Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 114.583
Filtrar
1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 381, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195890

RESUMO

The study investigated the effects of dietary protein degradation rate on growth performance and immune response of crossbred Dorper × short-tail Han ram lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Eighteen lambs were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments, rapidly degradable protein (RDP), moderately degradable protein (MDP), and slowly degradable protein (SDP) diets. Feed intake and body weight of the lambs were recorded weekly until 42 days post-infection. The fecal egg count (FEC), FAMACHA scores, and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) were also monitored during the experimental period. A metabolic trial was conducted to assess apparent digestibility and volatile fatty acids were also determined. The lambs in SDP and MDP groups had higher feed, nutrient intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency than those in the RDP group. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the lambs in RDP group was higher than those in the SDP and MDP groups. A significant (P < 0.001) decrease in FEC was observed in the SDP and MDP groups. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on FAMACHA scores and concentration of serum antibodies. Concentration of acetic acid was higher (P < 0.013) in the lambs fed RDP than those fed the SDP and MDP diets. The lambs fed SDP diet had higher apparent digestibility than those fed the RDP diet. The poor performances in RDP group could be overcome by including SDP that ensures adequate post-ruminal protein supply reaching the small intestine.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Fezes , Hemoncose/veterinária , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Trichostrongylus
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198577

RESUMO

(1) Background: Screening of medicinal herbs is one of the most powerful approaches to identifying novel therapeutic molecules against many human diseases. To avoid potential harmful effects during medicinal use, toxicity testing is necessary in the early stages of drug discovery. The objective of this study was to identify the cytotoxic mechanisms of jegosaponin A and B from Styrax japonica Siebold et al. Zuccarini; (2) Methods: We screened Japanese medicinal herb extracts using PC-3 prostate cancer cells and found that a methanol extract isolated from the unripe fruit of Styrax japonica Siebold et al. Zuccarini (SJSZ) had an inhibitory effect on cell viability. We further performed fractionation assays with PC-3 cells and identified the bioactive compounds using LC/MS and NMR analysis. We clarified the toxic mechanisms of these compounds using PC-3 cells and zebrafish embryos; (3) Results: We identified two active molecules, jegosaponin A and jegosaponin B, in the inhibitory fractions of the methanol extract. These jegosaponins are toxic to zebrafish embryos during the early developmental stage. Jegosaponin A and B showed strong haemolytic activity in sheep defibrinated blood (EC50 = 2.1 µM, and 20.2 µM, respectively) and increased the cell membrane permeability in PC-3 cells and zebrafish embryos, which were identified using a membrane non-permeable DRAQ7, a fluorescent nucleus staining dye; (4) We identified the cytotoxic compounds jegosaponin A and B from SJSZ, which we showed to exhibit cell membrane disruptive properties using cell- and zebrafish-based testing.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Saponinas/toxicidade , Styrax/química , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Saponinas/química , Ovinos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
3.
Yi Chuan ; 43(6): 580-600, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284989

RESUMO

Genetic modification technologies can be used for modifying animal genome to express exogenous genes or affect the function of endogenous genes. In animal breeding, genetic modification technologies allow the rapid generation of germplasms with beneficial traits. It includes traditional genetic modification, virus or sperm carrier-mediated genetic modification and nuclease-mediated genome editing, especially the CRISPR/Cas9, one of the artificial nuclease genome editing technologies, have been applied in genome editing in many domestic animals including sheep (Ovis aries). Compared with conventional strategies used for animal breeding, there is great value for sheep breeding improvement by using genome editing technology, which is more effective and timesaving. In this review, we summarize the approaches of genetic modification in sheep and discuss the possibility of molecular design and breeding of sheep by genome editing technologies. We also identify the potential bottlenecks and challenges of these technologies in sheep breeding.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ovinos/genética , Tecnologia
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 387, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218348

RESUMO

The research aimed at identifying livestock performance indicators used by farmers in Malipati community, Zimbabwe, and use them in developing a monitoring and evaluation framework for livestock interventions. Mixed methods research was used in the study. A questionnaire was administered to identify performance indicators of preference by farmers. Focus group discussions were done to rank performance indicators. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 25, and data were analysed using the ranking matrix. Scientific validity of performance indicators was determined through literature review. The study concluded that performance indicators of importance in poultry, cattle, goats/sheep, and donkeys were egg production, milk yield, kidding/lambing interval, and animal power, respectively. All performance indicators identified by farmers in Malipati are scientifically valid and were used in the development of the monitoring and evaluation framework.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendeiros , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos , Zimbábue
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 394, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245354

RESUMO

Sheep production is traditional for rural communities in Mexico, based on natural grasslands and semi-stabled feeding. Quality forages are necessary to improve productivity in these systems. Weeds are an alternative to feed ruminants and to manage crops. Also, many plants have secondary metabolites beneficial for livestock. The objective was to assess the nutritive value in vitro and the antioxidant activity of three weeds (Tithonia tubiformis, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Tagetes lucida) and four treatments (T0 = control diet, T1 = diet + 5% T. tubiformis, T2 = diet + 5% C. bipinnatus, and T3 = diet + 5% T. lucida). Nutritive value was determined from chemical composition by standard methods and mineral contents by inductively coupled plasma analyses. Secondary compounds, total phenols (TP), total tannins (TT), condensed tannins (CT), and phenolic compounds, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and total antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Rumen fermentation kinetics and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD), organic matter (IVOMD), and neutral detergent fibre (IVNDFD) were determined per species and treatment by in vitro gas production. T. tubiformis had the highest CP and TP contents (P < 0.05), and C. bipinnatus had the highest fibre and CT contents (P < 0.05). Inclusion of T. lucida in the diet resulted in an 18% increase in TP content and a 30% increase in antioxidant activity in comparison to the control diet. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in rumen kinetics parameters, IVDMD, IVOMD, IVNDFD, or metabolizable energy, indicating that the tested weeds can be used as additives to increase antioxidant activity in sheep diets without negative effects.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , México , Valor Nutritivo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290019

RESUMO

Isolated hydatid disease of the breast is a rare condition, possessing a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians. Hydatid disease is common in endemic areas affecting most commonly the liver and lungs. Other organs rarely involved are the kidney, bone and brain. It is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, widely spread by cattle and sheep. Humans are the accidental host for this organism. We present a similar case of isolated hydatid cyst of the breast, which was diagnosed preoperatively and managed successfully.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Animais , Mama/cirurgia , Bovinos , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/cirurgia , Humanos , Fígado , Ovinos
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 693914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295839

RESUMO

Moniezia expansa (M. expansa) parasitizes the small intestine of sheep and causes inhibited growth and development or even death. Being globally distributed, it causes considerable economic losses to the animal husbandry industry. Here, using Illumina, PacBio and BioNano techniques, we obtain a high-quality genome assembly of M. expansa, which has a total length of 142 Mb, a scaffold N50 length of 7.27 Mb and 8,104 coding genes. M. expansa has a very high body fat content and a specific type of fatty acid metabolism. It cannot synthesize any lipids due to the loss of some key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and it may can metabolize most lipids via the relatively complete fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway. The M. expansa genome encodes multiple lipid transporters and lipid binding proteins that enable the utilization of lipids in the host intestinal fluid. Although many of its systems are degraded (with the loss of homeobox genes), its reproductive system is well developed. PL10, AGO, Nanos and Pumilio compose a reproductive stem cell regulatory network. The results suggest that the high body lipid content of M. expansa provides an energy source supporting the high fecundity of this parasite. Our study provides insight into host interaction, adaptation, nutrient acquisition, strobilization, and reproduction in this parasite and this is also the first genome published in Anoplocephalidae.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Reprodução , Ovinos , Células-Tronco
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 203: 114219, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216844

RESUMO

This study emphases on electrochemical detection of ciprofloxacin in sheep serum and runoff water using silver nanoparticle modified ß-cyclodextrin (Ag-ß-CD) composite. The Ag-ß-CD composite was synthesized via a hydrothermal route, which resulted in a high product yield. Morphological and spectral characterizations of the Ag-ß-CD composite were carried out. The Ag-ß-CD composite was used to detect ciprofloxacin by employing differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Ag-ß-CD modified electrode displayed excellent specificity towards the electro-oxidation of ciprofloxacin. Further, the sensor gave the best response towards the electro-oxidation of ciprofloxacin near the human physiological pH of 7.5. A linear response was obtained between the concentration range of 0.1 nM to 50 nM and the limit of detection (LOD) at 0.028 nM with high sensitivity and selectivity towards ciprofloxacin oxidation. The current work has a rationally synthesized and characterized nanocomposite with a very high potential for rapid and sensitive detection of ciprofloxacin in spiked sheep blood serum and domestic runoff water samples. High sensitivity and low LOD results illustrate good practicability for the detection of ciprofloxacin in such samples in the near future.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Animais , Ciprofloxacina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Ovinos , Prata
9.
Biol Lett ; 17(7): 20210222, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256582

RESUMO

Mummified remains have long attracted interest as a potential source of ancient DNA. However, mummification is a rare process that requires an anhydrous environment to rapidly dehydrate and preserve tissue before complete decomposition occurs. We present the whole-genome sequences (3.94 X) of an approximately 1600-year-old naturally mummified sheep recovered from Chehrabad, a salt mine in northwestern Iran. Comparative analyses of published ancient sequences revealed the remarkable DNA integrity of this mummy. Hallmarks of postmortem damage, fragmentation and hydrolytic deamination are substantially reduced, likely owing to the high salinity of this taphonomic environment. Metagenomic analyses reflect the profound influence of high-salt content on decomposition; its microbial profile is predominated by halophilic archaea and bacteria, possibly contributing to the remarkable preservation of the sample. Applying population genomic analyses, we find clustering of this sheep with Southwest Asian modern breeds, suggesting ancestry continuity. Genotyping of a locus influencing the woolly phenotype showed the presence of an ancestral 'hairy' allele, consistent with hair fibre imaging. This, along with derived alleles associated with the fat-tail phenotype, provides genetic evidence that Sasanian-period Iranians maintained specialized sheep flocks for different uses, with the 'hairy', 'fat-tailed'-genotyped sheep likely kept by the rural community of Chehrabad's miners.


Assuntos
Múmias , Animais , DNA Antigo , Genoma , Irã (Geográfico) , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2433-2439, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313061

RESUMO

Grazing is the dominant land use way for natural grasslands. Different grazing intensities could affect soil stoichiometry in grasslands by influencing the selective feeding by livestock, litter input, and microbial community structure. In this study, a grazing experiment was carried out in a grassland of agro-pastoral ecotone in Northern China for three years (2017-2019). The concentrations of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in soils were measured. We analyzed the stoichiometric characteristics of those parameters. The results showed that different grazing intensities (1, 2, 4 sheep·0.2 hm-2) had no significant effect on soil TC after three years. The moderate grazing intensity significantly reduced soil TN in 10-20 cm layer in 2019. The light, moderate, and heavy grazing intensities significantly increased soil C/N at 10-20 cm layer, while grazing intensities did not affect soil DOC, DN and DOC/DN. The soil DOC and DN content showed a decreasing trend with the increase of grazing intensity in 2019. It indicated that continuous high intensity grazing might reduce soil dissolved nutrients. The light grazing inten-sity increased soil MBC, while heavy grazing intensity reduced soil MBC significantly, with the increase of grazing year. Different grazing intensities did not affect soil MBN and MBC/MBN.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Solo , Animais , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are key immunomodulatory factors that can markedly ameliorate or exacerbate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We recently demonstrated that central infusion of the TLR7 agonist Gardiquimod (GDQ) following asphyxia was highly neuroprotective after 3 days but not 7 days of recovery. We hypothesize that this apparent transient neuroprotection is associated with modulation of seizure-genic processes and hemodynamic control. METHODS: Fetuses received sham asphyxia or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion (20.9 ± 0.5 min) and were monitored continuously for 7 days. GDQ 3.34 mg or vehicle were infused intracerebroventricularly from 1 to 4 h after asphyxia. RESULTS: GDQ infusion was associated with sustained moderate hypertension that resolved after 72 h recovery. Electrophysiologically, GDQ infusion was associated with reduced number and burden of postasphyxial seizures in the first 18 h of recovery (p < 0.05). Subsequently, GDQ was associated with induction of slow rhythmic epileptiform discharges (EDs) from 72 to 96 h of recovery (p < 0.05 vs asphyxia + vehicle). The total burden of EDs was associated with reduced numbers of neurons in the caudate nucleus (r2 = 0.61, p < 0.05) and CA1/2 hippocampal region (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that TLR7 activation by GDQ modulated blood pressure and suppressed seizures in the early phase of postasphyxial recovery, with subsequent prolonged induction of epileptiform activity. Speculatively, this may reflect delayed loss of early protection or contribute to differential neuronal survival in subcortical regions.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Terapias Fetais/métodos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Convulsões/etiologia , Ovinos
12.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup7): S28-S34, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue of the sacrococcygeal region and remains a challenging disease for clinicians to treat. The optimal treatment for PSD remains controversial and recent reports describe several different surgical approaches offering different benefits. Approximately 40% of initial incision and drainage cases require subsequent surgery. Due to high recurrence rates and postoperative complications, a more complex revision surgery involving a flap reconstruction may be required. We hypothesised that the combination of an extracellular matrix (ECM) graft with tissue flap reconstruction may decrease the postoperative complications and recurrence rates for PSD. METHOD: We report a retrospective case series using a surgical flap reconstruction with concomitant implantation of an ovine forestomach ECM graft under a fasciocutaneous flap with an off-midline closure for recurrent PSD, where previously surgical intervention had failed due to wound dehiscence and/or recurrent disease. RESULTS: The case series included six patients. After three weeks, all patients except one were fully healed, and the sixth was fully healed by week 4; all wounds remained fully healed at 12 weeks. All patients achieved good cosmesis and were able to return to normal function without any residual symptoms. CONCLUSION: This pilot case series explored augmenting a flap reconstruction for complex PSD with advanced ECM graft materials, demonstrating that it may improve outcomes and minimise typical complications seen in flap closure, such as inflammation, infection, haematoma/seroma and hypoperfusion. Although the study had a limited number of participants, long-term outcomes were promising and suggest that further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Seio Pilonidal , Animais , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Seio Pilonidal/cirurgia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208011

RESUMO

In this study, a modified imaging algorithm was implemented to improve the imaging accuracy for defects located on a structure. Based on analysis of the Lamb wave mode, a guided ultrasonic wave inspection technique was applied, which was able to illustrate images of defects in a 6 mm steel plate simulating containment liner plate (CLP) in nuclear power plants. The dominant Lamb wave mode was determined through short-time Fourier transform waveform analysis and imaging verification. Following tomography verification, limitations of the antisymmetric mode in the thick steel plate were identified. In addition, a modified shape factor, based on the energy distribution factor according to the beam pattern and beam width, was suggested for field applications and improved imaging accuracy. Results of the analysis revealed a beam skewing phenomenon for the Lamb wave mode. In the case of S0 2.7 MHz·mm, skewing as well as distortion effects are not observed in the experiment, while the S0 modes at 2.64 and 2.74 MHz·mm show either of them. Considering skewing width, the size of the shape function was modified. Application of the modified shape function allows us to obtain more accurate image to actual defect shape.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aumento da Imagem , Animais , Fenômenos Físicos , Ovinos , Tomografia
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 388, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218302

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L-carnosine administration to prepartum ewes on oxidative status, lipid profile and thermoregulatory responses in the tropics during the hot-dry season. Twenty pregnant ewes were allotted each into two groups of treated and untreated ewes. The untreated ewes received orally 10 mL of water, while treated ewes were administered orally with L-carnosine (100 mg/kg) daily during the last 3 weeks of gestation. Blood samples were obtained during pre-gestation on day 0, gestation days 136 and 143 and after lambing. Dry-bulb temperatures (DBTs) of the pen were measured once per week at 06:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h as well as the thermoregulatory responses of the ewes. Birth weights of the lambs were determined 2-3 h postpartum. The DBT (37.33 ± 1.20 °C) and temperature-humidity index (85.24 ± 1.91) were above the thermoneutral zone. The results revealed no significant effect of L-carnosine on thermoregulatory responses of ewes and on the live-birth weight of their lambs. Malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane and triglyceride concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) in treated ewes than in untreated ewes, but superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were higher (P < 0.05) in treated ewes compared to untreated ewes. In conclusion, L-carnosine reduced lipo-peroxidative products and augmented antioxidant enzyme activities in prepartum ewes under hot-dry conditions.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Ovinos
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 392, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231076

RESUMO

Blood and faecal samples from 2086 Sahelian and Djallonke sheep have been collected to assess the epidemiology and spatio-temporal distribution of gastrointestinal parasites. A survey with a questionnaire allowed collecting data on individual animal and farms. Faecal samples were analysed using the McMaster technique, while anaemia was assessed using FAMACHA score test and packed cell volume. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 91%, and strongyles (70.7%), Eimeria sp. (60.4%), Moniezia sp. (5.7%), Stronyloides sp. (0.9%) were identified. There was no significant association between the region and strongyles infection (P ˃ 0.05). Animals sampled during the rainy season (n = 565; P = 82.2%, mean EPG = 154.8 ± 12.02) were mostly and heavily infected than those from the hot dry (n = 518; P = 74.2%; mean EPG = 97.7 ± 17.4) and the cold dry season (n = 392; P = 55.5%; mean EPG = 24.5 ± 19.5) (P ˂ 0.05). Females (n = 1027; P = 72.1%; mean EPG = 77.6 ± 17) were most infected than males (n = 448; P = 67.7%; mean EPG = 61.6 ± 19.5) (P ˂ 0.05). Animals that were treated, at most 3 months before sampling (n = 166; P = 61.5%; mean EPG = 41.7 ± 21.4), were less infected than those, which received this treatment after three months before sampling (n = 199; P = 74.8%; mean EPG = 89.1 ± 15.8) (P ˂ 0.05). Data from blood samples indicate that 6.5% of sheep was anaemic (PCV ≤ 19%), while 59.7% was noted anaemic regarding FAMACHA scores. PCV values varied significantly for FAMACHA scores, and the highest mean value was noted for score 1 (27.6) (P ˂ 0.05). The Cohen's kappa score between FAMACHA and PCV was 0.02. These findings suggest that strongyles infections are significantly associated with season, and heavier infections were noted during rainy season.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Agricultura , Animais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fezes , Feminino , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e249745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231666

RESUMO

Today, most of the world's population faces water scarcity, while global warming, urbanization, industrialization and population increases continue to increase the severity of the pressure on water resources. Management of water resources plays a key role in the sustainability of agricultural production. The water footprint (WF) is different in comparison to other water statistics because it takes direct and indirect water consumption into account, and helps in the management of water resources. Within this context, the WF of Van province, which is Turkey's most easterly located arid region, was calculated from 2004 to 2019. The study area covers lake Van, which is Turkey's largest lake, and the Van basin with an area of 23.334 km2 and a population of 1.136.757 (2019). In the calculations, crop (WFcrop), livestock (WFlivestock), and domestic and industrial water footprints (WFdomestic+industrial) were evaluated separately, and blue and green water footprints (WFblue and WFgreen) were analyzed in detail. According to the results, the average WF of Van province was found to be 8.73 billion m3 year-1. Throughout the province, 87.6% of the WF is composed of WFcrop, 4.9% is WFlivestock and 7.5% is WFdomestic+industrial. Of the WFcrop, 62.5% depends on WFblue, i.e., freshwater. Most of the WFlivestock consisted of dairy cattle (49%) and sheep (38%). The average WFdomestic+industrial for 2004 to 2019 was 0.64 billion m3 year-1. The average per capita water footprint of Van province was found to be 889.9 m3 year-1 capita-1. In addition, the province is classified as severe water scarcity (257%). This study is one of the first province-based calculations of WF in Turkey and is the first study to bring a different aspect to published literature by including residual soil moisture from the winter months. As a result of this study, the WFblue of the WFcrop is above the worldwide average and should be reduced by changing the crop pattern or synchronizing the planting and harvest dates of the crops to a period that benefits from precipitation. In addition, this study is expected to contribute to new studies for calculating the provincial scale WF and will have positive effects on agricultural planning, water allocation and the sustainability of water resources.


Assuntos
Insegurança Hídrica , Água , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Turquia , Recursos Hídricos
17.
Gene ; 799: 145809, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224833

RESUMO

Changthangi is a high-altitude sheep breed of India that is adapted to cold and hypoxic climate of Himalayas. In the present study, we analysed population structure of Changthangi and contrasted it with selected Indian and European commercial sheep breeds to detect genomic regions under positive selection. The Illumina OvineSNP50v1 genotype data on 292 animals from seven different sheep breeds i.e., Changthangi (n = 29), Garole (n = 26), Deccani (n = 24), Tibetan (n = 37), Rambouillet (n = 102) and Australian Merino (n = 50) was used. European Mouflon (n = 24) was used as an out-group for studying the stratification and phylogenetic lineage. While the principal component analysis (PCA) revealed Changthangi to cluster with Tibetan sheep; TREEMIX and ADMIXTURE results also detected the introgression of lowland Indian sheep inheritance in Changthangi. Changthangi sheep were compared with other breed groups as reference i.e., commercial (Australian Merino and Rambouillet), Indian (Deccani, Garole and Tibetan) and breeds inhabiting plains (Australian Merino, Rambouillet, Deccani and Garole). Genomic comparisons of Changthangi using cross population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) showed multiple functional regions present on Ovis aries (Oar) chromosomes 2, 3, 6 and 18 to be under selection in Changthangi sheep. These regions were related with adaptation to climatic and hypoxic stressors, fleece characteristics and functioning of immune and reproductive systems. UCP genes, associated with adaptation to cold and hypoxic conditions, were the main loci under positive selection in Changthangi sheep population. The selection signals in Indian and European commercial sheep breeds were mainly associated with body weight and carcass traits. Furthermore, selection signals found in different comparisons were found to be part of different quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with important traits in different breed classes. The genes present in these regions are suitable candidates for future studies on the genetic mechanisms underlying high-altitude adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Genética Populacional , Índia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética
18.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279614

RESUMO

At the spring, goat and sheep herds are transferred to planted forests, in a semi-arid region in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, to reduce herbaceous biomass and, fire risk. The herds are held overnight in corrals for about 4 months, enriching the soil with organic matter and nitrogen. This research examined the effect of these enrichments on soil bacterial community structure (BCS) and the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in active and abandoned corrals (1-10-years-old). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla dominated the soil of all corrals. The Actinobacteria were less abundant in the active and 1-year-old corrals (23-26%) than in the other corrals and the control (33-38%). A principal component analysis showed that, the BCS in the active and the 1-year-old abandoned corrals was significantly different from that in the older corrals and the control. The Firmicutes phylum constituted 28% of the BCS in the active corrals, 12.5% in the 1-year-old corrals and 2% in the older corrals and the control. In contrast, the Acidobacteria phylum was hardly detected in the active and 1-year-old abandoned corrals and constituted 10% of the BCS in the older corrals. Genes conferring resistance to tetracycline were detected in high numbers. The tetG and tetW genes were detected in the active and abandoned corrals (1-10 years). The tetQ gene was detected only in the active and 1-year-old abandoned corrals. None of the genes were detected in the control soil. The three genes were detected outside an active corral, in the downstream section of an ephemeral tributary. The results prove that abandoned and unobserved periodic animal corrals are an environmental reservoir for TRGs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Animais , Florestas , Israel , Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 492, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue leading to yellow fat is, in sheep, a heritable recessive trait that can be attributed to a nonsense mutation in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene. However, not all sheep breeds suffering from yellow fat have this nonsense mutation, meaning that other functional mechanisms must exist. We investigated one such breed, the Norwegian spælsau. RESULTS: In spælsau we detected an aberration in BCO2 mRNA. Nanopore sequencing of genomic DNA revealed the insertion of a 7.9 kb endogenous Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (enJSRV) sequence in the first intron of the BCO2 gene. Close examination of its cDNA revealed that the BCO2 genes first exon was spliced together with enJSRV-sequence immediately downstream of a potential -AG splice acceptor site at enJSRV position 415. The hybrid protein product consists of 29 amino acids coded by the BCO2 exon 1, one amino acid coded by the junction sequence, followed by 28 amino acids arbitrary coded for by the enJSRV-sequence, before a translation stop codon is reached. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that the functional BCO2 protein consists of 575 amino acids, it is unlikely that the 58 amino acid BCO2/enJSRV hybrid protein can display any enzymatic function. The existence of this novel BCO2 allele represents an alternative functional mechanism accounting for BCO2 inactivation and is a perfect example of the potential benefits for searching for structural variants using long-read sequencing data.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Jaagsiekte de Ovinos , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , DNA Complementar , Éxons , Retrovirus Jaagsiekte de Ovinos/genética , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 372, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173068

RESUMO

The present study aims to determine the hematology, serum biochemistry, and acute phase proteins (APPs) responses of both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in sheep fed with low and high levels of Brachiaria decumbens (B. decumbens) diets at different time phases. A total of 30 6-month-old male Dorper cross sheep were randomly divided into three treatment groups consisted of 10 sheep each. Treatment 1 (control) sheep were fed with Pennisetum purpureum and concentrates as the basal diet, whereas Treatments 2 and 3 sheep were fed with low (10%) and high (60%) level of B. decumbens, respectively. The hematology results revealed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, platelets, and plasma proteins between groups. Except for packed cell volume, there were also significant differences in all hematology parameters at different time phases. All biochemistry parameters except creatinine revealed significant differences among treatment groups. However, there were significant differences in all parameters between time. On the other hand, APPs results showed significant differences in the serum haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in both serum and CSF between groups and time.


Assuntos
Brachiaria , Hematologia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Proteínas de Fase Aguda , Animais , Dieta , Masculino , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...