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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMO

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Cervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Oceano Índico , Cavalos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Cabras , Ovinos , Prevalência , Fezes
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 245, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917026

RESUMO

The impact of brucellosis on public health and economy is unquestionable in developing countries such as the case of Algeria. This study aimed to provide further understanding of epidemiological status of brucellosis in small ruminant flocks in the southeast of Algeria. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among small ruminant flocks (n = 51) in El Oued district using simple random sampling strategy. The serum samples collected from 612 sheep and goats (sheep = 280, goats = 332) were screened for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) in parallel on all the serum samples. The seropositive serum samples of both tests were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A structured questionnaire regarding animal, herd, and farm management was prepared and completed in parallel to sampling. Association between variables and Brucella spp. seropositivity status of herds was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis using simple and binary logistic regression. Estimated true herd prevalence was 27.95% (95% CI, 17.18-42.01), and true individual prevalence was 3.98% (95% CI, 2.51-6.03). Seropositive herds were detected in bordering areas and regions with the highest livestock density. Occurrence of abortions in herds (p = 0.03) increased at least five times (5) the odds of being seropositive (OR, 6.25; 95% CI, 1.20-32.46). Poultry presence in farms revealed to be a protective factor (p = 0.01) (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.61). The high-level seroprevalence quantified in this study in small ruminant flocks reflects the persistent animal infection endemicity and the high risk of human exposure.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272310, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930558

RESUMO

Antibiotics were once used in animal production to improve productivity and resistance to pathogenic microbiota. However, due to its negative effects, the search for a new class of substances that can replace its efficacy has become one of the urgent problems to be solved. Plant essential oils (EOs) as a natural feed additive can maintain microbiota homeostasis and improve animal performance. However, its specific mechanism of action needs to be further investigated. Therefore, we added different doses of essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (EOZB) to the diets of Small Tail Han Sheep hybrid male lambs (STH lambs) to evaluate the effect of EOZB on rumen enzyme activity, rumen microbiology, and its metabolites in STH lambs. Twenty STH lambs were randomly divided into four groups (n = 5/group) and provided with the same diet. The dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet (BD) group; BD+EOZB 5 ml/kg group; BD+EOZB 10 ml/kg group; BD+EOZB 15 ml/kg group. We found that EOZB 10 ml/kg helped to increase rumen pectinase (P<0.05) and lipase (P<0.05) activities. Microbial 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that EOZB significantly altered the abundance of rumen microbiota (P<0.05). LC/GC-MS metabolomic analysis showed that the addition of EOZB produced a total of 1073 differential metabolites, with 58 differential metabolites remaining after raising the screening criteria. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched in glycerophospholipid metabolism, choline metabolism in cancer, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, benzoxazinoid biosynthesis, and protein digestion and absorption. Correlation analysis showed that some rumen microbiota were significantly correlated with differential metabolite and enzyme activities.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Óleos Voláteis , Zanthoxylum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos , Zanthoxylum/metabolismo
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 302, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumpy skin disease (LSD), a disease of cattle and buffaloes, has recently become widely prevalent in Egypt. The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential role of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks in the transmission of this disease. Samples collected from suspected lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) infected cows that had previously been vaccinated with the Romanian sheep pox virus (SPPV) in various Egyptian governorates were obtained between May to November over two consecutive years, namely 2018 and 2019. Ticks were morphologically identified and the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) were sequenced, revealing that they were closely related to R. (Boophilus) annulatus. The G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene of the LSDV was used to test hard ticks. RESULTS: Two positive samples from Kafr El-Sheikh province and one positive sample from Al-Behera province were reported. BLAST analysis revealed that the positive samples were closely related to the Kazakhstani Kubash/KAZ/16 strain (accession number MN642592). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GPCR gene of the LSDV recently circulating in Egypt belongs to a global cluster of field LSDV with a nucleotide identity of 98-100%. LSDV isolation was successfully performed four days after inoculation using 9 to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs showing characteristic focal white pock lesions dispersed on the choriallantoic membrane after three blind passages. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, cell rupture, vacuoles in cells, and virus particles ovoid in shape were demonstrated by electron microscopy. CONCLUSION: In this study the role of hard ticks in the transmission of the LSDV to susceptible animals in Egypt was revealed and confirmed by various methods.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Ixodidae , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Rhipicephalus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Egito , Feminino , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Filogenia , Rhipicephalus/genética , Ovinos
7.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13760, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932205

RESUMO

We investigated the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Type I collagen α1 chain (COL1A1), and caveolin 1 (CAV1) during follicular development and examined the regulatory role of melatonin (MLT) on EGFR, COL1A1, and CAV1 in sheep antral ovaries. The expression was detected in granulosa and theca cells by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to examine the expression levels of EGFR, COL1A1, and CAV1 in small (≤2 mm), medium (2-5 mm), and large (≥5 mm) follicles. The mRNA and protein levels of EGFR, COL1A1, and CAV1 were found to be the highest in large follicles. Furthermore, cultured granulosa cells were treated with MLT (10-7 -10-11  M), luzindole (nonselective MT1 and MT2 receptor antagonist, 10-7  M), and 4-phenyl-2-propanamide tetraldehyde (4P-PDOT, MT2 selective antagonist, 10-7  M) to detect the regulatory role of MLT on EGFR, COL1A1, and CAV1. Results indicated COL1A1 and CAV1 were at least partially regulated by MLT through MT1 and MT2 pathways, whereas EGFR was not. This study provided a reference for further studies on MLT regulatory role on EGFR, COL1A1, and CAV1 during sheep follicular development and elucidated the physiological mechanism of MLT regulator production.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Animais , Caveolina 1/genética , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Cadeia alfa 1 do Colágeno Tipo I , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Ovinos
8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1221: 340079, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934339

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle, a transboundary viral disease of cattle once restricted to Africa, has been spreading to many European and Asian countries in the past decade with huge economic losses. This emerging worldwide threat to cattle warrants the development of diagnostic methods for accurate disease screening of suspected samples to effectively control the spread of LSD. In this study, we integrated pre-amplification and three kinds of sensor systems with CRISPR and therefore established an LSD diagnosis platform with highly adaptable and ultra-sensitive advantages. It was the first CRISPR-powered platform that could identify lumpy skin disease virus from vaccine strains of goat pox virus and sheep pox virus. Its limit of detection (LOD) was one copy/reaction after introducing PCR or recombinase-aided amplification (RAA). Moreover, this platform achieved a satisfactory overall agreement in clinical diagnoses of 50 samples and its reproducibility and accuracy were superior to other qPCR methods we tested. The whole diagnostic procedure, from DNA extraction to the results, could complete in 5 h with a total cost of 1.7-9.6 $/test. Overall, this CRISPR-powered platform provided a novel diagnostic tool for portable, ultra-sensitive, rapid, and highly adaptable disease screening of LSD and may be an effective method to control this transboundary disease's spread.


Assuntos
Capripoxvirus , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Capripoxvirus/genética , Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea/diagnóstico , Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos/genética
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(9): 283, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934734

RESUMO

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a bacillus that causes caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants, leading to great losses to rural producers; thus, an efficient diagnosis is necessary for using disease control measures. This study aimed to evaluate the antigenic potential of four C. pseudotuberculosis recombinant proteins (rSodC, rPknG, rNanH, and rSpaC) against sera of goat and sheep experimentally infected with one of three different C. pseudotuberculosis strains. Goats were infected with CAP76 or CAP21 strain (n = 10), sheep with VD57 strain (n = 6), and a group of not-infected animals (goats and sheep) were kept as a healthy control (healthy n = 12). Sera were collected at 0, 14, 60, 90, 180, or 190 days after inoculation for antigenicity testing using Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Cross-reactivity tests with recombinant proteins were performed in goat serum experimentally vaccinated with Nocardia sp. or Rhodococcus equi bacterin. The rSodC protein showed discriminatory antigenic reactivity with a statistically significant difference against three different C. pseudotuberculosis strains evaluated in goats and sheep samples, while rPknG showed statistical significance only against two C. pseudotuberculosis strains evaluated in goats. rSodC was proved to be a strong candidate as a tool for diagnosis of C. pseudotuberculosis infection, once it was able to recognize antibodies against all strains evaluated in goats and sheep.


Assuntos
Infecções por Corynebacterium , Doenças das Cabras , Linfadenite , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Infecções por Corynebacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Linfadenite/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
10.
Biomater Adv ; 136: 212754, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929289

RESUMO

Current alloplastic materials such as PMMA, titanium or PEEK don't show relevant bone ingrowth into the implant when used for cranioplasty, ceramic implants have the drawback being brittle. New materials and implant designs are urgently needed being biocompatible, stable enough for cranioplasty and stimulating bone formation. In an in vivo critical size sheep model circular cranial defects (>2.4 cm) were covered with three different types of a 3D-printed porous titanium scaffolds with multidirectional, stochastically distributed architecture (uncoated scaffold, hydroxyapatite-coated scaffold, uncoated scaffold filled with a calcium phosphate bone cement paste containing ß-TCP granules). An empty titanium mesh served as control. Among the different investigated setups the hydroxyapatite-coated scaffolds showed a surprisingly favourable performance. Push-out tests revealed a 2.9 fold higher force needed in the hydroxyapatite-coated scaffolds compared to the mesh group. Mean CT density at five different points inside the scaffold was 2385HU in the hydroxyapatite-coated group compared to 1978HU in the uncoated scaffold at nine months. Average lateral bone ingrowth after four months in the hydroxyapatite-coated scaffold group was up to the implant center, 12.1 mm on average, compared to 2.8 mm in the control group covered with mesh only. These properties make the investigated scaffold with multidirectional, stochastically distributed structure superior to all products currently on the market. The study gives a good idea of what future materials for cranioplasty might look like.


Assuntos
Próteses e Implantes , Titânio , Animais , Cimentos Ósseos , Durapatita/farmacologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Ovinos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Titânio/química
11.
Biomater Adv ; 136: 212788, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929320

RESUMO

Bone defects of the craniofacial skeleton are often associated with aesthetic and functional impairment as well as loss of protection to intra- and extracranial structures. Solid titanium plates and individually adapted bone cements have been the materials of choice, but may lead to foreign-body reactions and insufficient osseointegration. In contrast, porous scaffolds are thought to exhibit osteoconductive properties to support bone ingrowth. Here, we analyse in critical size defects of the calvaria in sheep whether different bone replacement materials may overcome those remaining challenges. In a critical size defect model, bilateral 20 × 20 × 5-mm craniectomies were performed on either side of the sagittal sinus in 24 adult female blackheaded sheep. Bony defects were randomised to one of five different bone replacement materials (BRMs): titanium scaffold, biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic acid) calcium carbonate scaffold (PDLLA/CC), polyethylene 1 (0.71 mm mean pore size) or 2 (0.515 mm mean pore size) scaffolds and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement block. Empty controls (n = 3) served as references. To evaluate bone growth over time, three different fluorochromes were administered at different time points. At 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, animals were sacrificed and the BRMs and surrounding bone analysed by micro-CT and histomorphometry. The empty control group verified that the calvaria defect in this study was a reliable critical size defect model. Bone formation in vivo was detectable in all BRMs after 12 months by micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis, except for the non-porous PMMA group. A maximum of bone formation was detected in the 12-months group for titanium and PDLLA/CC. Bone formation in PDLLA/CC starts to increase rapidly between 6 and 12 months, as the BRM resorbs over time. Contact between bone and BRM influenced bone formation inside the BRM. Empty controls exhibited bone formation solely at the periphery. Overall, porous BRMs offered bone integration to different extent over 12 months in the tested calvaria defect model. Titanium and PDLLA/CC scaffolds showed remarkable osseointegration properties by micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. PDLLA/CC scaffolds degraded over time without major residues. Pore size influenced bone ingrowth in polyethylene, emphasising the importance of porous scaffold structure.


Assuntos
Substitutos Ósseos , Animais , Cimentos Ósseos/química , Substitutos Ósseos/química , Feminino , Polietilenos , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Ovinos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Titânio
12.
FASEB J ; 36(9): e22467, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929417

RESUMO

Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reported to regulate follicular development and reproductive disease pathogenesis, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, lncRNA expression profiling of different-sized healthy follicles from Hu sheep with different prolificacy revealed 50 613 lncRNAs. Numerous lncRNAs were differentially expressed among different comparison groups. This study characterized one novel transcript, lncRNA-412.25 (from healthy follicles with a diameter of >5 mm), which was predominantly expressed in the high prolificacy group and localized to the cytoplasm of granulosa cells (GCs). LncRNA-412.25 knockdown promoted and inhibited Hu sheep GC apoptosis and proliferation, respectively. Interestingly, lncRNA-412.25 could directly bind to miR-346, which can target the gene of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Knockdown of lncRNA-412.25 promoted GC apoptosis by downregulating LIF expression, where this effect was attenuated by miR-346. Moreover, the miR-346 inhibitor mitigated the lncRNA-412.25 knockdown-induced downregulation of phosphorylated protein of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which was validated using immunofluorescence analysis. Our results demonstrated that lncRNA-412.25 regulates GC proliferation and apoptosis in Hu sheep by binding to miR-346 and then activating the LIF/STAT3 pathway. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying prolificacy in sheep.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Ovinos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4614665, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936357

RESUMO

The decline in sheep health and meat quality caused by seasonal nutritional deficiencies has always been an important problem in the production of naturally grazing sheep. Glucose metabolism is crucial in ruminants for adequate cell function and maintenance of the body tissues and systems. However, whether glucose metabolism, especially gluconeogenesis, is affected by seasonal grazing conditions has not been fully uncovered. Thus, twelve sheep from two seasons (dry and green grass periods) in natural grazing areas of Inner Mongolia, China, were selected for this study. Their serum glucose, insulin, PC, and PEPCK levels and volatile fatty acid (gluconeogenesis material) concentrations in rumen fluid were analyzed. The expression of key enzymes including PC, PEPCK, GLUT2, and G6P of gluconeogenesis and their regulators INSR, PI3K/AKT and p53-SIRT6-Fox01 in the liver was detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results revealed significant variances in gluconeogenesis and its indicators and showed p53-SIRT6-Fox01 as having potential regulation in different grazing periods. This study offers new insights into the mechanism of gluconeogenesis and adaptive regulation between dry grass period and green grass period and also provides a reference for maintaining the health of sheep and meat quality despite seasonal nutritional deficiencies.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Sirtuínas , Animais , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ovinos , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
Vet Rec ; 191(3): 115-117, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929714

RESUMO

This focus article has been prepared by Amanda Carson and Bryony Jones of the APHA Small Ruminant Expert Group and Dai Grove-White of the University of Liverpool.


Assuntos
Fazendas , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
17.
Science ; 377(6606): 582, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926053

RESUMO

From regenerating sea slugs to self-medicating sheep, a biologist probes the origins and evolution of behavior.


Assuntos
Cacatuas , Animais , Humanos , Ovinos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13372, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927453

RESUMO

The ecological environment of the hilly and gully area of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi is fragile and the soil fertility is low. As a result, the yield and quality of Pear-jujube which constitute one of the dominant economic forests in this region, have been severely restricted. At present, the scientific application of fertilizer is important for comprehensively improving the quality of fruit trees, and for devising the optimal management of fruit trees. In particular, the application of organic fertilizers plays an important role in improving soil and improving fruit quality. In this experiment, a field study was conducted to understand the effects of different organic fertilizer applications on physiological growth, photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive growth and nutritional quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau. The results showed that organic fertilizer significantly promoted the physiological growth of Pear-jujube. The Pear-jujube bearing branch and leaf area under the soybean cake fertilizer (SC) treatment were 20.17 cm and 1246 mm2/leaf, respectively, which are increased by 34% and 44.46% compared with the no fertilizer treatment, which was a control check (CK). The total chlorophyll content of fertilization treatment was significantly higher than that of CK (P < 0.05). The maximum of chlorophyll content was 10.90 mg/dm2 under the biogas fertilizer (BM). The content of LAI was in the order BM > conventional fertilizer (CF) > sheep manure (SM) > SC > CK. The changing trend of gap fraction was opposite to that of LAI, and the density of light was consistent with that of LAI. The density of light BM was the largest, reached 38.06 mol/(m2 d), which was 15.13% higher than that of CK. Organic fertilizer significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUEp) of Pear-jujube. The WUEp of SC was up to 3.30%. Organic fertilizer significantly promoted the reproductive growth and improved the nutritional quality of Pear-jujube. The yield under the SC was 19,177 kg/hm2, increased by 138.5% compared with that of CK. The fruit water content (FWC), total soluble solids (TSS), solid-acid ratio (TSS/TA), Vc and total flavonoids content improved, and the maxima of FWC, TSS, TSS/TA, Vc and total flavonoids content under the SC treatment were 86.30%, 18.48%, 40.17, 46.18 mg/kg and 14.35 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly different from those of CK (P < 0.05). Organic fertilization effectively promotes the growth, development, yield and fruit quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau and the effect of the soybean cake fertilizer is the most significant.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Ziziphus , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , China , Clorofila , Fertilizantes , Flavonoides , Florestas , Frutas , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Solo , Água
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(8)2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947528

RESUMO

Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients with pulmonary disorders.Gap Statement. Agricultural ecosystems are the vast reservoirs of this dreaded pathogen. However, there are limited attempts to analyse the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa strains associated with edible plants.Aim. This study aims to (i) elucidate the virulence attributes of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the rhizosphere and endophytic niches of cucumber, tomato, eggplant and chili;and (ii) compare these phenotypes with that of previously characterized clinical isolates.Methodology. Crystal-violet microtitre assay, swarm plate experiment, gravimetric quantification and sheep blood lysis were performed to estimate the biofilm formation, swarming motility, rhamnolipid production and haemolytic activity, respectively, of P. aeruginosa strains. In addition, their pathogenicity was also assessed based on their ability to antagonize plant pathogens (Xanthomonas oryzae, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum) and kill a select nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans).Results. Nearly 80 % of the plant-associated strains produced rhamnolipid and exhibited at least one type of lytic activity (haemolysis, proteolysis and lipolysis). Almost 50 % of these strains formed significant levels of biofilm and exhibited swarming motility. The agricultural strains showed significantly higher and lower virulence against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively, compared to the clinical strains. In C. elegans, a maximum of 40 and 100% mortality were induced by the agricultural and clinical strains, respectively.Conclusion. This investigation shows that P. aeruginosa in edible plants isolated directly from the farm express virulence and pathogenicity. Furthermore, clinical and agricultural P. aeruginosa strains antagonized the tested fungal phytopathogens, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. Thus, we recommend using these fungi as simple eukaryotic model systems to test P. aeruginosa pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Biofilmes , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Fusarium , Humanos , Fenótipo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Rhizoctonia , Ovinos , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20200966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946745

RESUMO

This study evaluated the replacement of starch (ST; cracked corn) by neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF; citrus pulp) and its effects on feed intake, performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and nitrogen balance of lambs. In Experiment 1, male lambs (n = 24, 19.1 ± 1.9 kg body weight [BW]) received: Starch (ST) = 250 g starch/kg dry matter (DM); ST/NDSF = 180 g starch/kg DM + 180 g NDSF/kg DM; or NDSF = 250 g NDSF/kg DM. After 84 d, animals were slaughtered and carcasses were evaluated. In Experiment 2, male lambs (n = 15, 23.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were used to assess digestibility and nitrogen balance. Final BW, average daily gain, gain to feed and feed intake decreased when animals were fed NDSF (P≤0.002), reflecting in lighter carcasses (P<0.0001). The NDSF decreased edible non-carcass components (P=0.0006), total usable products (P<0.0001), commercial cuts and intramuscular fat (P≤0.02). Except for NDSF and ST, the digestibility of nutrients was improved for NDSF diet (P≤0.04). The use of 250 g NDSF/kg DM as citrus pulp in finishing diets for lambs impairs performance, carcass, meat traits and nitrogen balance. However, the moderate replacement of corn by citrus pulp does not change productive variables.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Amido , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Detergentes , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Masculino , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Zea mays
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