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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1148: 255-277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482503

RESUMO

Hyaluronidases are enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid, which constitutes an essential part of the extracellular matrix. Initially discovered in bacteria, hyaluronidases are known to be widely distributed in nature and have been found in many classes including insects, snakes, fish and mammals. In the human, six different hyaluronidases, HYAL1-4, HYAL-P1 and PH-20, have been identified. PH-20 exerts the strongest biologic activity, is found in high concentrations in the testicles and can be localized on the head and the acrosome of human spermatozoa. Today, animal-derived bovine or ovine testicular hyaluronidases as well as synthetic hyaluronidases are clinically applied as adjuncts to increase the bioavailability of drugs, for the therapy of extravasations, or for the management of complications associated with the aesthetic injection of hyaluronic acid-based fillers. Further applications in the fields of surgery, aesthetic medicine, immunology, oncology, and many others can be expected for years to come. Here, we give an overview over the molecular and cellular mode of action of hyaluronidase and the hyaluronic acid metabolism, as well as over current and potential future clinical applications of hyaluronidase.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Ovinos , Testículo/enzimologia
3.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 270-277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507192

RESUMO

Orf, also called contagious ecthyma or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a significant zoonotic disease that primarily affects goat and sheep globally. Currently, the infection by orf virus (ORFV) has been observed in different host species worldwide, including China. Here, a suspected outbreak of orf infection in a goat farm in Anhui Province in 2018 was investigated. Through PCR, electron microscopy, and cell culture techniques, we confirmed that the outbreak was caused by ORFV. Consequently, the orf virus strain was named the AH/LA/2018 strain. The amplified and sequenced ORFV011 (B2L) and ORFV059 (F1L) genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees to elucidate the genetic characteristics of the ORFV and the molecular epidemiology of orf. The present study is the first systematic evolution analysis of the ORFV strain isolated in Anhui Province. The results of this study will be helpful to better understand the characteristics of ORFV, to help prevent and control the transmission of ORFV at an early stage in China. Keywords: Anhui Province; goat; orf virus; phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Ectima Contagioso , Vírus do Orf , Filogenia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China/epidemiologia , Ectima Contagioso/virologia , Genes Virais/genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Vírus do Orf/classificação , Vírus do Orf/ultraestrutura , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 522-527, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483036

RESUMO

The anthelmintic resistance stimulated the search for strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes, including the use of free essential oils or its nanoemulsion. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (CcEO) and C. citratus essential oil nanoemulsion (CcEOn). Pysicochemical analyses were performed. The in vitro effect was determined using the egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus and in vivo effect was evaluated in sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The animals were treated with CcEO (500 mg/kg) or CcEOn (450 mg/kg) for the fecal egg count (FEC) and the determination of worm burden. The main component of CcEO was citral. The CcEO content in the nanoemulsion was 20% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 248 nm. In EHT, CcEO and CcEOn (1.25 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98.4 and 97.1%, respectively. Three animals treated with CcEO died whereas in the group treated with CcEOn one animal died. The FEC and total worm burden of the treated groups did not differ from the negative control (p>0.05). The CcEOn showed efficacy only on H. contortus (p<0.05). In conclusion, nanoencapsulation reduced toxicity and increased efficacy on H. contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(7): e201900702, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of intermittent vibration at different intervals on bone fracture healing and optimize the vibration interval. METHODS: Ninety sheep were randomized to receive no treatment (the control group), incision only (the sham control group), internal fixation with or without metatarsal fracture (the internal fixation group), and continuous vibration in addition to internal fixation of metatarsal fracture, or intermittent vibration at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 17-day interval in addition to internal fixation of metatarsal fracture (the vibration group). Vibration was done at frequency F=35 Hz, acceleration a=0.25g, 15 min each time 2 weeks after bone fracture. Bone healing was evaluated by micro-CT scan, bone microstructure and mechanical compression of finite element simulation. RESULTS: Intermittent vibration at 7-day interval significantly improved bone fracture healing grade. However, no significant changes on microstructure parameters and mechanical properties were observed among sheep receiving vibration at different intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical healing effects should be the top concern. Quantitative analyses of bone microstructure and of finite element mechanics on the process of fracture healing need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Metatarso/lesões , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Animais , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/normas , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Ossos do Metatarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
6.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(4): 728-732, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish animal models and investigate the impact of unilateral hemilaminectomy (ULHL) and different degrees of facetectomy (FT) on the cervical spinal biomechanics. METHODS: Twenty sheep were randomly and evenly divided into 4 groups. No operation was performed for group A, right C4-C6 ULHL was performed for group B, right C4-C6 ULHL and 50% ipsilateral C4-C5 FT was performed for group C, right C4-C6 ULHL and 100% ipsilateral C4-C5 FT was performed for group D. Animals of group A, B, C and D were sacrificed 24 weeks after operating and fresh cervical spine specimens were acquired, biomechanically tested and these data were compared to determine whether ULHL and different degrees of FT led to long-term differences in range of motion. RESULTS: (1) Changes of the total range of motion of cervical spine 24 weeks after surgery: the total range of motion of group D (60.2°±8.6°) was significantly greater than group A (40.7°±6.4°) and group B (41.2°±13.1°) under flexion-extension station, the total range of motion of group D (81.5°±15.7°) was significantly greater than that of group A (56.7°±12.2°) and group B (57.7°±12.8°) under lateral bending station, and the total range of motion of group D (38.5°±17.5°) had no obvious increase compared with group A (26.4°±9.9°) and group B (27.1°±10.9°) under axial rotation station. The total range of motion of group C had no obvious increase compared with group A and group B under flexion-extension station (44.1°±11.7°), lateral bending station (73.6°±11.4°) and axial rotation station (31.3°±11.5°). (2) Changes of the intersegmental motion 24 weeks after surgery: the intersegmental motion of group D (20.3°±4.6°) at C4-C5 was significantly greater than that of group A (11.7°±3.4°) and group B (11.9°±2.1°) under flexion-extension station, the intersegmental motion of group D (26.8°±3.5°) at C4-C5 was significantly greater than that of group A (15.2°±3.1°) and group B (16.2°±3.2°) under lateral bending station, the intersegmental motion of group D (15.2°±3.5°) at C4-C5 was significantly greater than that of group A (6.6°±2.3°) and group B (7.1°±1.9°) under axial rotation station. The intersegmental motion of group C (21.2°±4.1°) at C4-C5 was significantly greater than that of group A and group B under lateral bending station, the intersegmental motion of group C at C4-C5 had no obvious increase compared with group A and group B under flexion-extension station (15.7°±3.7°) and axial rotation station (10.3°±3.1°). CONCLUSION: ULHL does not affect cervical stability, ULHL and 50% ipsilateral FT does not affect the long-term cervical stability, ULHL and 100% ipsilateral FT can lead to long-term instability under lateral bending and flexion-extension station.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Laminectomia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação , Ovinos
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 134, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432266

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens and may induce severe diarrheagenic diseases in humans and other animals. Non-O157 STEC have been emerging as important pathogens causing outbreaks worldwide. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has become a global public health problem, which involves different ecological spheres, including animals. This study aimed to characterize the resistance to antimicrobials, plasmids and virulence, as well as the serotypes and phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolated from sheep in Brazil. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and showed different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Nineteen isolates presented acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (blaCTX-M-Gp9, qnrB, qnrS, oqxB, oqxA, tetA, tetB, tetC, sul1 and sul2) and plasmid families (F, FIA, FIB, I1, K, HI1 and ColE-like). The stx1, stx2 and ehxA virulence genes were detected by PCR, being 50 isolates (87.7%) classified as STEC. A great diversity of serotypes was detected, being O176:HNM the most predominant. Phylogenetic group E was the most prevalent, followed by B1, A and B2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the world of blaCTX-M-Gp9 (O75, O114, O100, O128ac and O176 serogroups), qnrB and oqxB genes in non-O157 STEC in healthy sheep. The results obtained in the present study call attention to the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant non-O157 STEC harboring acquired ARGs worldwide and indicate a zoonotic risk due to the profile of virulence, resistance and serotype found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121872, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377516

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion of manure is a common practice; however, the low biogas yield of manure can hamper the profitability of systems in small to medium farms. An increase in biogas yield could be achieved by co-digesting animal manure with co-substrates such as cheese whey. A Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and cheese whey (cow, goat and sheep), has been carried out. The results obtained showed that for a farm with 250 adult cattle heads, the revenues generated in an anaerobic mono-digestion process are not able to offset the initial required investment. However, the co-digestion of manure with 30% of cheese whey showed a good economic performance and positive returns (Net Present values >0, Internal Rate of Return >11% and a Return of the investment in <10 years). Electricity selling price and biogas production are the key parameters to determine the profitability of the system.


Assuntos
Queijo , Esterco , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis/economia , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos
9.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e38, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411268

RESUMO

The triatomine insect Panstrongylus megistus , one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, presents salivary molecules pharmacologically active to counteract homeostatic responses from the host, including inhibitors of the human complement system, a major effector of immune responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. megistus salivary gland extract (SGE) on the complement system from different host species and characterize the inhibitory effect of SGE and intestinal contents on human complement. Glands and midguts from fourth instar nymphs were used. Hemolytic assays were performed with sheep erythrocytes as complement activators by using human, rats and chickens sera in the presence or absence of SGE. An ELISA assay was carried out detect deposition of the C3b component on IgG- or agarose-sensitized microplates, in the presence or absence of SGE or midgut contents. P. megistus SGE was able to significantly inhibit the complement of the three studied species (human, rat and chiken). Both, SGE and midgut contents inhibited C3b deposition in either the classical or the alternative pathways. As conclusions, SGE and midgut from P. megistus possess anti-complement activity. The inhibitors are effective against different host species and act on the initial steps of the complement system cascade. These inhibitors may have a role in blood feeding and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by the vector.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/química , Insetos Vetores , Panstrongylus , Glândulas Salivares/química , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas , Humanos , Ratos , Ovinos
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 17-22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395200

RESUMO

In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation and lamb performance. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ±â€¯1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: Infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and Uninfected (U, n = 9). The I lambs received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week for three weeks). Daily feed intake was assessed using the I lambs as a reference for their respective pairs on the U group (pair-fed). Weight, body condition score and faeces (stool) samples were obtained every 15 days for 75 days. In both treatments, faecal egg count (FEC), digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa count and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were evaluated. The lambs presented moderate infection (FEC = 620). The retention time of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum segment was lower (P < 0.05) in I lambs. The I lambs presented no inappetence, however, lower concentrations of total SCFA and butyrate, while higher acetate concentration were observed in these lambs (P < 0.05). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection decreased the retention time (solid and liquid content) of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum, as well as negatively affected lamb growth.


Assuntos
Digestão , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/veterinária , Animais , Apetite , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/patologia , Trichostrongylus
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 40-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395203

RESUMO

In this study we evaluated the efficacy of trichlorfon against Haemonchus contortus, monitoring its influence on blood parameters and plasma enzymes of lambs with haemonchosis. A lamb group was orally treated with trichlorfon at 100 mg kg-1 while the other group was untreated. Split-plot design analysis was performed with the lamb groups defined as plots while the subplots were the four periods (weeks) of collection. The trichlorfon treatment promoted a significant and effective reduction of fecal egg counts after one week, with efficacies > 99%. After 21 days of treatment, detected blood parameters and serum levels of plasma enzymes were normal. Additionally, serum albumin and urea concentrations increased to normal values, which were not observed in untreated lambs. The treatment with this organophosphate, using a correct oral administration, may represent an effective therapeutic alternative for sheep infected with multi resistant strain of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Triclorfon/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Enzimas/sangue , Hemoncose/sangue , Haemonchus , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 79-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395209

RESUMO

The astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Proroptidae) causes the highly contagious and debilitating ovine disease, sheep scab. This ectoparasitic infection has a high economic and animal welfare impact on British sheep farming. Following recent work demonstrating resistance of Psoroptes mites to moxidectin, a widely used macrocyclic lactone (ML) treatment for scab, the current study compared the toxicity of three of the commonly administered macrocylic lactone therapeutic treatments (moxidectin, ivermectin and doramectin) to P. ovis from outbreak populations that had appeared unresponsive to treatment. These outbreak populations were from Wales and south west England. The data presented demonstrate that there is resistance to all three available ML compounds in populations of Psoroptes mites. However, considerable variation in response suggested that resistance alone was not responsible for the reported lack of efficacy in all of the submitted cases; lack of response in others may be associated with inappropriate treatment application or management. These data highlight the importance of the appropriate use of these compounds to manage national scab incidence at levels that are consistent with acceptable animal welfare standards, while attempting to reduce the development and spread of resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Lactonas/farmacologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Inglaterra , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , País de Gales
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107735, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381870

RESUMO

Two experiments were performed to determine whether oral administration of copper oxide capsules controlled helminthic infections in Lacaune sheep without acute collateral effects on animal health. In experiment 1, 48 multiparous lactating sheep (60.1 ±â€¯8.5 kg) were stratified according to initial number of eggs (Haemonchus contortus) per gram of feces (EPG) and were assigned randomly to 1 of two treatments (24 sheep/treatment): no oral administration (control) or oral administration of two copper capsules (treated; approximately 58 mg copper/kg body weight). Blood and fecal samples were collected on days 0, 15 and 45. Animals treated with copper capsules showed lower of EPG, eosinophils, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in whole blood, and lower butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum. Treated sheep had higher erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, and lymphocyte numbers. In experiment 2, 12 male lambs negative for helminths and coccidia were assigned randomly to one of two treatments (six lambs/treatment): control or treated (one copper capsule; approximately 58 mg copper/kg body weight); the experiment was designed to determine whether the results of experiment 1 were due to treatment or parasitism. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 and fecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 15. Treated animals showed greater concentrations of lymphocytes; however, treatment had no effect on other hemogram variables, AChE and BChE activities, or levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, creatinine, urea, albumin, total protein, and reactive oxygen species. These data suggest that copper capsules in dairy sheep efficiently controlled H. contortus infections. Treatment was not harmful to lambs during the first 15 days, i.e. there were no signs of acute toxicity.


Assuntos
Cobre/administração & dosagem , Hemoncose/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Lactação , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Cápsulas , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Indústria de Laticínios , Resíduos de Drogas , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase Animal/sangue , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Contagem de Linfócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Leite/química , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Paridade , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107734, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394093

RESUMO

Parasitism by Haemonchus contortus is one of the main limiting factors in small ruminant production around the globe. Although several studies suggest the use of integrated management practices, these parasites have been controlled essentially with synthetic anthelmintic drugs. The resistance mechanism against the imidazothiazole derivative levamisole in Haemonchus contortus has not been fully described. Recently, resistance was associated with a 63bp deletion in the Hco-acr-8b gene that encodes a subunit for a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This study aimed to standardize a real time PCR (qPCR) protocol for levamisole resistance diagnosis in H. contortus populations based on this polymorphism and use it to characterize 23 field H. contortus populations obtained from different localities of Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. In addition, two populations of H. contortus were used as a standard of susceptibility and resistance, Inbred Strain Edinburgh (ISE) and Kokstad, respectively. Larval development tests (LDT) were performed on five field isolates and both EC50 and EC95 were estimated. LDT EC95 values provided a wider interval between susceptible and resistant populations than EC50 values (EC95 = 1.96-57.93 µM; EC50 = 0.05-0.39 µM), and were found to be more appropriate for differentiating them. Real time PCR results showed resistance allele frequencies ranged from 20.9 to 76.7%. Our results suggest that levamisole resistance may be present in field populations but it is not as widespread as benzimidazole resistance. This methodology may be useful to monitor levamisole resistance in field populations of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Levamisol/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Receptores Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tetramizol/farmacologia
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1083-1090, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417051

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data about the presence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in raw milk samples collected from different animals. Methods: A total of 231 raw milk samples from 48 cows, 65 goats, 65 sheep, and 53 donkeys were studied. The ISO 6579:2002 and ISO 21567:2004 methods, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and serotyping were performed. Species and subspecies discriminations were made via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. After DNA isolation from all samples, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kits. Results: Five samples (2.16%) showed positivity out of 231 raw milk samples for Salmonella spp., and 2 (0.87%) samples were detected to be positive by multiplex real-time PCR design. Conclusion: We found that raw milk samples were not free of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. and need to be tested routinely to avoid public health problems. Rapid and reliable real-time PCR method can be developed and used for this purposes instead of slow bacterial culture processes.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Equidae , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Salmonella/classificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Shigella/classificação
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303198

RESUMO

Foraging behavior by parasitized herbivores can be interpreted as a decision-making process where individuals are faced with trading-off the ingestion of nutrients with the ingestion of potentially medicinal -and toxic- plant secondary compounds. We determined how parasitized sheep prioritize selection of crude protein, energy and a medicinal plant secondary compound (quebracho tannins-QT). Foraging preferences were tested in 40 lambs before experiencing a parasitic infection (Phase 1), during an infection (Phase 2; 10,000 L3Haemonchus contortus per lamb) and after chemotherapy (Phase 3). Lambs were assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) such that animals in Group 1 (Control) could choose between foods of high (HEP) or low (LEP) energy to protein ratios. The other groups received the same choice, but QT were added (4%) to HEP (Group 2), to LEP (Group 3) or to both foods (Group 4). All groups under a parasitic infection (Phase 2) increased their preference for HEP (from 0.44 to 0.66 ±â€¯0.042; P < 0.05) and intake of digestible energy (from 0.106 to 0.126 ±â€¯0.007 Mcal/kg BW; P < 0.05) relative to Phase 1, a pattern that remained during Phase 3. Only lambs receiving QT in HEP increased their intake of QT from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (P < 0.05). Fecal egg counts and blood parameters revealed a parasitic infection (P < 0.05) in Phase 2 that subsided in Phase 3, although no differences were detected among groups (P > 0.05). The importance of protein nutrition on parasitized animals has been highlighted before, but these results suggest that lambs prioritized the ingestion of energy-dense over protein-dense foods or medicinal condensed tannins when challenged by gastrointestinal parasitism. Consumption of medicinal tannins represented a side-effect of the preference manifested for energy-dense foods during testing.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taninos/metabolismo
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 31-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303200

RESUMO

The recovery of fenbendazole efficacy against Haemonchus contortus was attempted in a sheep intensive production system, using a strategy of population replacement in which the initial absolute efficacy of fenbendazole was 0%. The strategy was based on managing the parasite populations in refugia. Firstly, the resistant parasite population was reduced by means of anthelmintic treatments with efficacious drugs (Phase I), then a new, susceptible population was introduced in summer by way of artificially infected lambs at weaning, which were left to graze on the experimental pasture for eleven months (Phase II). Lastly, the impact of the replacement strategy, in terms of benzimidazole efficacy, was measured (Phase III). Faecal egg counts from permanent lambs and worm burdens as a measure of pasture infectivity from tracer lambs were determined throughout the study. During Phase I, faecal egg counts diminished from a peak of 2968 (300-7740) epg to 0 epg at the end, while adult worm burdens of H. contortus were reduced from 2625 (800-5100) to 0, which showed that the treatment strategy used in Phase I was effective in reducing the resistant population. These parameters also showed that good levels of pasture contamination and infectivity were achieved in Phase II, as faecal egg counts of up to 7275 (3240-13080) epg and adult worm burdens of 500 (200-800) H. contortus were reached. The absolute benzimidazole efficacy on H. contortus estimated at 16 months post-population replacement (Phase III) was 97.58%. The results lead to the conclusion that the recovery of anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole against a resistant population of H. contortus may be achieved by means of a strategy based on management of refugia and a subsequent introduction of a susceptible population. This strategy might be translatable to other resistant nematode genera.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fenbendazol/farmacologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Ovinos
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 37, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at identifying genomic regions that underlie genetic variation of worm egg count, as an indicator trait for parasite resistance in a large population of Australian sheep, which was genotyped with the high-density 600 K Ovine single nucleotide polymorphism array. This study included 7539 sheep from different locations across Australia that underwent a field challenge with mixed gastrointestinal parasite species. Faecal samples were collected and worm egg counts for three strongyle species, i.e. Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were determined. Data were analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM). RESULTS: Both RHM and GWAS detected a region on Ovis aries (OAR) chromosome 2 that was highly significantly associated with parasite resistance at a genome-wise false discovery rate of 5%. RHM revealed additional significant regions on OAR6, 18, and 24. Pathway analysis revealed 13 genes within these significant regions (SH3RF1, HERC2, MAP3K, CYFIP1, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC3, HERC5, HERC6, IBSP, SPP1, ISG20, and DET1), which have various roles in innate and acquired immune response mechanisms, as well as cytokine signalling. Other genes involved in haemostasis regulation and mucosal defence were also detected, which are important for protection of sheep against invading parasites. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified significant genomic regions on OAR2, 6, 18, and 24 that are associated with parasite resistance in sheep. RHM was more powerful in detecting regions that affect parasite resistance than GWAS. Our results support the hypothesis that parasite resistance is a complex trait and is determined by a large number of genes with small effects, rather than by a few major genes with large effects.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hereditariedade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/genética , Ovinos/genética
19.
Planta Med ; 85(13): 1114-1123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340396

RESUMO

The fruit from various pepper plants has been employed for the seasoning of food, as perfuming agents, and also as traditional medicines. Phytochemicals isolated from different pepper species have been found to modulate the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs. This study investigated the possibility to apply capsaicin and piperine (extracted alkaloids) as modulators for drug delivery across the nasal epithelium. Both a nasal epithelial cell line (RPMI 2650) and excised sheep nasal tissue were used as models to investigate the effects of the selected pepper compounds on drug permeation. FITC-dextran 4400 (MW 4400 Da) was used as a large molecular weight marker compound for paracellular transport, while rhodamine 123 was used as a marker compound that is a substrate for P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. From the permeation results, it was clear that capsaicin inhibited P-glycoprotein efflux to a larger extent, while piperine showed drug permeation enhancement via other mechanisms. The cell cytotoxicity studies indicated that capsaicin was noncytotoxic up to a concentration of 200 µM and piperine up to a concentration of 500 µM as indicated by cell viability above 80%. The histological analysis of the excised nasal tissue and cultured RPMI 2650 cell layers indicated that some damage occurred after treatment with 200 µM capsaicin, but no changes were observed for piperine up to a concentration of 50 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Veículos Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/uso terapêutico , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ovinos
20.
Cryo Letters ; 40(4): 219-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (Rom) has been reported recently to be of interest for use in sperm cryopreservation. However, related to its lipophilic characteristics, encapsulation in cyclodextrin could enhance Rom positive effects by increasing its solubility in sperm extenders. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of Rom preloaded in hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (Rom-cd) to Rom alone (Rom) on ram sperm conserved at 4°C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ram epididymal sperm was collected from six testes. Each collected sperm was split into four equal aliquots. The control aliquot was diluted with Tris extender (Tris + citric acid + fructose + penicillin), two aliquots were treated with Rom at 0.5µl ml-1 and 1µl ml-1 respectively, and one aliquot treated with Rom-cd at 1µl ml-1. All sperm aliquots were analyzed for motility after 0, 2, 4, 24 and 48 h of storage at 4°C using a Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA). Membrane integrity and oxidative stress status were measured after 48 h of storage. RESULTS: The results indicated that motility parameters were best preserved in the extender containing Rom-cd compared to the groups treated by Rom without cyclodextrin. Rom alone resulted to higher sperm motility than the control group. Lower oxidative stress and more cell membrane protection were observed in Rom treated samples, especially when using Rom-cd. CONCLUSION: The ability of Rom to protect ram sperm against cryopreservation damages was improved after encapsulation in hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD).


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Rosmarinus/química , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Membrana Celular , Criopreservação/veterinária , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ovinos , Espermatozoides/citologia
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