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Expert Rev Vaccines ; 19(12): 1105-1114, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251859


INTRODUCTION: There are currently no effective treatments for Methamphetamine (METH) addiction and psychotherapy remains the sole treatment option. The development of immunopharmacotherapies for the treatment of drug addiction, overdose, and relapse management appears to be promising alternative and a significant body of information has been generated using various vaccine development strategies. Herein, we present an update on the developments toward anti-METH vaccines and their study outcomes in preclinical and clinical studies. AREAS COVERED: The scope of this article is to present an update on METH vaccine development strategies such as active vaccination through hapten design and the passive immunization through monoclonal antibodies along with preclinical and clinical studies. The relevant literatures and clinical trial outcomes were searched in databases including Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct,, and using specific keywords. EXPERT OPINION: Significant improvements have been developed for immunopharmacotherapies for METH addiction over the last two decades. However, only one monoclonal antibody candidate has been evaluated in a phase I clinical trial. At this moment, it is essential to evaluate the safety and efficacy of potential candidates in clinical trials to validate the importance of this platform drug-vaccine conjugation in order to manage or overcome METH addiction.

Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/terapia , Metanfetamina/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Overdose de Drogas/terapia , Humanos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/imunologia
Mol Pharm ; 17(9): 3447-3460, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787282


Active immunization is an emerging potential modality to combat fatal overdose amid the opioid epidemic. In this study, we described the design, synthesis, formulation, and animal testing of an efficacious vaccine against fentanyl. The vaccine formulation is composed of a novel fentanyl hapten conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) and adjuvanted with liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide. The linker and hapten N-phenyl-N-(1-(4-(3-(tritylthio)propanamido)phenethyl)piperidin-4-yl)propionamide were conjugated sequentially to TT using amine-N-hydroxysuccinimide-ester and thiol-maleimide reaction chemistries, respectively. Conjugation was facile, efficient, and reproducible with a protein recovery of >98% and a hapten density of 30-35 per carrier protein molecule. In mice, immunization induced high and robust antibody endpoint titers in the order of >106 against the hapten. The antisera bound fentanyl, carfentanil, cyclopropyl fentanyl, para-fluorofentanyl, and furanyl fentanyl in vitro with antibody-drug dissociation constants in the range of 0.36-4.66 nM. No cross-reactivity to naloxone, naltrexone, methadone, or buprenorphine was observed. In vivo, immunization shifted the antinociceptive dose-response curve of fentanyl to higher doses. Collectively, these preclinical results showcased the desired traits of a potential vaccine against fentanyl and demonstrated the feasibility of immunization to combat fentanyl-induced effects.

Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Fentanila/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Analgésicos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Feminino , Haptenos/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Lipossomos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Vaccine ; 37(28): 3730-3734, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155414


BACKGROUND: The administration of an extra dose of a vaccine may occur due to a programmatic error (e.g., vaccination error) when there is need to provide one of the antigens of a combination vaccine not readily available as a single antigen, or when there is need to provide immunization in a person with uncertain vaccination histories (e.g., refugees). There is little data available on the safety of an extra dose of vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To assess for the presence of adverse events (AEs) most commonly reported following the administration of excess doses of vaccine in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). METHODS: We searched VAERS for US reports where an excess dose of vaccine was administered to a person received from 1/1/2007 through 1/26/2018. We reviewed medical records for all serious reports and a random sample of non-serious reports. The most common AEs among reports of excess dose of vaccine administered were compared with the corresponding AEs for all vaccines reported to VAERS during the same period. RESULTS: Out of 366,815 total VAERS reports received, 5067 (1.4%) reported an excess dose of vaccine was administered; 3898 (76.9%) did not describe an adverse health event (AHE). The most common vaccines reported were trivalent inactivated influenza (15.4%), varicella (13.9%), hepatitis A (11.4%), and measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (11.1%). Among reports where only AHEs were reported, the most common were pyrexia (12.8%), injection site erythema (9.7%), injection site pain (8.9%), and headache (6.6%). The percentage of AHEs among these reports was comparable to all reports submitted to VAERS during the same study period. CONCLUSION: More than three-fourths of reports of an excess dose of vaccine did not describe an AHE. Among reports where an AHE event was reported, we did not observe any unexpected conditions or clustering of AEs.

Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
ACS Chem Biol ; 12(1): 36-40, 2017 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103678


Prescription opioids (POs) such as oxycodone and hydrocodone are highly effective medications for pain management, yet they also present a substantial risk for abuse and addiction. The consumption of POs has been escalating worldwide, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths due to overdose each year. Pharmacokinetic strategies based upon vaccination present an attractive avenue to suppress PO abuse. Herein, the preparation of two active PO vaccines is described that were found to elicit high-affinity antiopioid antibodies through a structurally congruent drug-hapten design. Administration of these vaccines resulted in a significant blockade of opioid analgesic activity, along with an unprecedented increase in drug serum half-life and protection against lethal overdose.

Analgésicos Opioides/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Hidrocodona/imunologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Oxicodona/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Animais , Overdose de Drogas/sangue , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Meia-Vida , Haptenos/administração & dosagem , Haptenos/sangue , Haptenos/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrocodona/administração & dosagem , Hidrocodona/sangue , Camundongos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/sangue , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/imunologia , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/sangue , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Toxoide Tetânico/sangue , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/sangue
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 26(9): 1022-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25045842


BACKGROUND: The innate immune system is profoundly dysregulated in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple bedside index with prognostic value in a number of inflammatory conditions. AIM: To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the NLR in patients with significant liver injury following single time-point and staggered paracetamol overdoses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Time-course analysis of 100 single time-point and 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Timed laboratory samples were correlated with time elapsed after overdose or admission, respectively, and the NLR was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 49/100 single time-point patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Median NLRs were higher at both 72 (P=0.0047) and 96 h after overdose (P=0.0041) in single time-point patients who died or were transplanted. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were associated with increasing HE grade (P=0.0005). An NLR of more than 16.7 during the first 96 h following overdose was independently associated with the development of HE [odds ratio 5.65 (95% confidence interval 1.67-19.13), P=0.005]. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were strongly associated with the requirement for intracranial pressure monitoring (P<0.0001), renal replacement therapy (P=0.0002) and inotropic support (P=0.0005). In contrast, in the staggered overdose cohort, the NLR was not associated with adverse outcomes or death/transplantation either at admission or subsequently. CONCLUSION: The NLR is a simple test which is strongly associated with adverse outcomes following single time-point, but not staggered, paracetamol overdoses. Future studies should assess the value of incorporating the NLR into existing prognostic and triage indices of single time-point paracetamol overdose.

Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/cirurgia , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/imunologia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática Aguda/imunologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Triagem/métodos
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 13(50): 241-245, abr.-jun. 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-89728


La vacuna antituberculosa no es una vacuna habitual en los calendarios vacunales españoles, manteniéndose actualmente tan solo en el País Vasco. Dada la escasa frecuencia de vacunación con bacilo de Calmette Guérin en nuestro medio, es raro encontrar casos de sobredosis accidental como el descrito en este artículo (AU)

The anti tuberculosis vaccine in Spain is only included in the Basque Country’s vaccination schedule. Given the low frequency of vaccination for BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) in our country, it is unusual to find cases of accidental overdose like the one described in this article (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Vaccin attenue bilie/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Vaccin attenue bilie/administração & dosagem
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16500922


GSH is the most abundant redox molecule in cells and thus the most important determinant of cellular redox status. Thiols in proteins can undergo a wide range of reversible redox modifications (e.g., S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and disulfide formation) during times of increased exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which can affect protein activity. These reversible thiol modifications regulated by GSH may be nanoswitches to turn on and off proteins, similar to phosphorylation, in cells. In the cytoplasm, an altered redox state can activate (e.g., MAPKs and NF-E2-related factor-2) and inhibit (e.g., phosphatases and caspases) proteins, whereas in the nucleus, redox alterations can inhibit DNA binding of transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB and activator protein-1). The consequences include the promotion of expression of antioxidant genes and alterations of hepatocyte survival as well as the balance between necrotic versus apoptotic cell death. Therefore, the understanding of the redox regulation of proteins may have important clinical ramifications in understanding the pathogenesis of liver diseases.

Glutationa/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Citocinas/imunologia , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/imunologia , Intoxicação/imunologia
Toxicol Sci ; 54(2): 509-16, 2000 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10774834


Acetaminophen overdose induces severe liver injury and hepatic failure. There is evidence that inflammatory cells may be involved in the pathophysiology. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to characterize the neutrophilic inflammatory response after treatment of C3Heb/FeJ mice with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen. A time course study showed that neutrophils accumulate in the liver parallel to or slightly after the development of liver injury. The number of neutrophils in the liver was substantial (209 +/- 64 PMN/50 high-power fields at 12 h) compared to baseline levels (7 +/- 1). Serum levels of TNF-alpha and the C-X-C chemokines KC and MIP-2 increased by 28-, 14-, and 295-fold, respectively, over levels found in controls during the injury process. In addition, mRNA expression of MIP-2 and KC were upregulated in livers of acetaminophen-treated animals as determined by ribonuclease protection assay. However, none of these mediators were generated in large enough quantities to account for neutrophil sequestration in the liver. There was no upregulation of Mac-1 (CD11b/ CD18) or shedding of L-selectin on circulating neutrophils. Moreover, an anti-CD18 antibody had no protective effect against acetaminophen overdose during the first 24 h. These results indicate that there is a local inflammatory response after acetaminophen overdose, including a substantial accumulation of neutrophils in the liver. Because of the critical importance of beta2 integrins for neutrophil cytotoxicity, these results suggest that neutrophils do not contribute to the initiation or progression of AAP-induced liver. The inflammation observed after acetaminophen overdose may be characteristic for a response sufficient to recruit neutrophils for the purpose of removing necrotic cells but is not severe enough to cause additional damage.

Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/toxicidade , Hepatite Animal/imunologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos CD18/metabolismo , Antígenos CD18/farmacologia , Quimiocinas CXC/sangue , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Hepatite Animal/induzido quimicamente , Hepatite Animal/patologia , Selectina L/sangue , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Necrose , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
Beitr Gerichtl Med ; 48: 67-73, 1990.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2241857


66 autopsied drug-related death cases in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Cologne of the years 1979 to 1989 were morphologically examined to get information whether cytological investigations of the spleen reveal a damage of the immune system. The weights of the spleen were registered and immunoreactive cells, i.e. macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes, were quantitative counted. Neither a significant alteration of the weights of the spleen nor an important change of the density of the immunoreactive cells could be registered.

Overdose de Drogas/imunologia , Dependência de Heroína/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicotrópicos/envenenamento , Baço/imunologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino