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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 376, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to measure the length of metacarpal and metatarsal bones in five Iranian sheep breeds and to correlate the length of the bones with ungula measurements. Thoracic and pelvic limbs of 2-year-old, previously untrimmed, pastured Afshari, Moghani, Kurdi, Makoui, and Lori-Bakhtiari ewes, (n = 20 ewes per breed) were collected after slaughter. The following lengths were recorded in the metacarpal and metatarsal bones: from the margo proximalis lateralis to the lateral (L1) and medial (D1) cartilago physialis; from the margo proximalis lateralis to the margo abaxialis of the lateral (L2) and medial (D2) caput; from the cartilago physialis lateralis to the margo abaxialis of the lateral caput (X1); from the cartilago physialis medialis to the margo distalis of the caput ridge (X2) and from the margo axialis of cartilago physialis to the margo axialis of the lateral caput (X3). Additionally, measurements of the ungula including pars dorsalis length, pars mobilis lateralis and medialis height, pars dorsalis height to the ground and to the solea cornea, thickness of the solea in the pars dorsalis, pars mobilis lateralis and medialis, solea cornea length and angulus dorsalis were recorded in the medial and lateral digits of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Data on length of the metatarsal and metacarpal bones were analysed using mixed model equations while Pearson correlations were calculated between metacarpal and metatarsal bones and ungula measurements. RESULTS: Lori- Bakhtiari and Moghani ewes had greater L1, L2, and D1 and D2 while X1, X2 and X3 was greater in Kurdi ewes (P < 0.05). Measurements such as L1, L2, D1 and D2 were greater in the metatarsal than in metacarpal bones (P < 0.05) and the opposite was observed for X1, X2 and X3 (P < 0.05). No asymmetry was observed between the lateral and medial measurements (P > 0.05). Low to moderate correlations were observed between bone and ungula measurements (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, differences in metacarpal and metatarsal bone measurements were observed between breeds but no asymmetry was observed between lateral and medial bones. Results indicate an association between metacarpal and metatarsal bones ungula measurements. This could provide baseline information for the development and/or improvement of current ungula health protocols in the studied sheep breeds.


Assuntos
Ossos Metacarpais , Ossos do Metatarso , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Metatarso/anatomia & histologia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258761, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665825

RESUMO

Knowledge of both the genetic diversity and geographical distribution of animal genetic resources is a prerequisite for their sustainable utilization, improvement and conservation. The present study was undertaken to explore the current morphological variability within the sheep population in Benin as a prelude for their molecular characterization. From November 2018 to February 2020, 25 quantitative linear body measurements and 5 qualitative physical traits were recorded on 1240 adult ewes from the 10 phytogeographic zones that comprise the three vegetation zones of Benin. Fourteen morphological indices were calculated based on the linear body measurements. The collected data were first analyzed using multiple comparisons of least-square means (LSmeans), followed by generalized linear model (GLM) procedures, to explore the relationships among the measured morphometric traits and the 10 phytogeographic zones. Next, the presence of any genetic sub-populations was examined using multivariate analytical methods, including canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). Univariate analyses indicated that all quantitative linear body measurements varied significantly (P<0.05) across the phytogeographic zones. The highest values (LSmean± standard error) of withers height (68.3±0.47 cm), sternum height (46.0±0.35 cm), and rump height (68.8±0.47 cm) were recorded in the Mekrou-Pendjari zone, the drier phytogeographic zone in the North, whereas the lowest values, 49.2±0.34, 25.9±0.26, and 52.0±0.35 cm, respectively, were recorded in the Pobe zone in the South. Multivariate analyses revealed the prevalence of four distinct sheep sub-populations in Benin. The sub-population from the South could be assimilated to the short-legged and that from the North to the West African long-legged sheep. The two other sub-populations were intermediate and closer to the crossbreeds or another short-legged sub-breed. The proportion of individuals correctly classified in their group of origin was approximately 74%. These results uncovered a spatial morphological variation in the Beninese sheep population along a South-North phytogeographic gradient.


Assuntos
Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/classificação , Animais , Benin , Biometria , Demografia , Análise Discriminante , Hibridização Genética , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Filogenia
3.
Gene ; 781: 145492, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631247

RESUMO

Fat tail is one of the most important domesticated characteristics in sheep; however its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here we took small-tailed F2 hybrid of wild Argali sheep and typical fat-tailed Bashby sheep as research object. First, histological analysis revealed that the mean diameter and area in tail and subcutaneous fat cells, and surface density in tail fat in Bashby sheep were significantly larger than that in F2 sheep, and surface density of fat in subcutaneous fat in Bashby sheep was significantly lower than that in F2 sheep. Second, 873 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of tail fat between Bashby and F2 sheep were identified by RNA-seq. Third, the tissue expression profile and relative expression difference between Bashby and F2 sheep of 7 of 873 DEGs were analyzed by RT-PCR. SCD, ESR1, EMR1, PHYH, STAT3 and GPAM genes were highly expressed in fat, muscle and liver, and ALDH1A1 were highly expressed in small intestine. In addition, the expressions of SCD, PHYH and CPAM genes in tail fat of F2 sheep were lower than that of Bashby sheep, while the expression patterns of ESR1 and EMR1 were reversed. Our findings will not only help understand molecular mechanism of fat tail, but also provide theoretical material in sheep evolution.


Assuntos
Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/genética , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , RNA-Seq/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transcriptoma
4.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 55-74, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541702

RESUMO

Ultrasonography and radiography are the most frequently used imaging techniques to evaluate abdominal pathology in domestic animals. Ultrasonography can often achieve a diagnosis in small ruminants, with ease of use and virtually no contraindications. Radiography also provides a relatively comprehensive overview, but reduced penetration of the abdomen in larger animals and summation of abdominal organs can limit its diagnostic value. Computed tomography is a newer imaging modality that provides summation-free imaging but can have limited availability and financial restrictions.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruminantes , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
5.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(4): 692-703, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022136

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate fear condition responses in sheep and goat and to relate this to the neuroarchitecture of their amygdala. Forty adult sheep (Uda breed) and 40 adult goats (Red Sokoto breed) were fear-conditioned by associating the sound of a car horn (neutral stimuli) with water spray (aversive stimuli) and the fear response was determined by direct observation of the behavior of the sheep and goats and measuring their flight distances and escape time. Eight groups were studied, each comprising of 10 animals (five sheep and five goats). Goats and sheep were tested alternately in the morning of every day of the week for three consecutive weeks, in which 4 days was used for habituation and 3 days for testing. Histologically, neurons in the central and basolateral complex of the amygdala were studied and analyzed using Nissl and golgi staines. Behaviorally, goats elicited an active avoidance response expressed as flight with concomitant intense flight distances (p < .001) compared to sheep. Although, sheep had larger brain parameters, it showed attenuated basolateral amygdala cytoarchitecture consistent with reduced fear perception and response. Goats had significantly more densely distributed pyramidal and spiny stellate neurons in the basolateral amygdala while sheep showed more non-pyramidal and aspiny neurons. These results provide interesting practical perspectives on how adaptions in the amygdala coincides with alterations in fear conditioning in domestic animals and may be the basis for the higher incidence of the sheep in automobile accidents than goats in developing countries especially Africa.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Estimulação Acústica , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Cabras/fisiologia , Nigéria , Ovinos/fisiologia
6.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(1): 84-92, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794251

RESUMO

Sheep are recognized as useful species for translational neurodegeneration research, in particular for the study of Huntington disease. There is a lack of information regarding the detailed anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia of sheep, in normal myeloarchitectonics and in tract-tracing studies. In this work, the organization of the corticostriatal projections at the level of the putamen and globus pallidus (GP) are explored. For the first time, the myeloarchitectonic pattern of connections between the internal (IC) and the external (EC) capsules with the GP have been investigated in the sheep. Formaldehyde-fixed blocks of the striatum were treated with a metallic stain containing potassium dichromate and visualized using micro-CT (µ-CT). The trivalent chromium (Cr3+), attached to myelin phospholipids, imparts a differential contrast to the grey and white matter compartments, which allows the visualization of myelinated fascicles in µ-CT images. The fascicles were classified according to their topographical location in dorsal supreme fascicles (X, Y, apex) arising from the IC and EC; pre-commissurally, basal fascicles connecting the ventral part of the EC with the lateral zone of the ventral pallidum (VP) and, post-commissurally, superior (Z1 ), middle (Z2 ) and lower (Z3 ) fascicles, connecting at different levels the EC with the GP. The results suggest that the presumptive cortical efferent and afferent fibres to the pallidum could be organized according to a dorsal to ventrolateral topography in the sheep, similar to that seen in other mammals. The proposed methodology has the potential to delineate the myeloarchitectonic patterns of nervous systems and tracts.


Assuntos
Cromatos/química , Globo Pálido/anatomia & histologia , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária
7.
J Anat ; 238(1): 1-12, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885430

RESUMO

The present study analyses the organization and selected neurochemical features of the claustrum and visual cortex of the sheep, based on the patterns of calcium-binding proteins expression. Connections of the claustrum with the visual cortex have been studied by tractography. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-ir) and Calbindin-immunoreactive (CB-ir) cell bodies increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the nucleus. Calretinin (CR)-labeled somata were few and evenly distributed along the rostro-caudal axis. PV and CB distribution in the visual cortex was characterized by larger round and multipolar cells for PV, and more bitufted neurons for CB. The staining pattern for PV was the opposite of that of CR, which showed densely stained but rare cell bodies. Tractography shows the existence of connections with the caudal visual cortex. However, we detected no contralateral projection in the visuo-claustral interconnections. Since sheep and goats have laterally placed eyes and a limited binocular vision, the absence of contralateral projections could be of prime importance if confirmed by other studies, to rule out the role of the claustrum in stereopsis.


Assuntos
Claustrum/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Visual/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Calbindina 2/metabolismo , Calbindinas/metabolismo , Claustrum/metabolismo , Feminino , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Córtex Visual/metabolismo
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 75-92, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358313

RESUMO

Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of urinary and reproductive imaging in small ruminants, assisted by the relatively superficial location of the urinary and reproductive tracts in these species. Radiography can provide an excellent overview of the abdomen, but is often limited by a lack of adequate penetration. Computed tomography scans provide summation-free imaging of the urinary and reproductive tracts in addition to information about the excretion of contrast agent by the kidneys, but can be limited by availability and cost.


Assuntos
Genitália/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Testes Imediatos , Reprodução , Ruminantes/anatomia & histologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 955-962, Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155039

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate and diagnose pathologies of the reproductive system of slaughtered sheep in slaughterhouses in the state of Bahia since there are few data on the subject as well as it is important to note the diagnosis of these diseases to apply appropriate control and prophylaxis measures. The research was carried out in slaughterhouses in the state of Bahia according to the "Serviço de Inspeção Federal" and "Serviço de Inspeção Estadual" for sheep slaughter. From July 2018 to February 2019, visits and monitoring of 1,072 slaughtered sheep were carried out. The animals came from 22 municipalities in the state of Bahia, aged from six to 18 months. During slaughter, the sheep reproductive systems were sectioned for evisceration and lesion collection. Additionally, epidemiological surveys related to origin, age, and race were obtained. For bacteriological examination, collections were performed with sterile scalpel slides and swabs in Stuart medium sterile tubes and refrigerated in a thermal box. For histopathological analysis, fragments were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and routinely processed for histology, stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). A study of the sheep's main pathological changes in slaughterhouses in the state of Bahia was carried out, in which 1.072 genital systems were evaluated, and 211 alterations were identified. The most affected reproductive organs were the ovaries (65.3%), followed by the uterus (29.4%) and uterine tubes (5.3%). In the ovaries, the most frequent lesion was a follicular cyst (34.1%); in the fallopian tubes, the cysts represented 3.3% of the lesions, and in the womb, endometritis was observed in 9% of the animals. Other pathologies identified in the ovaries were: luteinized cyst (2.3%); cystic granulosa cell tumor (0.5%); benign lesion (0.5%); agenesis unilateral (0.5%), in addition to other changes of little clinical significance, such as corpus luteum cysts (11.8%) and paraovarian cysts (15.6%). In the fallopian tubes, hydrosalpinx was observed (1%), as well as adenoma (0.5%), agenesis (0.5%), and cysts (3.3%). Uterine lesions included hydrometra (2.3%); Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia (CEH), abscess, and pyometra (1.4% each); adenomyosis, womb sera petechiae, and total segmental aplasia (1% each); two pregnant uterus, in early pregnancy, presented pyometra (0.9%), however, no change was observed in the fetuses; and uterine polyp (0.5%). Ectopic pregnancy with fetal maceration (0.5%) was observed; vaginitis occurred in 0.5% of the animals, and endometrial melanosis in 8.5%. The high incidence of follicular cysts and endometritis are characterized as diseases that reduce the reproductive efficiency in herds, causing infertility and economic losses in production.(AU)


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e diagnosticar alterações do sistema reprodutor de ovelhas abatidas em abatedouros frigoríficos no estado da Bahia. A pesquisa foi realizada em abatedouros frigoríficos do estado da Bahia com Serviços de Inspeção Federal e Estadual no abate de ovinos. No período de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019 foram realizadas visitas e acompanhamento do abate de 1.072 ovelhas. Os animais eram provenientes de 22 municípios do estado da Bahia, com idade entre 6 a 18 meses. Durante o abate, na evisceração foram seccionados os sistemas reprodutores das ovelhas para avaliação e coleta das lesões. Adicionalmente foram obtidos inquéritos epidemiológicos relacionados à procedência, idade e raça. Para o exame bacteriológico, as coletas foram realizadas com lâminas de bisturi estéreis e swabs em tubos estéreis com meio Stuart e refrigeradas em caixa térmica. Para análise histopatológica, os fragmentos foram fixados em formol a 10% e processados de forma rotineira para histologia e corados pela hematoxilina e eosina (HE). Entre 1.072 sistemas genitais avaliados, identificou-se 211 alterações. Os órgãos do sistema reprodutor mais acometidos foram os ovários (65,3%), útero (29,4%) e tubas uterinas (5,3%). Nos ovários, a lesão mais frequente foi o cisto folicular (34,1%); no útero a endometrite (9%) e nas tubas uterinas, os cistos representaram (3,3%). Outras lesões identificadas nos ovários foram: cisto luteinizado (2,3%); tumor de células da granulosa (0,5%); adenoma (0,5%); agenesia unilateral (0,5%), além de outras alterações de pouco significado clínico, como cistos paraovarianos (15,6%) e corpo lúteo cístico (11,8%). Nas tubas uterinas observou-se, além dos cistos tubo-ovarianos (3,3%), hidrossalpinge (1%), adenoma (0,5%) e agenesia (0,5%). As lesões uterinas foram endometrite (9%), hidrometra (2,3%); hiperplasia endometrial cística, abscesso e piometra (1,4% cada); adenomiose, petéquias na serosa do útero e aplasia segmentar (1% cada); dois úteros gravídicos, em início de gestação, apresentaram piometra (0,9%), porém os fetos não apresentaram alterações; e pólipo uterino (0,5%). Observou-se uma gestação ectópica com maceração fetal (0,5%); a vaginite ocorreu em 0,5%, e melanose endometrial em 8,5%. Destaca-se a elevada incidência de cistos foliculares e endometrite que são doenças que reduzem a eficiência reprodutiva dos rebanhos, provocando infertilidade e perdas econômicas na produção.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Endometrite/patologia , Genitália Feminina/fisiopatologia , Genitália Feminina/lesões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Matadouros
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2045-2052, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142299

RESUMO

The present study aimed to morphometrically evaluate the ruminal mucosa and ruminal fluid characteristics of Santa Inês sheep fed different levels of spineless cactus as a replacement for Tifton grass hay. A total of 32 intact male Santa Inês sheep, approximately 180 days old and with a mean weight of 32.0±1.6kg, were studied in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates. The morphometric measurements evaluated in the ruminal epithelium (papilla height and surface area) were significantly affected (P< 0.05) by supplementation of the diet with spineless cactus, and these effects showed increasing linear trends. Evaluations of the ruminal fluid also showed a significant increasing linear effect (P< 0.05) for ammonia and a quadratic effect for microbial protein. The inclusion of spineless cactus in the sheep diet affects the ruminal epithelium morphology, including the papilla height and surface area, and favors the absorption process in the rumen. The diet containing higher levels of spineless cactus led to maximum microbial protein production. These results characterize spineless cactus as a feasible alternative for feeding sheep during periods of drought, when the typical food source is scarce.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar morfometricamente a mucosa ruminal e as características do líquido ruminal de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com diferentes níveis de palma forrageira como substituta do feno de capim-Tifton. Um total de 32 ovinos, machos inteiros, da raça Santa Inês, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade e peso médio de 32,0±1,6kg, foi estudado em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As medidas morfométricas avaliadas no epitélio ruminal (altura e área superficial da papila) foram significativamente afetadas (P<0,05) pela suplementação da dieta com palma forrageira, e esses efeitos mostraram tendências lineares crescentes. As avaliações do fluido ruminal também mostraram um efeito linear crescente significativo (P<0,05) para a amônia e um efeito quadrático para a proteína microbiana. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta de ovinos afeta a morfologia do epitélio ruminal, englobando a altura e a área da papila, e favorece o processo de absorção no rúmen. A dieta contendo níveis mais altos de palma forrageira levou à produção máxima de proteína microbiana. Esses resultados caracterizam a palma forrageira como uma alternativa viável para a alimentação de ovelhas durante períodos de seca, quando a fonte típica de alimento é escassa.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Opuntia/química , Membrana Mucosa/anatomia & histologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18332, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110149

RESUMO

Most sheep breeding programs designed for the tropics and sub-tropics have to take into account the impacts of environmental adaptive traits. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the multiple biological processes driving adaptive responses remains unclear. In this study, we applied a selective sweep analysis by combing 1% top values of Fst and ZHp on both altitude and geographic subpopulations (APS) in 636 indigenous Tibetan sheep breeds. Results show that 37 genes were identified within overlapped genomic regions regarding Fst significantly associated with APS. Out of the 37 genes, we found that 8, 3 and 6 genes at chromosomes (chr.) 13, 23 and 27, respectively, were identified in the genomic regions with 1% top values of ZHp. We further analyzed the INDEL variation of 6 genes at chr.27 (X chromosome) in APS together with corresponding orthologs of 6 genes in Capra, Pantholops, and Bos Taurus. We found that an INDEL was located within 5'UTR region of HAG1 gene. This INDEL of HAG1 was strongly associated with the variation of APS, which was further confirmed by qPCR. Sheep breeds carrying "C-INDEL" of HAG1 have significantly greater body weight, shear amount, corpuscular hemoglobin and globulin levels, but lower body height, than those carrying "CA-INDEL" of HAG1. We concluded that "C-INDEL" variation of HAG1 gene confers better hypoxia tolerance in the highlands of Tibetan and explains well geographic distributions in this population. These results contribute to our understanding of adaptive responses to altitude and geographic adaptation in Tibetan sheep populations and will help to guide future conservation programs for Tibetan sheep native to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Genes/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Haplótipos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Tibet
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 133: 180-187, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992129

RESUMO

The present study established multiple linear regression models using two ultrasound in vivo measurements (at lumbar and sternal regions, with different real-time ultrasonography machines and probes) and live weight, to predict simultaneously carcass composition and body fat depots of different breeds of sheep and goat. This study is important for the small ruminant industry, considering the feasibility of using the ultrasound methodology in field conditions, as well as an online system of the carcass evaluation. The multiple linear regression models were obtained by selecting the best subset of variables between using the in vivo measurements (raw variables), their second degree and interactions, evaluated in terms of prediction performance using cross-validation "K-folds" and validated by a test group. Overall, high accuracy (adj R2) was obtained from the linear relationship between predicted and experimental values of the group test for each of the nine dependent variables, with values varying between adj R2 0.88 and 0.98.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Animais , Cruzamento , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/normas
13.
J Dairy Res ; 87(3): 341-343, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883388

RESUMO

In this research communication we describe the creation of an equation for the prediction of milk yield (MY) from udder volume (UV). A total of 280 measurements were collected between 5 and 15 d postpartum (pp) from 36 multiparous Pelibuey ewes. Study variables were measured between 2 and 9 weeks pp and MY was measured by manual milking, UV prior to and following milking was measured using the technique of making moulds from aluminium foil. The MY ranged from 0.09 to 0.83 kg/d, meanwhile UV prior and following milking ranged from 155 to 1940 and 90 to 1520 cm3, respectively. Measurements of UV had a moderate to high (P < 0.01; 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.78) correlation with MY. The UV prior to milking was the best prediction model for MY, which explained 62% of the variation in MY. This equation presented moderate precision (r2 = 0.61) and high accuracy (bias correction factor = 0.94), confirming a good reproducibility index (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.73). Modelling efficiency (MEF = 0.59) showed moderate concordance between observed and predicted values. In conclusion, MY in lactating Pelibuey ewes could be predicted in a moderate way using the predictor variable UV measured with the technique of moulds made with aluminium foil.


Assuntos
Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Leite , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia
14.
Genes Genomics ; 42(10): 1169-1178, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopian sheep living in different climatic zones and having contrasting morphologies are a most promising subject of molecular-genetic research. Elucidating their genetic diversity and genetic structure is critical for designing appropriate breeding and conservation strategies. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to investigate genome-wide genetic diversity and population structure of eight Ethiopian sheep populations. METHODS: A total of 115 blood samples were collected from four Ethiopian sheep populations that include Washera, Farta and Wollo (short fat-tailed) and Horro (long fat-tailed). DNA was extracted using Quick-DNA™ Miniprep plus kit. All DNA samples were genotyped using Ovine 50 K SNP BeadChip. To infer genetic relationships of Ethiopian sheep at national, continental and global levels, genotype data on four Ethiopian sheep (Adilo, Arsi-Bale, Menz and Black Head Somali) and sheep from east, north, and south Africa, Middle East and Asia were included in the study as reference. RESULTS: Mean genetic diversity of Ethiopian sheep populations ranged from 0.352 ± 0.14 for Horro to 0.379 ± 0.14 for Arsi-Bale sheep. Population structure and principal component analyses of the eight Ethiopian indigenous sheep revealed four distinct genetic cluster groups according to their tail phenotype and geographical distribution. The short fat-tailed sheep did not represent one genetic cluster group. Ethiopian fat-rump sheep share a common genetic background with the Kenyan fat-tailed sheep. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study revealed the principal component and population structure follows a clear pattern of tail morphology and phylogeography. There is clear signature of admixture among the study Ethiopian sheep populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ovinos/genética , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Etiópia , Genoma/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia
15.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 492(1): 103-106, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632837

RESUMO

Analysis of mammalian species composition has been performed for eight archaeological sites on the Ustyurt plateau. They date to the range from the middle Subboreal to the middle Subatlantic. The modern species composition of large mammals formed by the end of the Middle Holocene (Subboreal 2) and did not change until the early 20th century. The ungulate species composition and ratio on the plateau showed geographical variation and changed over time. Boars were always rare or absent in the north of Ustyurt. The structure of the ungulate fauna in the north of Ustyurt changed over time. Onager numbers in this area increased and saiga numbers decreased in the middle of the Late Holocene. Significant geographical differences in the structure of ungulate fauna were recorded in the middle of the Late Holocene. The numbers of onagers, goitered gazelles, and argali were higher, whereas the numbers of saigas were lower in the south of Ustyurt than in the north.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/anatomia & histologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564138

RESUMO

The sheep middle ear has been used in training to prepare physicians to perform surgeries and to test new ways of surgical access. This study aimed to (1) collect anatomical data and inertial properties of the sheep middle-ear ossicles and (2) explore effects of these features on sound transmission, in comparison to those of the human. Characteristic dimensions and inertial properties of the middle-ear ossicles of White-Alpine sheep (n = 11) were measured from high-resolution micro-CT data, and were assessed in comparison with the corresponding values of the human middle ear. The sheep middle-ear ossicles differed from those of human in several ways: anteroinferior orientation of the malleus handle, relatively small size of the incus with a relatively short distance to the lenticular process, a large area of the articular surfaces at the incudostapedial joint, and a relatively small moment of inertia along the anterior-posterior axis. Analysis in this study suggests that structure and orientation of the middle-ear ossicles in the sheep are conducive to an increase in the hinge-like ossicular-lever-action around the anterior-posterior axis. Considering the substantial anatomical differences, outcomes of middle-ear surgeries would presumably be difficult to assess from experiments using the sheep middle ear.


Assuntos
Ossículos da Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Ossículos da Orelha/fisiologia , Orelha Média/anatomia & histologia , Orelha Média/fisiologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Bigorna/anatomia & histologia , Bigorna/fisiologia , Martelo/anatomia & histologia , Martelo/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379798

RESUMO

Localization of the components of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) is essential for many therapeutic procedures in cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology. While histological studies provided fundamental insights into CCS localization, this information is incomplete and difficult to translate to aid in intraprocedural localization. To advance our understanding of CCS localization, we set out to establish a framework for quantifying nodal region morphology. Using this framework, we quantitatively analyzed the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN) in ovine with postmenstrual age ranging from 4.4 to 58.3 months. In particular, we studied the SAN and AVN in relation to the epicardial and endocardial surfaces, respectively. Using anatomical landmarks, we excised the nodes and adjacent tissues, sectioned those at a thickness of 4 µm at 100 µm intervals, and applied Masson's trichrome stain to the sections. These sections were then imaged, segmented to identify nodal tissue, and analyzed to quantify nodal depth and superficial tissue composition. The minimal SAN depth ranged between 20 and 926 µm. AVN minimal depth ranged between 59 and 1192 µm in the AVN extension region, 49 and 980 µm for the compact node, and 148 and 888 µm for the transition to His Bundle region. Using a logarithmic regression model, we found that minimal depth increased logarithmically with age for the AVN (R2 = 0.818, P = 0.002). Also, the myocardial overlay of the AVN was heterogeneous within different regions and decreased with increasing age. Age associated alterations of SAN minimal depth were insignificant. Our study presents examples of characteristic tissue patterns superficial to the AVN and within the SAN. We suggest that the presented framework provides quantitative information for CCS localization. Our studies indicate that procedural methods and localization approaches in regions near the AVN should account for the age of patients in cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology.


Assuntos
Nó Atrioventricular/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Nó Sinoatrial/anatomia & histologia , Animais
18.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(6): 737-741, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419204

RESUMO

Kosovo, one of the countries in the Balkan Peninsula, has a long tradition in sheep farming, and sheep breeds share triple purpose breed characteristics: milk, meat and wool. Bardhoka sheep, also with triple productive profile, is an important sheep breed because of its economic value with its milk production. In this study, 24 mandibles of adult Bardhoka sheep (12 male and 12 female) aged between 2 and 5 were used. The sheep were acquired from slaughterhouse around Kosovo, and the mandibles were selected without any deformities from healthy sheep. After cleaning the mandibles, a total of 12 morphometric measurements were taken from each sample using digital calliper. The difference between female and male was statistically significant (p < .05) for measurement 11 (height of mandible level of alveolar edge of 3rd molar tooth). The mean value of measurement 11 in male individuals was 42.26 ± 3.96, and it had a higher value than in female individuals (39.37 ± 2.57). In the literature, knowledge related to mandible morphometry of Bardhoka sheep was insufficient. The aim of this study was to determine mean values from osteometric measurements of Bardhoka sheep mandible and obtain references with the values acquired.


Assuntos
Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Feminino , Kosovo , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Ovinos/classificação
19.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(3): 365-371, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022341

RESUMO

In this study, we aim to investigate the skull of Bardhoka sheep, which is the native breed of Kosovo by utilising normal morphometric methods. Differences between male and female were also statistically analysed. Further, the parameters that can be used in gender discrimination were also analysed. The statistical analysis was based on a sample of 24 adult skulls of Bardhoka breed with 12 female and 12 male skulls. Altogether, 31 different measurements were taken morphologically and 7 different indices were applied. Except for the measurement's values of the orbit, measurement's values of length of the cheek tooth row and the measurement's values of height of the foramen magnum, all the measured values of males were higher than females. Nasal index, cranium index and skull index values were statistically significant between both genders. It is envisaged that the findings of this study will motivate and assist other comparative studies with other autochthonous sheep and goat breeds found in the Dukagjini region or in clinical veterinary practice and even in zooarchaeology.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Ovinos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cefalometria/veterinária , Feminino , Forame Magno/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052008

RESUMO

The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to detect external markers on processed or unprocessed cattle and sheep fecal specimens to estimate apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was evaluated. Exp. 1: ruminally cannulated Angus-crossbred steers (n = 7; BW = 520 ± 30 kg) were individually fed ad libitum for 21 d in a completely randomized design (CRD). Markers (Cr2O3 and TiO2) were placed inside the rumen twice daily (7.5 g of each marker). Fecal samples were collected twice daily from day 14 to 21. Exp. 2: crossbred wethers (n = 8; BW = 68 ± 3 kg) were individually fed ad libitum for 21 d in a CRD. During this period, 2 g of Cr2O3 and TiO2 were top-dressed onto the feed twice daily. Sheep were housed in metabolism crates for 5 d for total fecal collection. Concentration of markers was determined on diets, refusals, and fecal specimens (fresh, dry-only, and dried/ground) using atomic absorption to detect Cr and spectrophotometry for Ti. Concentration of both markers was also determined via the PXRF spectrometer. Delta between ATTD estimated by wet chemistry and PXRF was not different from zero (P ≥ 0.14) when using cattle fresh fecal specimens for both markers, whereas ATTD estimated by PXRF with dry-only and dried/ground fecal specimens were 3.6 and 1.1 percent units lower (P ≤ 0.04), respectively, than ATTD estimated by wet chemistry for Cr and Ti, respectively. Regardless of the fecal sample preparation method on cattle specimens, Ti concentration was similar (P = 0.39) among methodologies, while Cr was underestimated (P < 0.01) by 13% when PXRF was used in dry-only or dried/ground samples. The ATTD of sheep was underestimated (P < 0.01) by 2.4 percent units compared with control when Cr was measured by PXRF in dry-only samples. The Cr concentration in dry-only fecal specimens of sheep tended (P = 0.09) to be lower compared with wet chemistry analysis. Fresh and dry/ground sheep fecal samples assessed for Cr, and dry-only assessed for Ti were not (P ≥ 0.49) affected by detection method. The Cr fecal recovery tended (P = 0.10) to be the lowest for dry-only, the greatest for wet chemistry, intermediate for fresh and dry/ground sheep-fecal specimens; while not affected (P = 0.40) for Ti. The PXRF is an accurate technology to detect Cr and Ti in fresh cattle fecal samples to estimate ATTD. For fresh and dry/ground, the technology was effective for determining the concentration of Cr, or dry-only fecal specimens when detecting Ti in sheep specimens.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo
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