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3.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(1)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015935

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether a positive urine drug of abuse screen in youth who receive medical care is associated with subsequent risk of external mortality (eg, overdose, suicide, homicide, accident).Methods: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of all Olmsted County (Minnesota) residents who were 13-18 years of age at the time of urine drug screen (UDS) testing (January 1, 1999, to November 28, 2012). Cox regression models were used to examine the relationships between having a positive UDS and external mortality, adjusted for sex, race, age, alcohol exposure, psychiatric diagnoses as defined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9/ICD-10), and medical setting of UDS testing. Separate analyses were done for (1) overall UDS results, (2) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and (3) cocaine.Results: Of the 2,772 teenagers included in this study (47.2% male), a total of 26 died of external causes during a median follow-up period of 11.8 years. Testing positive for any illicit substance was not associated with significantly increased risk of external mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9-4.2). Testing positive for cocaine was associated with significantly increased risk of external mortality (HR = 7.0; 95% CI, 1.9-25.0). Testing positive for THC was associated with a marginally significantly increased risk of external mortality (HR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.7); however, when cocaine was added as a covariate in the analysis, the relationship between THC-positive UDS and mortality was still elevated but was no longer statistically significant (HR = 1.8; 95% CI, 0.8-4.1).Conclusions: History of cocaine-positive UDS may help identify a population of young people who are at high risk of premature death.


Assuntos
Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142676, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994792

RESUMO

Importance: Despite high rates of drug overdose death among people experiencing homelessness, patterns in drug overdose mortality, including the types of drugs implicated in overdose deaths, remain understudied in this population. Objective: To describe the patterns in drug overdose mortality among a large cohort of people experiencing homelessness in Boston vs the general adult population of Massachusetts and to evaluate the types of drugs implicated in overdose deaths over a continuous 16-year period of observation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed adults aged 18 years or older who received care at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2017. Individuals were followed up from the date of their initial BHCHP encounter during the study period until the date of death or December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2020, to June 6, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Drug overdose deaths and the types of drugs involved in each overdose death were ascertained by linking the BHCHP cohort to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health death records. Results: In this cohort of 60 092 adults experiencing homelessness (mean [SD] age at entry, 40.4 [13.1] years; 38 084 men [63.4%]), 7130 individuals died by the end of the study period. A total of 1727 individuals (24.2%) died of a drug overdose. Of the drug overdose decedents, 456 were female (26.4%), 194 were Black (11.2%), 202 were Latinx (11.7%), and 1185 were White (68.6%) individuals, and the mean (SD) age at death was 43.7 (10.8) years. The age- and sex-standardized drug overdose mortality rate in the BHCHP cohort was 278.9 (95% CI, 266.1-292.3) deaths per 100 000 person-years, which was 12 times higher than the Massachusetts adult population. Opioids were involved in 91.0% of all drug overdose deaths. Between 2013 and 2018, the synthetic opioid mortality rate increased from 21.6 to 327.0 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Between 2004 and 2018, the opioid-only overdose mortality rate decreased from 117.2 to 102.4 deaths per 100 000 person-years, whereas the opioid-involved polysubstance mortality rate increased from 44.0 to 237.8 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Among opioid-involved polysubstance overdose deaths, cocaine-plus-opioid was the most common substance combination implicated throughout the study period, with Black individuals having the highest proportion of cocaine-plus-opioid involvement in death (0.72 vs 0.62 in Latinx and 0.53 in White individuals; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of people experiencing homelessness, drug overdose accounted for 1 in 4 deaths, with synthetic opioid and polysubstance involvement becoming predominant contributors to mortality in recent years. These findings emphasize the importance of increasing access to evidence-based opioid overdose prevention strategies and opioid use disorder treatment among people experiencing homelessness, while highlighting the need to address both intentional and unintentional polysubstance use in this population.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Boston/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 232: 109309, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in US drug overdose mortality among US-born and foreign-born men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of 2010-2019 data from the National Center for Health Statistics, Bayesian hierarchical models predicted drug overdose mortality based on the interaction of race/ethnicity, nativity, and sex, adjusting for age, for 518,553 drug overdose deaths among individuals ages 15-74 identified as Non-Hispanic (NH) White, NH Black, Hispanic, or NH Asian/Pacific Islander (PI). Rate ratios with 95% Highest Posterior Density Intervals (HPDIs) were examined by race/ethnicity and nativity. RESULTS: In the US-born population, 2017-2019 estimated overdose mortality rates were higher for NH Black than NH White men (ratio 1.48 [95% HPDI 1.28-1.72]), similar between NH Black and NH White women (ratio 1.03 [95% HPDI 0.89-1.20]), similar between Hispanic and NH White men (ratio 0.96 [95% HPDI 0.82-1.10]), and lower for NH Asian/PI than NH White men and women. In the foreign-born population, both for men and women, estimated overdose mortality rates were lower in every racial/ethnic group relative to the NH White group. For men and women of all racial/ethnic groups examined, estimated overdose mortality rates were higher in US-born than foreign-born subpopulations, yet the extent of this nativity differential was least pronounced in the NH White group. CONCLUSIONS: In the US-born population, NH Black men experienced the highest recent rates of overdose mortality; in the foreign-born population, the highest rates of overdose mortality were observed among NH White men and women.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2212-2222, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878861

RESUMO

Objectives. To report trends in mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and causes of death among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) in Los Angeles County, California, by using annual point-in-time homeless counts and to compare findings to published longitudinal cohort studies of homeless mortality. Methods. We enumerated homeless deaths and determined causes by using 2015-2019 medical examiner‒coroner data matched to death certificate data. We estimated midyear homeless population denominators by averaging consecutive January point-in-time homeless counts. We used annual demographic surveys of PEH to estimate age- and gender-adjusted MRRs. We identified comparison studies through a literature review. Results. Mortality rates increased from 2015 to 2019. Drug overdose was the leading cause of death. Mortality was higher among White than among Black and Latino PEH. Compared with the general population, MRRs ranged from 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7, 3.0) for all causes to 35.1 (95% CI = 31.9, 38.4) for drug overdose. Crude mortality rates and all-cause MRRs from comparison cohort studies were similar to those in the current study. Conclusions. These methods can be adapted by other urban jurisdictions seeking to better understand and reduce mortality in their homeless populations. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2212-2222. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306502).


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing a drug addiction and overdose crisis, made worse by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relative to other types of health services, addiction treatment and overdose prevention services are particularly vulnerable to disaster-related disruptions for multiple reasons including fragmentation from the general medical system and stigma, which may lead decisionmakers and providers to de-prioritize these services during disasters. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. states implemented multiple policies designed to mitigate disruptions to addiction treatment and overdose prevention services, for example policies expanding access to addiction treatment delivered via telehealth and policies designed to support continuity of naloxone distribution programs. There is limited evidence on the effects of these policies on addiction treatment and overdose. This evidence is needed to inform state policy design in future disasters, as well as to inform decisions regarding whether to sustain these policies post-pandemic. METHODS: The overall study uses a concurrent-embedded design. Aims 1-2 use difference-in-differences analyses of large-scale observational databases to examine how state policies designed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on health services delivery influenced addiction treatment delivery and overdose during the pandemic. Aim 3 uses a qualitative embedded multiple case study approach, in which we characterize local implementation of the state policies of interest; most public health disaster policies are enacted at the state level but implemented at the local level by healthcare systems and local public health authorities. DISCUSSION: Triangulation of results across methods will yield robust understanding of whether and how state disaster-response policies influenced drug addiction treatment and overdose during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results will inform policy enactment and implementation in future public health disasters. Results will also inform decisions about whether to sustain COVID-19 pandemic-related changes to policies governing delivery addiction and overdose prevention services long-term.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Desastres , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estados Unidos
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1740-1746, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914673

RESUMO

During May 2020-April 2021, the estimated number of drug overdose deaths in the United States exceeded 100,000 over a 12-month period for the first time, with 64.0% of deaths involving synthetic opioids other than methadone (mainly illicitly manufactured fentanyls [IMFs], which include both fentanyl and illicit fentanyl analogs).* Introduced primarily as adulterants in or replacements for white powder heroin east of the Mississippi River (1), IMFs are now widespread in white powder heroin markets, increasingly pressed into counterfeit pills resembling oxycodone, alprazolam, or other prescription drugs, and are expanding into new markets, including in the western United States† (2). This report describes trends in overdose deaths involving IMFs (IMF-involved deaths) during July 2019-December 2020 (29 states and the District of Columbia [DC]), and characteristics of IMF-involved deaths during 2020 (39 states and DC) using data from CDC's State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS). During July 2019-December 2020, IMF-involved deaths increased sharply in midwestern (33.1%), southern (64.7%), and western (93.9%) jurisdictions participating in SUDORS. Approximately four in 10 IMF-involved deaths also involved a stimulant. Highlighting the need for timely overdose response, 56.1% of decedents had no pulse when first responders arrived. Injection drug use was the most frequently reported individual route of drug use (24.5%), but evidence of snorting, smoking, or ingestion, but not injection drug use was found among 27.1% of decedents. Adapting and expanding overdose prevention, harm reduction, and response efforts is urgently needed to address the high potency (3), and various routes of use for IMFs. Enhanced treatment for substance use disorders is also needed to address the increased risk for overdose (4) and treatment complications (5) associated with using IMFs with stimulants.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Fentanila/envenenamento , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 41(6): 650-657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deaths from antipsychotic (AP) poisoning have increased in England and Wales despite restriction of the use of thioridazine in 2000. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Office for National Statistics drug-related death database, England and Wales, 1993-2019, to investigate fatal AP poisoning. RESULTS: There were 2286 deaths (62% male patients). Annual numbers of intentional AP-related fatal poisonings (suicides) were relatively stable (1993, 35; 2019, 44; median, 44; range, 30-60). Intentional overdose deaths involving clozapine (96 male, 25 female) increased from 1 in 1994 to 5 in 2003 and have since remained relatively constant (median, 6; range, 3-10 per annum). Unintentional second-generation AP-related fatal poisonings have increased steadily since 1998, featuring in 828 (74%) of all unintentional, AP-related fatal poisonings in the period studied (2019, 89%). There were 181 unintentional clozapine-related deaths, (107 [59%] alone without other drugs ± alcohol) as compared with 291 quetiapine-related deaths (86 [30%] alone without other drugs ± alcohol) and 314 unintentional olanzapine-related deaths (77 [25%] alone without other drugs ± alcohol). Some 75% of all unintentional clozapine- and olanzapine-related deaths were of male patients (78% and 73%, respectively) as compared with 58% of unintentional quetiapine-related fatal poisonings. Clozapine now features prominently in intentional and in unintentional AP-related fatal poisoning in England and Wales. Deaths of male patients predominate in both categories. There were also 77 and 86 deaths attributed to unintentional poisoning with olanzapine and with quetiapine, respectively, in the absence of other drugs. CONCLUSIONS: More effort is needed to prevent unintentional deaths not only from clozapine but also from olanzapine and quetiapine.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/envenenamento , Clozapina/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Olanzapina/envenenamento , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Adulto , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , País de Gales/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(12): 1329-1342, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550301

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality associated with methamphetamine use has increased markedly in the US. Understanding patterns of methamphetamine use may help inform related prevention and treatment. Objective: To assess the national trends in and correlates of past-year methamphetamine use, methamphetamine use disorder (MUD), injection, frequent use, and associated overdose mortality from 2015 to 2019. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed methamphetamine use, MUD, injection, and frequent use data from participants in the 2015 to 2019 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Mortality data were obtained from the 2015 to 2019 National Vital Statistics System Multiple Cause of Death files. Exposures: Methamphetamine use. Main Outcomes and Measures: Methamphetamine use, MUD, injection, frequent use, and overdose deaths. Results: Of 195 711 NSDUH respondents aged 18 to 64 years, 104 408 were women (weighted percentage, 50.9%), 35 686 were Hispanic individuals (weighted percentage, 18.0%), 25 389 were non-Hispanic Black (hereafter, Black) individuals (weighted percentage, 12.6%), and 114 248 were non-Hispanic White (hereafter, White) individuals (weighted percentage, 60.6%). From 2015 to 2019, overdose deaths involving psychostimulants other than cocaine (largely methamphetamine) increased 180% (from 5526 to 15 489; P for trend <.001); methamphetamine use increased 43% (from 1.4 million [95% CI, 1.2-1.6 million] to 2.0 million [95% CI, 1.7-2.3 million]; P for trend = .002); frequent methamphetamine use increased 66% (from 615 000 [95% CI, 512 000-717 000] to 1 021 000 [95% CI, 860 000-1 183 000]; P for trend = .002); methamphetamine and cocaine use increased 60% (from 402 000 [95% CI, 306 000-499 000] to 645 000 [95% CI, 477 000-813 000]; P for trend = .001); and MUD without injection increased 105% (from 397 000 [95% CI, 299 000-496 000] to 815 000 [95% CI, 598 000-1 033 000]; P for trend = .006). The prevalence of MUD or injection surpassed the prevalence of methamphetamine use without MUD or injection in each year from 2017 to 2019 (60% to 67% vs 37% to 40%; P for trend ≤.001). Adults with MUD or using injection were more likely to use methamphetamine frequently (52.68%-53.84% vs 32.59%; adjusted risk ratio, 1.62-1.65; 95% CI, 1.35-1.94). From 2015 to 2019, the adjusted prevalence of MUD without injection more than tripled among heterosexual women (from 0.24% to 0.74%; P < .001) and lesbian or bisexual women (from 0.21% to 0.71%; P < .001) and more than doubled among heterosexual men (from 0.29% to 0.79%; P < .001) and homosexual or bisexual men (from 0.29% to 0.80%; P = .007). It increased over 10-fold among Black individuals (from 0.06% to 0.64%; P < .001), nearly tripled among White individuals (from 0.28% to 0.78%; P < .001), and more than doubled among Hispanic individuals (from 0.39% to 0.82%; P < .001). Risk factors for methamphetamine use, MUD, injection, and frequent use included lower educational attainment, lower annual household income, lack of insurance, housing instability, criminal justice involvement, comorbidities (eg, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B or C virus, depression), suicidal ideation, and polysubstance use. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found consistent upward trends in overdose mortality, greater risk patterns of methamphetamine use, and populations at higher risk for MUD diversifying rapidly, particularly those with socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities. Evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions are needed to address surges in methamphetamine use and MUD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125538, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533569

RESUMO

Importance: The rate of deaths from overdose has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recent US overdose mortality rates have been markedly high. However, scant data are available on the causes of this increase or subpopulations at elevated risk. Objective: To evaluate the rates and characteristics of deaths from drug overdose before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, population-based cohort study used data from 4 statewide databases linked at the person level via the Rhode Island Data Ecosystem on adults with deaths due to overdose in Rhode Island from January 1 to August 31, 2019, and January 1 to August 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of unintentional deaths from drug-related overdose during the 2019 and 2020 observation periods overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, drugs contributing to the cause of death, location of death, and socioeconomic factors were evaluated. In subgroup analyses restricted to Medicaid beneficiaries (n = 271), the proportions of deaths from overdose by behavioral health treatment and diagnosis claims in the year before death were also examined. Results: A total of 470 adults who died of drug overdose were included in the analysis (353 men [75%]; mean [SD] age, 43.5 [12.1] years). The rate of deaths from overdose in Rhode Island increased 28.1%, from 29.2 per 100 000 person-years in 2019 to 37.4 per 100 000 person-years in 2020 (P = .009). Compared with 2019, rates of deaths due to overdose during 2020 were higher among men (43.2 vs 59.2 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003), non-Hispanic White individuals (31.0 vs 42.0 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), single individuals (54.8 vs 70.4 per 100 000 person-years; P = .04), deaths involving synthetic opioids (20.8 vs 28.3 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), and deaths occurring in a personal residence (13.2 vs 19.7 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003). A decrease in the proportion of deaths from overdose involving heroin (11 of 206 [5%] vs <2% [exact value suppressed]; P = .02) and an increase among persons experiencing job loss (16 of 206 [8%] vs 41 of 264 [16%]; P = .01) from 2019 to 2020 were observed. Among individuals who died of overdose and were Medicaid beneficiaries, the proportions of those aged 50 to 59 years with anxiety (11 of 121 [9%] vs 29 of 150 [19%]; P = .03), men with depression (27 of 121 [22%] vs 57 of 150 [38%]; P = .008), and men with anxiety (28 of 121 [23%] vs 55 of 150 [37%]; P = .02) increased during 2020 compared with 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, during the first 8 months of 2020, the rate of deaths from overdose increased in Rhode Island compared with the same period in 2019, and several emerging characteristics of deaths from drug overdose during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. These findings may inform interventions that address macroenvironmental changes associated with the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhode Island/epidemiologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(34): 1136-1141, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437522

RESUMO

Nonfatal and fatal drug overdoses increased overall from 2019 to 2020 (1).* Illicit benzodiazepines (e.g., etizolam, flualprazolam, and flubromazolam)† were increasingly detected among postmortem and clinical samples in 2020, often with opioids,§ and might have contributed to overall increases in drug overdoses. Availability of recent multistate trend data on nonfatal benzodiazepine-involved overdoses and involvement of illicit benzodiazepines in overdoses is limited. This data gap was addressed by analyzing annual and quarterly trends in suspected benzodiazepine-involved nonfatal overdoses¶ treated in emergency departments (EDs) (benzodiazepine overdose ED visits) during January 2019-December 2020 (32 states and the District of Columbia [DC]) and benzodiazepine-involved overdose deaths (benzodiazepine deaths), which include both illicit and prescription benzodiazepines, during January 2019-June 2020 (23 states) from CDC's Overdose Data to Action (OD2A) program. From 2019 to 2020, benzodiazepine overdose ED visits per 100,000 ED visits increased (23.7%), both with opioid involvement (34.4%) and without (21.0%). From April-June 2019 to April-June 2020, overall benzodiazepine deaths increased 42.9% (from 1,004 to 1,435), prescription benzodiazepine deaths increased 21.8% (from 921 to 1,122), and illicit benzodiazepine deaths increased 519.6% (from 51 to 316). During January-June 2020, most (92.7%) benzodiazepine deaths also involved opioids, mainly illicitly manufactured fentanyls (IMFs) (66.7%). Improving naloxone availability and enhancing treatment access for persons using benzodiazepines and opioids and calling emergency services for overdoses involving benzodiazepines and opioids, coupled with primary prevention of drug use and misuse, could reduce morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 60, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372900

RESUMO

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted healthcare delivery worldwide with likely negative effects on people who use opioids (PWUO). This scoping review of the original research literature describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare delivery for PWUO and identifies gaps in the literature. METHODS: This scoping review of the original research literature maps the available knowledge regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare delivery for PWUO. We utilized the methodology developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for scoping reviews, and content analyses methodology to characterize the current state of the literature. RESULTS: Of the 14 included studies, administrative database (n = 11), cross-sectional (n = 1) or qualitative (n = 2) studies demonstrated service gaps (n = 7), patient/provider experiences (n = 3), and patient outcomes for PWUO (n = 4). In March 2020, healthcare utilization dropped quickly, sharply increasing only for reasons of opioid overdose by May 2020. Service gaps existed in accessing treatment for new patients during the pandemic due to capacity and infrastructure limits. Physicians reported difficulty referring patients to begin an outpatient opioid treatment program due to increased restrictions in capacity and infrastructure. Patients also reported uncertainty about accessing outpatient treatment, but that telehealth initiation of buprenorphine increased access to treatment from home. Disproportionate increases in overdose rates among African Americans were reported in two studies, with differences by race and gender not examined in most studies. Fatal overdoses increased 60% in African Americans during the pandemic, while fatal overdoses in Non-Hispanic White individuals decreased. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this beginning evidence demonstrates that despite early reluctance to use the healthcare system, opioid overdose-related use of healthcare increased throughout the pandemic. Service delivery for medications to treat OUD remained at or above pre-pandemic levels, indicating the ability of telehealth to meet demand. Yet, racial disparities that existed pre-pandemic for PWUO are intensifying, and targeted intervention for high-risk groups is warranted to prevent further mortality. As the pandemic progresses, future research must focus on identifying and supporting subgroups of PWUO who are at heightened risk for experiencing negative outcomes and lack of access to care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/etnologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/organização & administração
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(5): 789-797, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid-overdose deaths are associated with poisoning with prescription and illicit opioids in the USA. In contrast, opioid-related deaths (ORDs) in the UK often involve drugs and substances of misuse, and may not be associated with a high dose of prescribed opioids. This study aimed to investigate the association between prescribed opioid dose and ORDs in UK primary care. METHODS: This case-crossover study used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and death registration between 2000 and 2015 to identify ORDs. Daily oral morphine equivalent (OMEQ) dose was measured within a 90 day focal window before ORD and three earlier reference windows. Conditional logistic regression models assessed the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) comparing daily OMEQ dose greater than 120 mg in the focal window against the reference windows. RESULTS: Of the 232 ORDs, 62 (26.7%) were not prescribed opioids in the year before death. Of the remaining 170 cases, 50 (29.4%) were never prescribed a daily OMEQ dose greater than 50 mg. Daily OMEQ doses over 120 mg (aOR 2.20; 95% CI: 1.06-4.56), co-prescribing gabapentinoids (aOR 2.32; 95% CI: 1.01-5.33), or some antidepressants (aOR 3.03; 95% CI: 1.02-9.04) significantly increased the risk of ORD. CONCLUSIONS: Daily OMEQ dose greater than 120 mg and the concomitant use of psychotropic medicines were related to ORDs in the UK. Prescribers should cautiously avoid prescribing opioids with a daily OMEQ dose greater than 120 mg day-1 and the combination of opioids and gabapentinoids, even with low opioid doses.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e019655, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315285

RESUMO

Background It is unclear whether the recent increase in the number of heart transplants performed annually in the United States is only because of higher availability of donors and if it affected recipients' survival. Methods and Results We examined characteristics of donors and recipients from 2008 to 2012 (n=11 654) and 2013 to 2017 (n=14 556) and compared them with 2003 to 2007 (n=10 869). Cox models examined 30-day and 1-year risk of recipients' death post transplant. From 2013 to 2017, there was an increase in the number of transplanted hearts and number of donor offers but an overall decline in the ratio of hearts transplanted to available donors. Donors between 2013 and 2017 were older, heavier, more hypertensive, diabetic, and likely to have abused illicit drugs compared with previous years. Drug overdose and hepatitis C positive donors were additional contributors to donor risk in recent years. In Cox models, risk of death post transplant between 2013 and 2017 was 15% lower at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98) and 21% lower at 1 year (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.73-0.87) and between 2008 and 2012 was 9% lower at 30 days (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.79-1.05) and 14% lower at 1 year (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94) compared with 2003 to 2007. Conclusions Despite a substantial increase in heart donor offers in recent years, the ratio of transplants performed to available donors has decreased. Even though hearts from donors who are older, more hypertensive, and have diabetes mellitus are being used, overall recipient survival continues to improve. Broader acceptance of drug overdose and hepatitis C positive donors may increase the number and percentage of heart transplants further without jeopardizing short-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/tendências , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribuição , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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