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1.
Vet Rec ; 186(8): 253, 2020 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108068
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0223697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs) for the control of postsurgical pain in dogs and cats is common given the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of these drugs. This study compared the serum biochemical changes and postoperative analgesic effects of paracetamol, meloxicam, and carprofen in bitches submitted to an ovariohysterectomy using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analog Scale (DIVAS) and Pain Scale of the University of Melbourne (UMPS) scoring systems. METHODS: Thirty bitches of different breeds underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: a paracetamol group [15 mg kg-1 intravenous (IV)], a carprofen group (4 mg kg-1 IV), and a meloxicam group (0.2 mg kg-1 IV). All treatments were administered 30 minutes prior to surgery. Paracetamol was administered every 8 hours postoperatively for 48 hours total, while carprofen and meloxicam were intravenously administered every 24 hours. An evaluation of post-surgical pain was done with the DIVAS and the UMPS. The first post-surgical pain measurement was performed 1 hour after surgery and then 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery. RESULTS: All groups exhibited a gradual reduction in pain throughout the postoperative period in both scales; however, neither scale significantly differed between the three treatment groups (P > 0.05) during the 48 postoperative hours. CONCLUSIONS: Paracetamol was as effective as meloxicam and carprofen for post-surgical analgesia in bitches subjected to elective ovariohysterectomy. The present study demonstrates that paracetamol may be considered a tool for the effective treatment of acute perioperative pain in dogs. Furthermore, this drug led to no adverse reactions or changes in the parameters assessed in the present study, indicating its safety.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Histerectomia/métodos , Ovariectomia/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgesia/métodos , Animais , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Cães , Feminino , Histerectomia/veterinária , Testes de Função Renal , Testes de Função Hepática , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 161-168, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088917

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos analgésicos transoperatórios da infusão contínua de morfina e cetamina, associada ou não à lidocaína, em gatas submetidas à OSH eletiva. Foram utilizadas 16 fêmeas adultas, hígidas, pré-medicadas com acepromazina (0,1mg/kg) e morfina (0,5mg/kg), ambas pela via intramuscular, induzidas com cetamina (1mg/kg) e propofol (4mg/kg), pela via intravenosa, e mantidas sob anestesia geral inalatória com isoflurano a 1,4 V%. Os animais foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo morfina, lidocaína e cetamina (MLK, n=8), que recebeu bolus de lidocaína (1mg/kg), pela via IV, seguido de infusão de morfina, lidocaína e cetamina (0,26mg/kg/h, 3mg/kg/h e 0,6mg/kg/h, respectivamente); e grupo morfina e cetamina (MK, n=8), que recebeu bolus de solução salina, seguido de infusão de morfina e cetamina, nas mesmas doses do MLK. Os momentos avaliados foram: M0, basal, cinco minutos após a indução; M1, imediatamente após a aplicação do bolus de lidocaína ou solução salina; M2, M3, M4 e M5, a cada cinco minutos, até completar 20 minutos do início da infusão; M6, após a incisão da musculatura; M7, após pinçamento do primeiro pedículo ovariano; M8, após pinçamento do segundo pedículo ovariano; M9, após pinçamento da cérvix; M10, após sutura da musculatura; M11, ao final da cirurgia; e M12, M13 e M14, intervalos de cinco minutos, até completar uma hora de infusão. A FP no M0 foi maior no MLK quando comparado ao MK. Em ambos os grupos, a PAS foi maior no M7 e no M8 em relação ao M0, porém no MK, além da PAS, a FP foi maior do M7 ao M13, assim como a f. Os animais do MK necessitaram de um número maior de resgates transoperatorios, total de 23, do que o MLK, total de sete. Conclui-se que a adição de lidocaína incrementou a analgesia oferecida, reduzindo o número de resgates analgésicos transoperatórios, a dose total de fentanil, bem como a probabilidade de os animais necessitarem dese tipo de resgate.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the trans-operative analgesics, continuous infusion of morphine and ketamine, with or without lidocaine in cats undergoing elective OSH. Sixteen adult cats were used, otherwise healthy, pre-medicated with acepromazine (0.1mg/kg) and morphine (0.5mg/kg), both intramuscularly, induced with ketamine (1mg/kg) and propofol (4mg/kg), intravenous, maintained under general inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane 1.4 V%. The animals were randomly allocated into two groups: morphine, lidocaine and ketamine (MLK, n= 8), which received intravenous bolus of lidocaine (1mg/kg) followed by infusion of morphine, lidocaine and ketamine (0.26mg / kg/h, 3mg / kg/h and 0.6mg / kg/h, respectively); Morphine and ketamine (MK, n= 8), who received bolus of saline followed by infusion of morphine and ketamine at the same doses of MLK. The evaluated moments were: M0, basal, 5 minutes after induction; M1 immediately after the application of lidocaine bolus injection or saline; M2, M3, M4 and M5, every 5 minutes to complete 20 minutes after the start of infusion; M6, after the incision of the musculature; M7, after clamping of the first ovarian pedicle; M8, after clamping of the second ovarian pedicle; M9, after clamping of the cervix; M10, after suturing of the musculature; M11, at the end of surgery; And M12, M13 and M14, 5 minute intervals until completing one hour of infusion. The time to extubating and full recovery of animals, and the need for rescue analgesic fentanyl intraoperatively were also evaluated. HR in M0 was higher in MLK when compared to MK. In both groups the SBP was higher in M7 and M8 compared to M0, but the MK, addition of SAP, HR was greater M7 to M13, as well as f. MK animals required a greater number of trans-operative rescues than the MLK. It was concluded that the addition of lidocaine to the protocol using morphine and ketamine increased its analgesia.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Anestésicos Combinados , Salpingectomia/veterinária , Histerectomia/veterinária
4.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 27-38, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009278

RESUMO

Although desexing surgeries are considered a core clinical skill for small animal veterinary practice, it can be challenging for veterinary schools to provide students with adequate training opportunities in the traditional curriculum. At the Massey University School of Veterinary Science, we recently established an innovative extracurricular volunteer program designed to have students teaching other students how to perform different elements of desexing procedures as they progress through their degree. This program includes administrative and assistant roles for first-year students (responsible for client communication, patient restraint, and medical record keeping), physical exam and recovery roles for second-year students (responsible for assessing patient fitness for surgery, drawing up anesthetic drugs, and monitoring patients in recovery), anesthesia and neuter surgeon roles for third-year students (responsible for inducing, preparing, and monitoring spay patients and performing cat neuter surgeries), and spay surgeon roles for fourth- and fifth-year students (responsible for performing cat spay surgeries, discharging patients, and following up with clients to monitor recovery). This program has been successful in improving student confidence and competence while also providing a valuable low-cost desexing service to the community. In this article, we discuss the practical considerations and processes involved in implementing this program, including mapping the existing surgical curriculum, recruiting patients, setting up the surgical facilities, purchasing equipment and supplies, establishing standard operating procedures, developing training materials, maintaining clinic records, and monitoring program outcomes. These resources can serve as guidelines for other veterinary schools looking to expand desexing surgery training opportunities for students.


Assuntos
Gatos , Educação em Veterinária , Guias como Assunto , Orquiectomia , Ovariectomia , Cirurgia Veterinária , Animais , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação em Veterinária/economia , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Educação em Veterinária/organização & administração , Feminino , Masculino , Orquiectomia/educação , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/educação , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes , Cirurgia Veterinária/educação , Cirurgia Veterinária/normas , Voluntários
5.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 44-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009285

RESUMO

This study evaluated whether one supervised simulated ovariohysterectomy (OVH) using a locally developed canine OVH model, decreased surgical time for final-year veterinary students' first live-animal OVH. We also investigated student perceptions of the model as a teaching aid. Final-year veterinary students were exposed to an OVH model (Group M, n = 48) and compared to students without the exposure (Group C, n = 58). Both groups were instructed similarly on performing an OVH using a lecture, student notes, a video, and a demonstration OVH performed by a veterinary surgeon. Students in Group M then performed an OVH on the model before performing a live-animal OVH. Students in Group C had no exposure to the OVH model before performing a live-animal OVH. Surgical time data were analyzed using linear regression. Students in Group M completed a questionnaire on the OVH model after performing their first live-animal OVH. The OVH model exposure reduced students' first canine live-animal OVH surgery time (p = .009) for students without prior OVH experience. All students (n = 48) enjoyed performing the procedure on the mode; students practicing an OVH on the model felt more confident (92%) and less stressed (73%) when performing their first live-animal OVH. Results suggest that the canine OVH model may be helpful as a clinical training tool and we concluded that the OVH model was effective at decreasing students' first OVH surgical time.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Histerectomia , Duração da Cirurgia , Ovariectomia , Cirurgia Veterinária , Animais , Competência Clínica/normas , Cães , Educação em Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/veterinária , Modelos Animais , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Autoimagem , Cirurgia Veterinária/educação , Cirurgia Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
N Z Vet J ; 68(1): 46-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510881

RESUMO

Aims: To describe the variation in surgical techniques used by veterinarians to perform routine dog and cat spays in first-opinion veterinary practice in New Zealand, and how these techniques differed with the number of years since the veterinarian graduated.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of veterinarians registered to practice in New Zealand was conducted online between 1 April and 30 May 2018. Respondents were asked their year of graduation and about the procedures, they would use to perform a routine spay of a healthy, 5 kg, young adult, female domestic shorthair cat, and a healthy, 20 kg, young adult, female mixed-breed dog. The number of years since graduation was calculated by subtracting the reported year of graduation from 2018.Results: Overall, 282 respondents provided details about dog spays, and 361 about cat spays, and the median number of years since graduation was 14 (min 0, max 50). Only 54/282 (19.1%) respondents performing dog spays and 43/361 (11.9%) performing cat spays wore a surgical cap, gown, mask, and gloves. For dog spays, 278 (98.6%) respondents used a ventral midline approach and 147 (52.1%) used manual exteriorisation of the uterus. Most used two clamps (168; 59.6%) and used two encircling ligatures (152; 53.9%) for removal of the uterus. For cat spays, 254 (70.4%) respondents used a ventral midline approach and 313 (86.7%) used a spay hook for exteriorising the uterus. Most used two clamps (250; 69.3%) with one encircling ligature (213; 59.0%) for removal of the uterus. Simple interrupted external or intradermal patterns were mostly used for skin closure for both dog and cat spays. For cat spays, the percentage of respondents using the ventral midline approach decreased with increasing years since graduation (p < 0.001). For both dog and cat spays, the percentage of respondents using two encircling ligatures and transfixation ligation of the uterus, and using a simple continuous suture pattern for the closure of the abdomen, decreased with number of years since graduation (p < 0.05).Conclusions and clinical relevance: Veterinarians responding to this survey used a wide range of techniques to perform routine dog and cat spays, some of which were associated with the number of years since graduation. It may be beneficial to provide veterinarians with resources to reflect on their current approaches for performing routine spays. However further research is needed to determine whether any surgical techniques are superior to others.


Assuntos
Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Orquiectomia/métodos , Ovariectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875222

RESUMO

Ovariectomy (spaying) using the trans-vaginal dropped ovary technique (DOT) is performed to prevent pregnancy in cull female beef cattle that are not retained for breeding stock in areas practicing extensive grazing management. There are no reports describing analgesia for this surgical procedure. The objective of this study was to measure behavioral and physiological responses to determine whether an analgesic protocol of BXK [butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg), and ketamine (0.04 mg/kg)] injected intramuscularly (i.m.) before spaying could mitigate procedural and immediate postsurgical pain, and whether oral meloxicam (1 mg/kg) administered at the time of spaying could mitigate postsurgical inflammatory pain. Forty-four red Angus and Angus crossbred yearling heifers (322 ± 27.0 kg BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups: PALP (control; palpated but not spayed; n = 14), SPAY (spayed with no analgesia; n = 15), and BXKM (spayed with analgesia; n = 15). Behavioral measurements included visual analog scale (VAS) score, flight speed (FS), stride length (SL), and gait score (GS), as well as activity (lying, standing) and feeding behavior. Physiological measurements included salivary cortisol (SC), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), substance P (SP), complete blood count (CBC), and rectal temperature (RT). Saliva and blood samples were collected, and RT, FS, SL, and GS were measured on day -1, day 0 (time of palpation/spaying), and hours 1, 2, 4, and days 1, 2, 4, and 7 after palpation/spaying. The BXKM heifers had lower SC concentrations than SPAY heifers at 1 h (P = 0.01) and 2 h (P = 0.004). Heifers treated with BXKM had Hp concentrations lower than SPAY heifers at 2 d (P = 0.01), 4 d (P < 0.001), and 7 d (P = 0.008), and lower Hp concentrations than PALP heifers at 4 d (P < 0.001). Concentrations of SAA were greater (P = 0.04) in BXKM heifers than in PALP heifers at 1 h and lower in PALP heifers than in BXKM heifers (P = 0.02) and SPAY heifers (P = 0.05) at 1 d. Heifers in the BXKM group had higher RT than PALP and SPAY heifers at 1 h (P < 0.001) and 2 h (P = 0.004). Results suggest that DOT ovariectomy is acutely stressful and painful and administration of BXK before spaying and meloxicam at the time of spaying mitigated the procedural and postsurgical stress, pain, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cruzamento , Bovinos/cirurgia , Feminino , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/terapia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovário/cirurgia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Dor/veterinária
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 434, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of injured, stray and relinquished cats are received at the RSPCA Greater Manchester Animal Hospital each year. A significant and challenging proportion of these cats are confiscated from multicat households by RSPCA Inspectors, due to the owners' inability to care for them. These households share many characteristics of animal hoarding, including poor owner compliance with suggested welfare improvements and recidivism. The relatively poor adoption potential of animals from such households are a perennial problem for the charity. The aim of this study was to determine if offering female cat neutering assistance to multi-cat owners significantly improved colony welfare. RESULTS: Ten multicat households with a history of public complaint to the RSPCA were recruited. An RSPCA veterinary surgeon (VS) initially assessed the overall welfare of each household's cat population, individual cat welfare and the living environment. All entire female cats aged over 8 weeks were neutered and basic animal care education provided. Follow up visits were completed two and 12 months later to reassess welfare parameters and population numbers. The total number of cats was 176 across ten households (range 7-33, median 16). All owners consented to having all entire female cats spayed. At the first visit, mean individual cat welfare scores ranged from 5.4-8.7/ 16 across the 10 households, where 16 represented best possible welfare. Overall household mean welfare scores were significantly improved at both the 2 month and 12 month revisits (p = 0.011 and p = 0.01 respectively) when compared to the initial visits. By the end of the study period, three out of the ten households had voluntarily relinquished all of their cats, and overall there was a 40% reduction in the number of cats. CONCLUSIONS: Animal hoarding has previously been an intractable welfare concern with little evidence informing intervention techniques. These results show that positive veterinary engagement on site, focused on preventative care and population control, can yield significant improvement in welfare scoring systems in relatively short timescales. Promptly collecting and neutering all female cats at a site, combined with advice and support, show promise in improving welfare.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Gatos/fisiologia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/organização & administração , Animais , Gatos/cirurgia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0223709, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805064

RESUMO

Spaying of female dogs is a widespread practice, performed primarily for population control. While the consequences of early spaying for health are still being debated, the consequences for behaviour are believed to be negligible. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 8981 female dogs spayed before 520 weeks (ten years) of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). We found that 23 behaviours differed between entire and spayed dogs, of which 12 were associated with PLGH and 5 with age-at-spay (AAS). Two behaviours, chewing and howling, were significantly more likely in dogs with longer PLGH. In contrast, longer PLGH was associated with significantly reduced reporting of 10 (mostly unwelcome) behaviours. Of these, one related to fearfulness and three to aggression. The current data suggest that dogs' tendency to show numerous behaviours can be influenced by the timing of spaying. They indicate how female dog behaviour matures when gonadal hormones are allowed to have their effect. The differences reported here between undesirable behaviours of spayed and entire dogs were in the range of 5.33% and 7.22%, suggesting that, for some dogs, partial or complete denial of maturation may reduce howling and chewing and improve retrieval and recall, but have other undesirable consequences. Veterinarians may take these data into account to discuss the risks and benefits of spaying with clients, and the timing of the procedure.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães/cirurgia , Hormônios Gonadais/farmacologia , Transtornos Mentais/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Cães/psicologia , Feminino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1901-1908, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055148

RESUMO

Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos fisiológicos, analgésicos e sobre a taxa de infusão de propofol, decorrentes da anestesia epidural com lidocaína, associada ao tramadol ou à dexmedetomidina, em felinas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Para tal, 16 felinas hígidas foram pré-tratadas com acepromazina 0,08mg/kg/IM, utilizando-se propofol para a indução (dose-efeito) e manutenção anestésicas. Após indução, as gatas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos (n=8), designados: grupo lidocaína-tramadol (GLT), tratado com lidocaína (3,0mg/kg) associada ao tramadol (2,0mg/kg); e grupo lidocaína-dexmedetomidina (GLD), tratado com lidocaína (3,0mg/kg) associada à dexmedetomidina (2µg/kg), pela via epidural. Durante a OSH, a infusão de propofol foi aumentada ou reduzida, objetivando-se manutenção de plano anestésico cirúrgico. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: f, FC, SPO2, EtCO2, PAS, PAD, PAM, T°C, nos períodos pré (M1) e transoperatórios (M2 a M7); a taxa mínima de propofol necessária; o tempo de recuperação anestésica e a qualidade da analgesia pós-cirúrgica durante seis horas. Ambos os tratamentos garantiram baixas taxas mínimas de infusão de propofol, todavia o uso da dexmedetomidina resultou em bradicardia inicial, elevação da pressão arterial, maior tempo de recuperação e menor qualidade analgésica, quando comparada ao tramadol.(AU)


The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and analgesic effects and the minimum infusion rate of propofol of epidural anesthesia with lidocaine associated to tramadol or dexmedetomidine, in cats undergoing ovariosalpingohysterectomy (OSH). For this purpose, 16 healthy cats were pretreated with acepromazine (0.08mg kg -1 IM) and propofol was used for induction (dose-effect) and maintenance of anesthesia. After induction, the cats were assigned in two randomized groups (n= 8), named: Lidocaine-tramadol group (LTG), treated with lidocaine (3mg kg -1 ) associated to tramadol (2mg kg -1 ) and Lidocaine-dexmedetomidine group (LDG), treated with lidocaine (3mg kg -1 ) associated to dexmedetomidine (2g kg -1 ), by epidural route. During OSH, propofol infusion was increased or decreased, setting to maintain surgical anesthetic depth. The parameters f, HR, SPO 2 , EtCO 2 , SAP, DAP, MAP, T°C in the pre (M1) and trans-operative periods (M2 to M7); minimum infusion rate of propofol; time of anesthetic recovery and quality of postoperative analgesia during six-hour interval, were evaluated. Both protocols provided low minimum infusion rate of propofol. However, dexmedetomidine resulted in initial bradycardia, elevated blood pressure, longer recovery time, and lower analgesic quality when compared to tramadol.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Epidural/veterinária , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Salpingectomia/veterinária , Histerectomia/veterinária
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1829-1834, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055116

RESUMO

Avaliou-se a recuperação anestésica e a analgesia residual da infusão contínua (IC) de fentanil (F), lidocaína (L), cetamina (K) e fentanil-lidocaína-cetamina (FLK), associados à anestesia total intravenosa com o propofol, em cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingo-histerectomia. Foram utilizados 32 animais pré-medicados com acepromazina, distribuídos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tratamento analgésico: F: bolus de 0,0036mg/kg de fentanil e IC de 0,0036mg mg/kg/h; L: bolus de 3mg/kg de lidocaína e IC de 3mg/kg/h; K: bolus de 0,6mg/kg de cetamina e IC de 0,6mg/kg/h; e FLK: bolus e IC dos três fármacos nas doses supracitadas. Após o bolus do tratamento analgésico, foi realizada a indução e o início da IC do tratamento analgésico e do propofol. Para avaliação da recuperação anestésica, foram considerados os tempos de extubação, decúbito esternal, posição quadrupedal e os efeitos adversos. A avaliação da analgesia foi realizada por meio da escala visual analógica e modificada de Glasgow, durante seis horas. Os efeitos adversos observados foram vômito, sialorreia e tremor muscular. Receberam analgesia de resgate 100% dos animais do grupo F, 87,5% do K, 50% do L e 12,5% do FLK. O FLK demonstrou maior analgesia, e a recuperação anestésica foi semelhante em todos os grupos.(AU)


The anesthetic recovery and residual analgesia of continuous rate infusion (CRI) of fentanyl (F), lidocaine (L), ketamine (K) and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine (FLK) associated with total intravenous anesthesia with propofol in bitches submitted to ovariohysterectomy were evaluated. 32 animals were used, pre-medicated with acepromazine and distributed into four groups according to analgesic treatment: F loading dose (LD) of 0.0036mg/kg fentanyl, and CRI of 0.0036mg/kg/h, L: LD of 3mg/kg lidocaine, and CRI of 3mg/kg/h; K: LD of 0.6mg/kg ketamine, and CRI of 0.6mg/kg/h and FLK: LD and CRI of the three drugs in the above mentioned doses. After the LD of analgesic treatment, the induction was performed and the CRI of the analgesic treatment and propofol started. To evaluate the anesthetic recovery, the time of extubation, sternal decubitus, quadrupedal position and adverse effects were considered. The analgesia evaluation was performed using the visual scale and modified Glasgow for six hours. The adverse effects observed were vomiting, sialorrhea and muscle tremor. 100% of the animals in group F, 87.5% of K, 50% of L and 12.5% of FLK received rescue analgesia. FLK demonstrated greater analgesia, and anesthesia recovery was similar in all groups.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Salpingostomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Histerectomia/veterinária
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 401, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemias induce angiogenesis and accelerate the development and in vitro growth of breast tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the lipid and metabolic profile of female dogs with mammary carcinomas and their correlations with body condition score and degree of tumor malignancy, as well as to study the effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on these animals. RESULTS: Overweight or obese dogs had more aggressive carcinomas and higher triglyceride (p = 0.0363), VLDL (p = 0.0181), albumin (p = 0.0188), globulin (p = 0.0145) and lactate (p = 0.0255) concentrations. There was no change in the lipid profile after supplementation with fish oil at any concentration. However, in relation to the metabolic profile, glucose (p = 0.0067), total protein (p = 0.0002) and globulin (p = 0.0002) concentrations were increased when 90% omega-3 fish oil was used as a dietary supplement. CONCLUSION: Obese dogs showed altered lipid and metabolic profiles and more aggressive tumors, suggesting an important relationship between dyslipidemia and tumor aggressiveness. Supplementation with fish oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, may alter metabolic parameters in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/veterinária , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Animais , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Mastectomia/veterinária , Obesidade , Ovariectomia/veterinária
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 364, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovariectomy is a common procedure in laboratory rodents used to create a post-menopausal state. Complications including post-surgical abscess are rarely reported, but merit consideration for the health and safety of experimental animals. CASE PRESENTATION: A female C57/black6 mouse was ovariectomized as part of a cohort study. At Day 14 post-surgery, she developed a visible swelling on the right side, which 7 days later increased in size over 24 h, leading to euthanasia of the animal. Gross pathology was consistent with abscess. A core of necrotic tissue was present in the uterine horn. Abscess fluid and affected tissue were collected for Gram stain and bacteriological culture. The abscess core and fluid yielded three distinct types of bacterial colonies identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing as Streptococcus acidominimus, Pasteurella caecimuris, and a novel species in the genus Gemella. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of polymicrobial abscess in a rodent as a complication of ovariectomy, and the first description of a novel Gemella species for which we have proposed the epithet Gemella muriseptica. This presentation represents a potential complication of ovariectomy in laboratory animals.


Assuntos
Abscesso/veterinária , Gemella/classificação , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Abscesso/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Gemella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurella , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(5): 587-596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of a single dose of midazolam affects quality and duration of the recovery period in healthy dogs undergoing elective castration or ovariohysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, masked clinical trial. ANIMAL POPULATION: Seventy-four client-owned dogs undergoing neutering. METHODS: Following cage demeanour scoring using a simple descriptive scale (SDS), dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.03 mg kg-1) and pethidine (3 mg kg-1) intramuscularly (quadriceps muscle). Twenty minutes later sedation was scored with an SDS. Male dogs were induced with midazolam (0.25 mg kg-1) (group M) or an equivalent amount of Hartmann's solution (group P) and propofol intravenously (IV). Female dogs were induced with propofol alone and were administered midazolam (group M) or Hartmann's solution (group P) 5 minutes before intraoperative manipulation of the first ovary. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Intraoperative analgesia was provided with morphine (0.3 mg kg-1 IV) prior to the start of surgery. Male dogs were administered intratesticular lidocaine (1 mg kg-1). All dogs were administered meloxicam (0.2 mg kg-1 IV) at the end of the procedure, and recovery was scored with an SDS following extubation and 30 minutes later. Time to extubation, head lift, sternal position and standing and complications during recovery were recorded. Data are presented as median (range). RESULTS: Time to standing was significantly longer in animals in group M [56 (13-179) minutes] than in group P [44 (4-137) minutes], and the early recovery score in group M [3 (2-6)] was overall worse than in group P [3 (1-5)]. Significantly more dogs in group M (n = 30) than in group P (n = 22) displayed hypotension. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The administration of midazolam prolonged time to standing and had a mild negative effect on the quality of recovery in a pooled population of healthy male and female dogs undergoing neutering.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestésicos Intravenosos/uso terapêutico , Cães/cirurgia , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Open Vet J ; 9(2): 157-163, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360656

RESUMO

The anesthetic management in patients with subaortic stenosis and mitral valve disease should involve intensive monitoring and the anesthesiologist's main concern is to ensure oxygen delivery and tissue perfusion. Since anesthetic procedures in such patients are rare, there is no previous report about the anesthetic management. A 5.5-year old, 32-kg Boxer, suffering a severe heart disease due to a final stage subaortic stenosis and mitral insufficiency, was anesthetized for an ovariohysterectomy to remove an ovarian tumor that was producing high-volume ascites. Methadone (0.3 mg kg-1) was administered intramuscularly (IM) for pre-anesthetic medication, etomidate (1.3 mg kg-1) and midazolam (0.2 mg kg-1) were used for the induction of anesthesia and after endotracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane vaporized in oxygen and air. Fentanyl (5-10 µg kg-1 h-1) and paracetamol (15 mg kg-1) were administered to improve analgesia. Previous persistent atrial fibrillation was refractory to medication (digoxin, diltiazem, and pimobendan) and continued during the anesthetic procedure. Dobutamine (1.5-5 µg kg-1 minute-1) helped to maintain mean arterial blood pressure above 60 mmHg. Epidural morphine (0.1 mg kg-1) and incisional bupivacaine (2 mg kg-1) were administered at the end of surgery to provide postoperative analgesia. Anesthesia was otherwise uneventful, and recovery was considered excellent.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Fibrilação Atrial/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/veterinária , Anestesia/métodos , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/terapia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4907-4915, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Facet joint degeneration (FJD) is a potential source of lower back pain, and estrogen deficiency can accelerate FJD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of alendronate (ALN) on FJD induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either bilateral OVX (n=20) or sham surgery (n=10). The OVX rats subsequently received either subcutaneous ALN (70 µg/kg/week) or vehicle for 12 weeks. Subchondral bone mass and microarchitecture were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Cartilage degradation was evaluated by toluidine blue staining and histological scoring. RESULTS Compared with the Sham group, the OVX group had significantly decreased bone mineral density, bone volume/trabecular volume, and trabecular thickness, significantly increased trabecular separation in subchondral bone, and significantly higher histological score for cartilage degeneration, particularly loss of cartilage thickness. ALN treatment significantly reversed the changes in subchondral bone, preserved cartilage thickness, and reduced the histological score. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly decreased expression of ADAMTS-4, MMP-13, and caspase-3 in the OVX+ALN group compared with the OVX group. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with ALN suppressed bone loss, subchondral bone architecture deterioration, and cartilage degeneration in OVX rats, which can be explained by roles of ALN in preservation of subchondral bone mass and microarchitecture, and counteraction of catabolism and chondrocyte apoptosis in cartilage.


Assuntos
Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Região Lombossacral/patologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1926-1934, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heritability and mode of inheritance of spontaneous diabetes mellitus (DM) in American Eskimo Dogs (AED) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the heritability and mode of inheritance of DM in AED. ANIMALS: An extended family of AED including 71 AED without DM, 47 AED with an unknown phenotype, and 38 AED with spontaneous DM. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of inheritance. A logistic regression model was formulated to evaluate the heritability of DM, including effects of sex and neuter status. Subsequently, complex segregation analysis was employed to investigate the inheritance pattern of DM in AED. Six plausible models were considered, and the Akaike Information Criterion was used to determine the best of the biologically feasible models of inheritance of DM in AED. RESULTS: Heritability of DM in AED is estimated at 0.62 (95% posterior interval 0.01-0.99). Predicted DM probabilities for neutered females (NF), intact females (IF), neutered males (NM), and intact males (IM) were 0.76, 0.11, 0.63, and 0.12, respectively. There was no overlap between the 95% posterior intervals of disease probabilities in NF and IF or in NF and IM. Complex segregation analysis suggested that the mode of inheritance of DM in AED is polygenic, with no evidence for a single gene of large effect. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The estimated heritability of DM in AED is high but has low precision. Diabetes mellitus transmission in AED appears to follow a polygenic inheritance. Breeders could successfully implement a breeding program to decrease the incidence of DM in AED.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/genética , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Vet Surg ; 48(5): 715-725, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a single-port laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy (LOHE) with a modified glove-port technique in dogs and compare it with previously published laparoscopic techniques for LOHE in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study and technique description. ANIMALS: Forty-two healthy female dogs. METHODS: Laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy was performed with a custom-made single-port device. The total duration of surgery from first incision to skin closure was compared with previously published durations of LOHE in dogs. Short-term complications were recorded. RESULTS: The median total duration of surgery was 24 minutes (range, 17.5-39.5; mean, 25.73; SD, 6.12), which was shorter than that described in most previously reported studies of LOHE in dogs (range, 20.8 ± 4.00-60.0 ± 18.45 minutes; P < .001). Intraoperative complications were minor, but wound complications occurred in 12 of 42 (29%) dogs. CONCLUSION: Single-port LOHE with the glove-port technique in combination with a wound retractor and nonarticulated instruments was completed in all dogs. This technique was faster than what has been previously reported for other LOHE, but local wound complications were common. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The glove-port technique described here offers a low-cost alternative to other commercially available single-port devices.


Assuntos
Cães/cirurgia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Histerectomia/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/veterinária , Laparoscopia/métodos , Ovariectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e25, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161743

RESUMO

Two dogs underwent a combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and total laparoscopic gastropexy. The intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary compliance decreased, but the peak airway pressure increased at 20 min after the start of gastropexy with intracorporeal suturing. Right chest auscultation and percussion revealed reduced breath sounds and hyper-resonance. No abnormalities in the functioning of the instruments or diaphragmatic defects were detected. The tidal volume was reduced and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O was applied. The right chest of the two dogs was drained off: 950 mL (case 1) and 250 mL (case 2) of gas. After thoracentesis, the pulmonary compliance improved and surgery was completed successfully. The postoperative chest radiographs highlighted the residual right pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Gastropexia/veterinária , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Toracentese/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Gastropexia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 421-428, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate alfaxalone total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) following premedication with methadone combined with acepromazine (ACP) or dexmedetomidine in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, blinded, randomized, experimental study. ANIMALS: A group of 12 female Beagles. METHODS: Dogs were premedicated intravenously with methadone (0.2 mg kg-1) combined with ACP (20 µg kg-1, group AM) or dexmedetomidine (5 µg kg-1, group DM). Anaesthesia was induced with alfaxalone (2 mg kg-1). Anaesthetic maintenance was obtained with an alfaxalone variable rate infusion (VRI) started at 0.15 mg kg-1 minute-1 and adjusted every 5 minutes based on clinical assessment. Mechanical ventilation was initiated when necessary to maintain normocapnia. Anaesthetic monitoring included electrocardiogram, heart rate (HR), invasive diastolic (DAP), systolic (SAP) and mean arterial blood pressure, arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation, respiratory variables and oesophageal temperature. Data were recorded every 5 minutes. A mixed model statistical approach was used to compare cardiovascular variables within and between groups (α = 0.05). A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare body temperature, VRI alfaxalone rate, administered rescue analgesia, sedation, induction, intubation, recovery scores and recovery times between treatments. RESULTS: Overall HR, SAP and DAP differed between groups (p = 0.001, 0.016, 0.019, respectively). The mean VRI dose rate of alfaxalone differed between groups DM [0.13 (0.11-0.14) mg kg-1 minute-1] and AM [0.18 (0.13-0.19) mg kg-1 minute-1; p = 0.030]. Rescue analgesia was administered more in group AM (p = 0.019). No significant difference in recovery times and scores was observed between protocols. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Alfaxalone TIVA following dexmedetomidine/methadone premedication produced a more stable plane of anaesthesia to perform ovariohysterectomy than ACP/methadone. A dose reduction of alfaxalone of 27.7% was obtained in group DM compared with group AM. Recovery quality and recovery times were comparable between both groups.


Assuntos
Acepromazina/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Cães , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Pré-Medicação , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Metadona , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
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