavage fluid of OVA-ODE mice as compared to ODE or OVA alone. Alveolar macrophages, DC, and T cells were significantly increased with co-exposure to OVA-ODE as compared to OVA alone. Lung ILC2 and ILC3 were only increased in OVA-Sal mice. Cytokine/chemokine levels varied with exposure to OVA-ODE reflecting an additive mixture of the pro- and allergic-inflammatory profiles. Collectively, ODE increased airway inflammatory cells and chemotactic mediator release in allergic (OVA) sensitized mice to suggest that persons with allergy/asthma be identified and warned prior to the occupational exposure of potentially worsening airway disease.


Assuntos
Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/induzido quimicamente , Poeira , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Agricultura Orgânica , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Animais , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/imunologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/patologia , Galinhas , Poeira/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Suínos
15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 848: 55-61, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707957

RESUMO

Various studies have shown that flavones have several pharmacological activities including anti-allergy activities. However, the bioavailability of oral flavones is very low, and whether inhaled administration can improve efficacy in respiratory disease models is unclear. In the present study, the anti-allergic activities of inhaling 5,7-dimethoxy-3,4'-dihydroxyflavone (MHF), a synthetic flavonoid, was investigated by comparison with disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and nedocromil sodium (NS) in rat allergic models. In an anti-DNP-IgE-induced asthmatic model, inhaled MHF dose-dependently inhibited the increase in airway resistance after antigen challenge. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic model, inhaled MHF showed significant suppression of airway hyperresponsiveness; a decrease in eosinophil and neutrophil counts, IL-4, IL-5 and leukotriene D4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; a reduction in total IgE and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum; and suppression of eosinophil infiltration in lung tissue after antigen challenge. The efficacy of inhaled MHF was comparable to that of NS and DSCG. In conclusion, based on these findings, the report for the first time that that inhaled MHF may be a potential drug for the treatment of allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Antialérgicos/química , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 848: 30-38, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710547

RESUMO

The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) has been shown to attenuate allergic airway inflammation (AAI). To gain better understanding of mechanisms underlying this effect, the impact of rosiglitazone (RSG), a PPAR-γ agonist, on CD4+ effector (Teff) and Foxp3-expressing regulatory (Treg) T cells in a mouse model of allergic asthma was studied. Furthermore, we investigated whether the activation of PPAR-γ may directly affect IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells. RSG attenuated but did not prevent ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AAI, and this effect was PPAR-γ-dependent. RSG reduced but did not abolish the OVA-induced increase in the count of CD4+ Teff cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) and lungs, and this effect was PPAR-γ-dependent. RSG did not affect the absolute number of Treg cells in the MLNs and lungs of OVA-immunized mice. In vitro exposure of lung lymphocytes to RSG did not influence the percentage of IL-4-, IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells. Our results indicate that the impairment of clonal expansion of CD4+ Teff cells in the MLNs is involved in the anti-asthmatic properties of PPAR-γ agonists. Activation of PPAR-γ did not affect the recruitment of Treg cells to the MLNs and lungs nor did it induce their local generation. This indicates that Treg cells are not involved in producing the anti-asthmatic effect of PPAR-γ agonists. The results suggest that beneficial effects of PPAR-γ agonists in asthma treatment are not mediated through a direct inhibitory effect on IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 production by CD4+ Teff cells.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , PPAR gama/agonistas , Rosiglitazona/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Expressão Gênica , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(8): e1800720, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656830

RESUMO

SCOPE: Intestinal dysfunction consists of a defective barrier function, which allows the influx of luminal endotoxins, thus causing intestinal inflammation. Proanthocyanidins are natural bioactive compounds that could modulate intestinal dysfunction. This study analyzes the protective effects of proanthocyanidins in a rat model of intestinal dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the preventive effects of both high dietary (75 mg kg-1 body weight) and pharmacological (375 mg kg-1 body weight) oral doses of proanthocyanidins (GSPE), rat intestinal dysfunction is induced with LPS (i.p.). In vivo intestinal permeability (ovalbumin [OVA] assay) and systemic inflammation and endotoxemia (TNF-α and LPS plasma levels) are assessed. Intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress are determined using myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, respectively. Ileal gene expression of permeability/inflammatory genes is analyzed. LPS administration induces intestinal permeability, inflammation, and oxidative stress. GSPE normalizes in vivo OVA levels. In the small intestine, the GSPE treatment decreases MPO and COX-2 activities; modulates the ileum inflammatory and permeability proteins gene expression; and in the large intestine, prevents increase of ROS levels. CONCLUSIONS: Proanthocyanidins, at nutritional and pharmacological doses, prevents endotoxin-induced-intestinal inflammation, permeability, and oxidative stress in rats differentially in each intestinal section. Proanthocyanidins are nutritional-therapeutic novel candidates for preventing intestinal dysfunction.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gastroenterite/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenterite/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
18.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 576-596, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468675

RESUMO

The molecular mechanism of how airway inflammation develops is not fully understood. Withaferin A (WA) is a natural phytochemical isolated from the plant Withania somnifera. It is a well-investigated bioactive compound that possesses a variety of health-promoting effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, the effect of WA on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in mice was investigated. The results indicated that pre-treatment with WA inhibited OVA-induced lung injury and fibrosis progression in mice. Furthermore, WA significantly downregulated inflammatory cell infiltration into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the lung tissue specimens. Additionally, WA significantly suppressed transforming growth factor-b1 expression in lung tissues. WA also caused the downregulation of collagen I, collagen III, α-smooth muscle actin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, as well as SMADs and extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 inactivation. Notably, WA significantly reduced the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The results indicate that WA may be an effective novel candidate for the treatment of airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/patologia
19.
Benef Microbes ; 10(1): 55-67, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465441

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine whether probiotics, which suppressed the differentiation of splenic T cells into type 2 helper T (Th2) cells and induced into regulatory T cells in vitro, alleviate allergic rhinitis (AR) and gut microbiota disturbance. We isolated Bifidobacterium longum IM55 and Lactobacillus plantarum IM76 from human faecal microbiota and kimchi, respectively, and examined their effects on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR and gut microbiota disturbance in mice. Treatment with IM55, IM76, or their probiotic mixture (PM) significantly reduced OVA-induced allergic nasal symptoms and blood immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in mice. These also reduced OVA-induced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 levels in nasal tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) but increased OVA-suppressed IL-10 levels. Treatment with IM55, IM76, or PM reduced OVA-induced increase in the populations of mast cells, eosinophils, and Th2 cells and increased OVA-suppressed population of regulatory T cells in the BALF. Treatment with IM55, IM76, or PM also inhibited OVA-induced expression of IL-5 in lung and colon tissues and restored OVA-disturbed composition of gut microbiota Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. These results suggest that IM55 and IM67 can alleviate AR by restoring Th2/Treg imbalance and gut microbiota disturbance.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum/fisiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Probióticos/farmacologia , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Baço/imunologia
20.
Life Sci ; 218: 25-30, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092299

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play a critical role in transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-mediated fibrotic airway remodeling in asthma. Polydatin (PD) is a small natural molecule in Chinese medicine; it is isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and has antioxidative properties. In this study, we aimed to determine whether PD was protective against ROS-induced pulmonary fibrosis in asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used to induce asthma in a mouse model that was treated with or without PD. We also created nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) knockdown BEAS-2B cells and investigated whether PD reversed TGF-ß1-induced pulmonary epithelial cell EMT by promotion of Nrf2-mediated antioxidation. Immunofluorescence showed that ROS and TGF-ß1 expression was significantly increased in lung tissue from the OVA-induced asthma model. PD treatment inhibited activity of ROS and TGF-ß1. Immunohistochemistry showed that PD treatment decreased OVA-induced lung ROS, TGF-ß1 expression and fibroblasts. Western blotting showed that PD treatment reversed OVA-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX)1/4 expression by promoting Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 and NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)-1 expression. PD treatment suppressed OVA-induced EMT and lung fibroblast protein expression in lung tissue. Nrf2 downregulation suppressed the protective effect of PD by promoting TGF-ß1-induced ROS and EMT and accumulation of extracellular-matrix-related protein. All these data indicate that PD has potential therapeutic effects in asthma by promoting Nrf2-mediated antioxidation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
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