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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 61-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016353

RESUMO

Land reclamation in the Athabasca oil sands region requires construction of entire soil profiles from materials salvaged during mining. Although much attention has been paid to the limited supply of suitable topsoil materials and their impact on ecosystem recovery, suitable clean subsoil materials are also in limited supply, and their efficient and effective use is an important consideration for land managers in the region. Using data from an oil sands reclamation site in northern Alberta, Canada, we compared soil and foliar nutrients to a wildfire-impacted reference ecosystem with a similarity index. Specifically, we evaluated the similarity of forest floor-mineral mix (FFM) and peat-mineral mix (PM) as topsoil, as well as the effect of different depths of salvaged B and C horizon subsoil with PM on top. All reclamation treatments were planted with jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), which were used to examine foliar nutrient concentrations. Individual macronutrient concentrations were different among treatments in total soil nutrients, but differences decreased in soil bioavailable nutrients and disappeared altogether in foliar nutrients. The similarity index revealed that distinct differences existed between treatments, with FFM being the most similar to the wildfire site. It also revealed a potential deficiency in foliar and soil bioavailable Mn on PM, and that increased water content of deeper subsoils had little to no effect. With use of this nutrient profile similarity index, reclamation practitioners may be able to determine if different soil prescriptions lead to higher levels of similarity to natural ecosystems more quickly.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Alberta , Animais , Nutrientes , Ovinos , Solo
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1445-1452, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016443

RESUMO

Volatilization of NH3 following urea application or livestock urine deposition can result in significant loss of N to the environment. Urea hydrolysis to NH4 + results in an increase in pH, which in turn promotes transformation of NH4 + to NH3 . Accurately predicting changes in soil pH following urea (or urine) application will allow successful simulation of NH3 volatilization. The magnitude of the pH change depends on the soil's pH buffering capacity (pHBC). However, as actual pHBC values are not generally available, pHBC proxies (e.g., cation exchange capacity) have been used in modeling studies. In a 34-d laboratory incubation study, we measured soil pH and mineral N (NH4 + and NO3 - ) following a large application of urea (800 mg N kg-1 soil) to four soils with a range of pHBC values. In a second incubation, pH changes and mineral N dynamics were monitored in soil treated with sheep urine (773 mg N kg-1 soil) in the absence and presence of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide. In both incubations, pH changes associated with urea hydrolysis and subsequent nitrification of NH4 + were predicted well using measured pHBC data. Our results confirmed that pHBC is base-type dependent (values greater when measured using KOH than NH4 OH). Soil pHBC is easily measured, and the use of a measured value (determined using NH4 OH) can improve model simulations of pH in the field and, potentially, lead to improved estimates of NH3 loss from animal-deposited urine patches and urea-treated soil.


Assuntos
Solo , Ureia , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrificação , Ovinos , Volatilização
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 481-490, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046927

RESUMO

Climate change is predicted to change the nature and distribution of global farming systems, and strategies will be needed to adapt and optimise global food-producing systems. If genomic technologies are to be useful in this scenario, there is a need for the careful definition of phenotypes and routine sample collection, as well as large-scale genotyping of animal populations. Genomic tools will greatly enhance the characterisation of available germplasm and exploration of local genetic resources, while faster and cheaper DNA sequencing is leading to an increased understanding of the underlying genetic basis of traits. The use of genomic tools to increase animal resilience, reduce methane emissions from cattle and sheep, improve disease resistance, decrease environmental impact, reduce competition for land and water and, finally, increase production may be the most feasible path for the future of livestock production. In this review, the authors discuss various genomic strategies in the light of climate change, focusing on the selection of resistant/tolerant animals, landscape genomics, metagenomics and gene editing.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Genômica , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Genoma , Gado , Ovinos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4853(2): zootaxa.4853.2.2, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056373

RESUMO

An intertidal survey of 34 sampling stations on the main Mascarene Islands of La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues, was conducted between 2015 and 2018. Results of the survey revealed five species of Tethininae, viz. Afrotethina aurisetulosa (Lamb), Dasyrhicnoessa ferruginea (Lamb), D. insularis (Aldrich), D. vockerothi Hardy Delfinado and Pseudorhicnoessa rattii Munari, all of which are new to one or more of the Mascarenes (A. aurisetulosa, D. ferruginea and D. insularis new to all three islands; D. vockerothi new to Mauritius and Rodrigues; and P. rattii new to Rodrigues). Sampled species exhibit a very close affinity with those that occur on Seychelles and the composition of the two faunas is notably superimposable. The distributions of the five species on the three main islands is mapped and an identification key to all genera and species of both archipelagos is provided, with the most significant diagnostic features illustrated. The survey also revealed that the rather common Afrotropical genus Horaismoptera Hendel, which is represented in East Africa, Madagascar, and the southern Arabian Peninsula by H. vulpina Hendel, is most likely absent from both archipelagos.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Ilhas , Ovinos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0228366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866142

RESUMO

The role of questing ticks in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in Kenya's Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR), an ecosystem with intensified human-wildlife-livestock interactions, remains poorly understood. We surveyed the diversity of questing ticks, their blood-meal hosts, and tick-borne pathogens to understand potential effects on human and livestock health. By flagging and hand-picking from vegetation in 25 localities, we collected 1,465 host-seeking ticks, mostly Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma species identified by morphology and molecular analysis. We used PCR with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and sequencing to identify Anaplasma, Babesia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Theileria pathogens and blood-meal remnants in 231 tick pools. We detected blood-meals from humans, wildebeest, and African buffalo in Rh. appendiculatus, goat in Rh. evertsi, sheep in Am. gemma, and cattle in Am. variegatum. Rickettsia africae was detected in Am. gemma (MIR = 3.10) that had fed on sheep and in Am. variegatum (MIR = 250) that had fed on cattle. We found Rickettsia spp. in Am. gemma (MIR = 9.29) and Rh. evertsi (MIR = 200), Anaplasma ovis in Rh. appendiculatus (MIR = 0.89) and Rh. evertsi (MIR = 200), Anaplasma bovis in Rh. appendiculatus (MIR = 0.89), and Theileria parva in Rh. appendiculatus (MIR = 24). No Babesia, Ehrlichia, or Coxiella pathogens were detected. Unexpectedly, species-specific Coxiella sp. endosymbionts were detected in all tick genera (174/231 pools), which may affect tick physiology and vector competence. These findings show that ticks from the MMNR are infected with zoonotic R. africae and unclassified Rickettsia spp., demonstrating risk of African tick-bite fever and other spotted-fever group rickettsioses to locals and visitors. The protozoan pathogens identified may also pose risk to livestock production. The diverse vertebrate blood-meals of questing ticks in this ecosystem including humans, wildlife, and domestic animals, may amplify transmission of tick-borne zoonoses and livestock diseases.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Babesia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella , Ecossistema , Ehrlichia , Humanos , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus , Rickettsia , Ovinos , Theileria , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Zoonoses
6.
F1000Res ; 9: 769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953091

RESUMO

Background: Numerous successful therapies developed for human medicine involve animal experimentation. Animal studies that are focused solely on translational potential, may not sufficiently document unexpected outcomes. Considerable amounts of data from such studies could be used to advance veterinary science. For example, sheep are increasingly being used as models of intensive care and therefore, data arising from such models must be published. In this study, the hypothesis is that there is little information describing cardiorespiratory physiological data from sheep models of intensive care and the author aimed to analyse such data to provide biological information that is currently not available for sheep that received extracorporeal life support (ECLS) following acute smoke-induced lung injury. Methods: Nineteen mechanically ventilated adult ewes undergoing intensive care during evaluation of a form of ECLS (treatment) for acute lung injury were used to collate clinical observations. Eight sheep were injured by acute smoke inhalation prior to treatment (injured/treated), while another eight were not injured but treated (uninjured/treated). Two sheep were injured but not treated (injured/untreated), while one received room air instead of smoke as the injury and was not treated (placebo/untreated). The data were then analysed for 11 physiological categories and compared between the two treated groups. Results: Compared with the baseline, treatment contributed to and exacerbated the deterioration of pulmonary pathology by reducing lung compliance and the arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO 2/FiO 2) ratio. The oxygen extraction index changes mirrored those of the PaO 2/FiO 2 ratio. Decreasing coronary perfusion pressure predicted the severity of cardiopulmonary injury. Conclusions: These novel observations could help in understanding similar pathology such as that which occurs in animal victims of smoke inhalation from house or bush fires, aspiration pneumonia secondary to tick paralysis and in the management of the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Animais , Circulação Coronária , Feminino , Oxigênio/sangue , Pressão Parcial , Ovinos
7.
Heart Surg Forum ; 23(5): E574-E578, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of atrial septal defect (ASD) and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in the treatment of ARDS combined with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) to find a new effective method for treating severe COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five large animal ARDS models of sheep were established by intravenous injection of Lipopolysaccharide. ASD was made under general anesthesia and VA-ECMO was simulated by extracorporeal circulation machine. The oxygenation of peripheral blood, systemic circulation, and cardiac function were observed under conditions of closed and opened ASD, and the significance of ASD shunt in improving cardiopulmonary function was evaluated. RESULTS: With ASD closed, the atrial shunts disappeared, the peripheral artery pressure of oxygen(PaO2): 141.2±21.4mmHg, the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2): 353.0±53.5, the mean blood pressure (MAP): 49.3±13.5 mmHg, the heart was full; with ASD opened, the left-to-right shunt was observed, PaO2: 169.3±18.9mmHg, PaO2/FiO2: 423.3±47.3, MAP: 68.2±16.1 mmHg, the range of cardiac motion significantly increased, heart beat was powerful, and systemic circulation significantly improved. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between opened and closed ASD (P < .01). CONCLUSION: ASD plus VA-ECMO is an effective method for the treatment of ARDS combined with LVD, which is the main cause of death in severe COVID-19 patients. However, further clinical validation is needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Comunicação Interatrial/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Ovinos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4529, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913184

RESUMO

Although Huntington's disease (HD) is a well studied Mendelian genetic disorder, less is known about its associated epigenetic changes. Here, we characterize DNA methylation levels in six different tissues from 3 species: a mouse huntingtin (Htt) gene knock-in model, a transgenic HTT sheep model, and humans. Our epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of human blood reveals that HD mutation status is significantly (p < 10-7) associated with 33 CpG sites, including the HTT gene (p = 6.5 × 10-26). These Htt/HTT associations were replicated in the Q175 Htt knock-in mouse model (p = 6.0 × 10-8) and in the transgenic sheep model (p = 2.4 × 10-88). We define a measure of HD motor score progression among manifest HD cases based on multiple clinical assessments. EWAS of motor progression in manifest HD cases exhibits significant (p < 10-7) associations with methylation levels at three loci: near PEX14 (p = 9.3 × 10-9), GRIK4 (p = 3.0 × 10-8), and COX4I2 (p = 6.5 × 10-8). We conclude that HD is accompanied by profound changes of DNA methylation levels in three mammalian species.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/sangue , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ovinos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 378-391, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755515

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the cause of complicated and difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections such as sepsis, urinary tract infection, catheter related infections, pneumonia and surgical site infections in intensive care units. The biggest problem in infections with K.pneumoniae is that treatment options are limited due to multiple antibiotic resistance and consequently the increased morbidity and mortality. The widespread and improper use of carbapenems can lead to epidemics that are difficult to control, especially in intensive care units because of the acquired resistance to this group of antibiotics. Outbreaks and sporadic cases caused by carbapenem resistant K.pneumoniae (CRKP) species have been reported all over the world in recent years with increased frequency. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors related to carbepenem resistance and mortality caused by K.pneumoniae infections in a university hospital anesthesia intensive care unit. The study was conducted between January 1st, 2016, and December 31st, 2018. Retrospective data were obtained from the patient and laboratory-based surveillance records. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with K.pneumoniae growth in the blood, urine, abscess and tracheal aspirate samples collected 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit were considered as the relevant infection locus-related agent and treated with antibacterial therapy. Clinical samples collected from patients were inoculated onto 5% sheep blood and eosin-methylene-blue (EMB) agar except the blood samples. Blood samples were cultured in blood culture bottles and incubated in an automated system. Gram staining was performed for the samples showing growth signal within five days and then inoculated onto 5% sheep blood and EMB agar media and were incubated for 18-24 hours at 35.5-37°C. Identification of the isolates was performed using Bruker IVD MALDI Biotyper 2.3 (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Almanya) based on "matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)". K.pneumoniae isolates were identified by obtaining reliability scores of 2.0 and above in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with Phoenix 100 (BD, New Jersey, ABD) automated system. Interpretations were made according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. Combination disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction based tests were used to show the presence of carbapenemase in CRKP isolates. A total of 88 patients with K.pneumoniae infection were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 74 ± 15 (range= 21-93) years and 60.2% were female. CRKP was detected in 32 patients (36.4%) and carbapenem-sensitive K.pneumoniae (CSKP) was detected in 56 patients. The presence of OXA-48 was found to be 68.8% in the carbapenem screening test performed by combination disc method in patients with CRKP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that previous use of colistin [Odds ratio (OR)= 19.108; 95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.027-180.133; p= 0.010] and aminoglycoside (OR= 12.189; 95% CI= 1.256-118.334; p= 0.031) was an independent risk factor in terms of CRCP among the patients with K.pneumoniae infection. The 28-day mortality rates were 71.9% in the CRKP group (23/32) and 37.5% in the CSKP group (21/56). Presence of CRKP in terms of 28-day mortality (OR= 5.146; 95% CI= 1.839-14.398; p= 0.002) was an independent risk factor. The data obtained in this study will guide for conducting effective and continuous surveillance studies and implementing rational antibiotic programs to prevent the increase in CRKP.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/mortalidade , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790679

RESUMO

The focus of gastro-intestinal parasite control in the sheep industry is increasingly on finding a balance between maintaining productivity of the flock whilst minimising selection for anthelmintic resistance to preserve anthelmintic efficacy for the future. Periparturient ewes represent the major source of gastro-intestinal parasites for growing lambs and are therefore a priority for parasite control. This study examines the impact on ewe faecal egg counts (FECs), lamb FECs, lamb daily live weight gains (DLWGs) and pasture larval counts of treating groups of ewes two weeks prior to lambing with either, a long-acting moxidectin treatment, short-acting doramectin or control. Six groups of twenty ewes were allocated to individual paddocks, two groups allocated to each treatment, and weekly faecal sampling was performed throughout from the ewes and from six weeks after the start of lambing in the lambs. Treatment group was found to have a significant effect on both ewe FEC (p<0.001) and lamb FEC (p = 0.001) with the group receiving the long-acting anthelmintic having the lowest ewe and lamb FECs. There was no significant effect on the DLWGs of the lambs. Pasture larval counts at the end of the study period were lowest in the long-acting wormer treatment group. The use of long-acting moxidectin may be helpful as part of a parasite control programme by reducing the worm burdens of ewes and their lambs, decreasing the number of anthelmintic treatments required in that year and by reducing pasture contamination for those sheep which will graze the pasture in the next year. However, like all anthelmintics, its use should be judicious to avoid selection for resistance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacocinética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Larva , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776936

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonosis caused by infection with the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. We carried out a systematic literature review on E. granulosus s.l. human and animal (cattle, sheep, dog) infection in European Mediterranean and Balkan countries in 2000-2019, to provide a picture of its recent epidemiology in this endemic area. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Open Grey databases were searched. Included cases were: i) for humans, data from hospital records and imaging studies; ii) for dogs, data from necropsy and coprological studies; iii) for ruminants, cases based on slaughter inspection. The NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) classification was used to categorize extracted data in epidemiological units, defined as data referred to one NUTS2 (basic region) in one year time. Data were then aggregated to NUTS1 level (major regions), calculating the average incidence value of included epidemiological units. For prevalence studies covering different epidemiological units, the pooled prevalence was estimated. Data were extracted from 79 publications, 25 on human infection (covering 437 epidemiological units), and 54 on animal infection (52 epidemiological units for cattle, 35 for sheep and 25 for dogs). At NUTS1 level, average annual incidence rates of human CE ranged from 0.10-7.74/100,000; pooled prevalence values ranged from 0.003-64.09% in cattle, 0.004-68.73% in sheep, and 0-31.86% in dogs. Southern and insular Italy, central Spain, Romania and Bulgaria reported the highest values. Bovine data showed a more similar pattern to human data compared to sheep and dogs. Limitation of evidence included the paucity of human prevalence studies, data heterogeneity, and the patchy geographical coverage, with lack of data especially for the Balkans. Our results confirm Italy, Spain, and Eastern Europe being the most affected areas, but data are extremely heterogeneous, geographical coverage very patchy, and human prevalence studies extremely scant. Results also highlight the notorious problem of underreporting of E. granulosus s.l. infection in both humans and animals.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Ovinos , Zoonoses/parasitologia
13.
Gene ; 760: 145029, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758578

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been widely reported to play a vital role in maintaining intracellular homeostasis, mainly through cellular protection and immune regulation. The expression and function of HSP70 can vary depending upon species and age. To explore the expression signatures and regulatory functions of HSP70 in the reproductive organs of male sheep, we evaluated the expression and distribution patterns of HSP70 in the testes and epididymides (caput, corpus, and cauda) of Tibetan sheep at three developmental stages (i.e., 3 months, 1 year and 3 years after birth) by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. HSP70 was found to be expressed in testes, caput, corpus, and cauda epididymides throughout the developmental stages but is mainly expressed postpuberty (1 year and 3 years old). Immunofluorescence results revealed that in the testes, a positive reaction for HSP70 protein was mainly seen in round spermatids and luminal sperms from the groups aged 1 year and 3 years. In caput epididymides, the positive signals for HSP70 protein was notably observed in sperm and principal cells of the epididymal epithelium from the groups aged 1 year and 3 years, and positive signals in the epididymal interstitium were found in all three age groups. In corpus and cauda epididymides, HSP70 protein was present in the epididymal epithelium and interstitium, and the positive signals gradually increased with age. In conclusion, these findings suggest that Tibetan sheep HSP70 may play a crucial role in further development and maturation of postmeiotic germ cells and participate in regulation of intraepididymal homeostasis maintenance in Tibetan sheep.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genitália/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Animais , Epididimo/metabolismo , Genitália/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Masculino , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Espermátides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857800

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effect of different cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha on the dynamics and concentration of the larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes in the soil and forage strata, as well as their effects on the performance of naturally infected lambs. Overall, 48 90-day-old lambs with an initial weight of 19.04 ± 0.96 kg were observed. Moreover, a randomised block factorial design with four cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Marandu, Xaraés, Piatã and Paiaguás grasses) under intermittent stocking (with a pre-grazing canopy height of 40 cm and post-grazing canopy height of 20 cm) for two grazing cycles was used. The following variables were analysed: faecal egg counting, faecal culture, mean corpuscular volume, FAMACHA© score, weight and body condition score, the recovery of larvae from pasture and soil samples, nutritional value and the production and structural components of forage. Lambs grazing Marandu grass demonstrated the highest level of nematode infection (P < 0.05). However, the nutritional value did not differ between cultivars. Marandu grass had the highest pasture density (P < 0.05), while Paiaguás grass had the highest percentage of dead material (P < 0.05). The various genera of gastrointestinal nematodes found in the faecal cultures, regardless of the cultivars, include Haemonchus (92.01%), Trichostrongylus (4.55%), Strongyloides (3.06%) and Oesophagostomum (0.37%). Lambs grazing Xaraés grass had the lowest body weight (P < 0.05). Furthermore, larvae concentrations were highest in Marandu and Paiaguás pastures; infective Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus larvae were recovered from pasture and soil samples. The different cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha produce diverse and relevant microclimatic conditions to contaminate soil, pastures and animals. Animal performance was not compromised despite the Marandu and Paiaguás cultivars having the highest levels of contamination and infection. Based on parasitological aspects, the Brachiaria brizantha cultivars Xaraés and Piatã are recommended for grass-based sheep production systems over the other cultivars since they contribute to the reduction of larval contamination and infection.


Assuntos
Brachiaria , Meio Ambiente , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857803

RESUMO

The mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP) represents an interaction between intravascular volume and global cardiovascular compliance (GCC). Intravascular volume expansion using fluid resuscitation is the most frequent intervention in intensive care and emergency medicine for patients in shock and with haemodynamic compromise. The relationship between dynamic changes in MSFP, GCC and left ventricular compliance is unknown. We conducted prospective interventional pilot study following euthanasia in post cardiotomy adult sheep, investigating the relationships between changes in MSFP induced by rapid intravascular filling with fluids, global cardiovascular compliance and left ventricular compliance. This pilot investigation suggested a robust correlation between a gradual increase in the intravascular stressed volume from 0 to 40 ml/kg and the MSFP r = 0.708 95% CI 0.435 to 0.862, making feasible future prospective interventional studies. Based on the statistical modelling from the pilot results, we expect to identify a strong correlation of 0.71 ± 0.1 (95% CI) between the MSFP and the stressed intravascular volume in a future study.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo , Hemodinâmica , Animais , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ovinos , Estresse Fisiológico , Função Ventricular/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817695

RESUMO

Coat colour is one of the most important economic traits of sheep and is mainly used for breed identification and characterization. This trait is determined by the biochemical function, availability and distribution of phaeomelanin and eumelanin pigments. In our study, we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify candidate genes and genetic variants associated with coat colour in 75 Chinese Tan sheep using the ovine 600K SNP BeadChip. Accordingly, we identified two significant SNPs (rs409651063 at 14.232 Mb and rs408511664 at 14.228 Mb) associated with coat colour in the MC1R gene on chromosome 14 with -log10(P) = 2.47E-14 and 1.00E-13, respectively. The consequence of rs409651063 was a missense variant (g.14231948 G>A) that caused an amino acid change (Asp105Asn); however, the second SNP (rs408511664) was a synonymous substitution and is an upstream variant (g.14228343G>A). Moreover, our PCR analysis revealed that the genotype of white sheep was exclusively homozygous (GG), whereas the genotypes of black-head sheep were mainly heterozygous (GA). Interestingly, allele-specific expression analysis (using the missense variant for the skin cDNA samples from black-head sheep) revealed that only the G allele was expressed in the skin covered with white hair, while both the G and A alleles were expressed in the skin covered with black hair. This finding indicated that the missense mutation that we identified is probably responsible for white coat colour in Tan sheep. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of MC1R mRNA level in the skin samples was significantly higher in black-head than white sheep and very significantly higher in GA than GG individuals. Taken together, these results help to elucidate the genetic mechanism underlying coat colour variation in Chinese indigenous sheep.


Assuntos
Cor de Cabelo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Lã/metabolismo
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20190340, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756844

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of genetic group and sex on residual feed intake, performance, testicular size, carcass and morphometric traits in Santa Ines purebred and Dorper ´ Santa Ines crossbred lambs. A total of 32 lambs, with initial body weight of 18±3.7 kg were used. Analysis of variance, considering the interaction between sex and genetic group of all the traits were performed. Crossbred females (-0.018±0.06) and purebred males (-0.018±0.05) were more efficient (p<0.001) in residual feed intake than crossbred males (0.018±0.04) or purebred females (0.018±0.04). The most efficient animal in residual feed intake consumed 37.9% less feed (1.179 kg/day) than the least efficient animal (1.899 kg/day). Crossbred, when compared to purebred, showed higher values for body weight, average daily gain, testicle size, carcass traits; had greater muscle accumulation, were more compact and with more aptitude to beef. Purebred were taller, but with lower body length and thoracic perimeter than crossbred. Males had greater muscle accumulation, were more compact and with more aptitude to meat. Crossing of native (Santa Ines) with exotic breed (Dorper) is an alternative to align efficiency in feed use, testicular size, compactness, aptitude for meat and ability for muscle accumulation.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Testículo , Ração Animal , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Carne , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(6): 668-672, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842284

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the correlation between dietary N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) intake and chronic inflammation state of body. Methods: A total of 306 samples of 102 types of food were purchased from a supermarket in Xiamen in September 2019, including grains, meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, beans, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. The content of Neu5Gc in food was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 500 healthy freshmen from Xiamen University were selected by using a simple random sampling method. The food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the food intake in the past year. The food intake was corrected by 3 consecutive 24-hour recalls, and the amount of Neu5Gc intake was calculated. The concentration of anti-Neu5Gc antibody, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum was detected. Spearman correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between Neu5Gc intake and anti-Neu5Gc antibody, CRP and IL-6 levels. Results: Neu5Gc was mainly found in red meat and liquid dairy products. The contents of Neu5Gc in beef, lamb and pork were (30.32±2.84), (20.39±4.73) and (5.58±1.04) mg/kg, respectively, and in liquid milk and yogurt were (10.87±1.54) and (6.91±0.24) mg/L, respectively. The M (P25, P75) intake of Neu5Gc for all participants was 4.62 (2.20, 8.60) mg/d. The M(P25, P75) intake of Neu5Gc for males about 6.60(2.83, 10.20) was higher than that for females about [3.84 (1.84, 6.35) mg/d] (P<0.001). The M (P25, P75) of serum anti-Neu5Gc, CRP and IL-6 levels were 3.07 (2.17, 4.14) µg/ml, 0.37 (0.22, 0.87) mg/ml and 61.82 (12.23, 315.30) pg/ml, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the intake level of Neu5Gc was positively correlated with serum anti-Neu5Gc antibody, CRP and IL-6 levels, with rs values about 0.222, 0.102 and 0.126, respectively (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: Dietary Neu5Gc intake is mainly from red meat and liquid dairy products, and its intake level is positively correlated with chronic inflammatory state of body.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Ácidos Neuramínicos , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Ovinos
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