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1.
Gene ; 807: 145949, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481004

RESUMO

Growth traits is a critical economic trait for animal husbandry. In this study, the SNPs of CTNNA3 and CAP2 genes were investigated to check whether they are associated with growth traits (body weight, body height, body length and chest circumference) in Hu sheep. The result of the association analysis indicated that the mutation in CTNNA3 (g.2018018 A > G) were associated significantly with body weight, body height, body length and chest circumference (P < 0.05), the mutation in CAP2 (g.8588 T > C) were associated significantly with body height at 140, 160, 180 days (P < 0.05), AA and CC of CTNNA3 and CAP2 were the dominant genotypes associated with growth traits in Hu sheep. Moreover, combined effect analyses indicated that the growth traits with combined genotypes AACTNNA3-CCCAP2 and AACTNNA3-CTCAP2 were higher than those with genotype GGCTNNA3-CTCAP2. RT-qPCR indicated that CTNNA3 expression levels were significantly higher in liver and lung than in other nine tissues (P < 0.05), CAP2 expression levels were significantly higher in bone, heart, liver, lung and duodenum than in other six tissues (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CTNNA3 and CAP2 polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers for improving growth traits in Hu sheep husbandry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , alfa Catenina/genética , alfa Catenina/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710103

RESUMO

In recent years, Xinjiang mutton production has experienced a growth trend; however, it cannot meet the new consumer demand. Based on Michael Porter's "diamond model," this study presents a case study on the Xinjiang mutton industry in China and establishes an index system for the competitiveness of the industry. The competitiveness of the mutton industry is analyzed quantitatively via correlation analysis and principal component analysis by investigating the relevant data of 10 Chinese provinces topping in mutton production. On account of the related elements of the diamond model, a qualitative analysis is also performed. The quantitative analysis shows that among the 10 provinces (regions) topping in mutton production in China, Inner Mongolia wins in competitiveness, followed by Xinjiang, and Henan ranks at the bottom. The qualitative analysis shows that the Xinjiang mutton industry is inferior in three main factors compared to its competitors, and these are the production factors related to and supporting the industries and the enterprise strategies. Xinjiang performs moderately in terms of the auxiliary government factors. However, Xinjiang is in an advantageous position with respect to the main factors of demand conditions and auxiliary elements of opportunities. Given the existing problems, this study discusses the main reasons for the lack of competitiveness of the Xinjiang mutton industry. It also puts forward some strategic suggestions to enhance the competitiveness of the Xinjiang mutton industry based on the six elements of diamond model.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Indústrias/economia , Carne/economia , Animais , China , Pradaria , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13556, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973682

RESUMO

The effect of alfalfa saponins (AS) supplementation on the meat quality especially the color for growing lamb was investigated. Fifty Hu male lambs with body weights (BW, 19.21 ± 0.45 kg) were divided into five groups and supplemented AS with 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg/kg of dietary dry matter intake. After 90 days, all lambs were slaughtered. The longissimus thoracis muscle in lamb displayed significant changes in the content of intramuscular fat, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and drip loss within AS treatment (p < .05) between control and treatments groups. Redness (a*) significantly improved in both 0-day and 7-day storage with the AS supplementation coupled with the percentage of met-myoglobin reduction (p < .05). The redness (a*) change may result from improved met-myoglobin reducing activity, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase (p < .05) by AS supplementation in muscle. These enzymes may help to protect mitochondria function and reduce met-myoglobin, which bring a bright and red meat color.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cor , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Medicago sativa/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13561, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018642

RESUMO

This study examined how inclusion of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in finishing lamb diets for different periods affects some physiological indicators and meat quality. A total of 40 male lambs were divided into four groups according to feeding regimen during the 120-day finishing period as follows: C120: no DDGS included in diet for 120 days; D120: DDGS included in diet for 120 days; D75: no DDGS included in diet for 45 days + DDGS included in diet for 75 days; D45: no DDGS included in diet for 75 days + DDGS included in diet for 45 days. Dietary inclusion rate of DDGS was 27.5%. Fattening performance and rumen parameters were not affected by treatment. Feeding regimens had no significant effect on meat quality except the instrumental tenderness and juiciness score. DDGS fed lambs had higher level of total trans fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in meat. 10t-C18:1, 11t-C18:1 and 9c,11t conjugated linoleic acid contents of adipose tissue were higher in all the DDGS groups compared with C120 lambs (p < .001). These results suggest that soybean meal can be replaced with corn DDGS in lamb diets for up to 120 days during the finishing period with no adverse effects on some physiological response feedlot performance and meat quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/fisiologia , Soja , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise
5.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13553, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938599

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate growth performance and meat quality of Ujimqin lambs fed native grass hay without or with concentrate (HC) or pellets. Ninety non-castrated 6-month-old male lambs of good health and similar body weight (26.83 ± 0.26 kg) were randomly divided into three groups (five lambs per cage). The average daily gain and intake of the pellets and HC groups were significantly greater (p < .05) than those in the hay group. The carcass weight, net meat mass, loin eye area, and backfat thickness were significantly greater (p < .05) in the HC groups. The intramuscular fat was significantly greater (p < .05) in the pellets and HC groups, while the shear force was significantly decreased (p < .05) in pellets and HC groups. The C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9c, and C18:2n6 contents were significantly greater (p < .05) in the HC and pellet groups, while the C18:3n3 content was significantly greater (p < .05) in the hay group. Collectively, the present study suggested that feeding native grass hay with concentrate or pellets improved the growth in lambs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Poaceae , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Mongólia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009529, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909707

RESUMO

The human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants, possibly due to the properties of the immature neonatal pulmonary immune system. Using the newborn lamb, a classical model of human lung development and a translational model of RSV infection, we aimed to explore the role of cell-mediated immunity in RSV disease during early life. Remarkably, in healthy conditions, the developing T cell compartment of the neonatal lung showed major differences to that seen in the mature adult lung. The most striking observation being a high baseline frequency of bronchoalveolar IL-4-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which declined progressively over developmental age. RSV infection exacerbated this pro-type 2 environment in the bronchoalveolar space, rather than inducing a type 2 response per se. Moreover, regulatory T cell suppressive functions occurred very early to dampen this pro-type 2 environment, rather than shutting them down afterwards, while γδ T cells dropped and failed to produce IL-17. Importantly, RSV disease severity was related to the magnitude of those unconventional bronchoalveolar T cell responses. These findings provide novel insights in the mechanisms of RSV immunopathogenesis in early life, and constitute a major step for the understanding of RSV disease severity.


Assuntos
Pulmão/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/congênito , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/congênito , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876756

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is considered an important biomarker of whole-organism health and aging. Across humans and other vertebrates, short telomeres are associated with increased subsequent mortality risk, but the processes responsible for this correlation remain uncertain. A key unanswered question is whether TL-mortality associations arise due to positive effects of genes or early-life environment on both an individual's average lifetime TL and their longevity, or due to more immediate effects of environmental stressors on within-individual TL loss and increased mortality risk. Addressing this question requires longitudinal TL and life history data across the entire lifetimes of many individuals, which are difficult to obtain for long-lived species like humans. Using longitudinal data and samples collected over nearly two decades, as part of a long-term study of wild Soay sheep, we dissected an observed positive association between TL and subsequent survival using multivariate quantitative genetic models. We found no evidence that telomere attrition was associated with increased mortality risk, suggesting that TL is not an important marker of biological aging or exposure to environmental stress in our study system. Instead, we find that among-individual differences in average TL are associated with increased lifespan. Our analyses suggest that this correlation between an individual's average TL and lifespan has a genetic basis. This demonstrates that TL has the potential to evolve under natural conditions, and suggests an important role of genetics underlying the widespread observation that short telomeres predict mortality.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Longevidade , Ovinos/genética , Homeostase do Telômero , Animais , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/fisiologia
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5574-5582, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal use of feed resources must be considered by most livestock farmers. The use of low-cost agricultural by-products and the processing of these materials is one possible solution in this respect. One such compound is edible button mushroom waste (EM), a large amount of which is produced annually in the mushroom production cycle worldwide. RESULTS: Bulk density 100 of EM was smaller than the other groups. These changes also applied to alfalfa for bulk density, which was higher than the replaced waste. The dry matter solubility of EM was higher than that of alfalfa hay, whereas the ash solubility rate for EM was greater compared to alfalfa. Replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen, although the organic matter digestibility (OMD) increased, whereas the crude protein digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased (P < 0.05). Fermentation potential, gas production rate, metabolizable energy and short-chain fatty acids were increased. On replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM, the diet OMD increased, whereas the crude protein and NDF digestibility decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EM usage in the experimental diets did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen. The physical properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of EM, as well as its low cost, show that it can be used as an alternative part of the diet forage in the ruminant's diet. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Nutrientes/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/microbiologia
9.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(2): 252-260, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Barley straw is a farm by product that may be useful in animal feeding but its use is limited due to its low nutritional value and high fiber content. Therefore, this study aimed to improving the nutritive value of barley straw by bacterial treatment with Condensed Molasses Soluble (CMS) in the ration of Barki lambs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Experiment 1, 12 Barki rams, which were divided into 3 equal groups (4 each), were given rations which consisted of 50% CFM+50%, either clover hay (C) or bacterial treated barley straw (T1) or T1+ CMS (T2). In Experiment 2, 10 Barki lambs were divided into 2 groups, one (C) and T2 as descripted in Experiment 1. Data analyzed by using one way ANOVA model. RESULTS: Digestibility of Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Fiber (CF) and Ether Extract (EE) were insignificantly affected among all rations, while Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) recorded a higher value in T2 compared to T1. Changes in Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) values were insignificant. Values of DCP were higher for T2 compared to C and T1. The Body Weight Gain (BWG) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of growing lambs didn't statistically differ among the groups. CONCLUSION: Finally, complete replacement of clover hay by treated barley straw plus CMS may be considered good feeding strategies in the feeding of Barki lambs in Arid and semi-arid regions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Clima , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Fermentação , Hordeum/microbiologia , Melaço/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573244

RESUMO

Reduced reproductive efficiency results in economic losses to the Australian sheep industry. Reproductive success, particularly after artificial insemination, is dependent on a number of contributing factors on both ewe and ram sides. Despite considerable emphasis placed on characterising ewe side contributions, little emphasis has been placed on characterising ram side contributions to conception success. Over 14,000 transcripts are in spermatozoa of other species, which are transferred to the ova on fertilisation. These transcripts conceivably influence early embryonic development and whether conception is successful. Semen was collected (n = 45) across three breeds; Merino, Dohne, and Poll Dorset. Following collection, each ejaculate was split in two; an aliquot was assessed utilising Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) and the remaining was utilised for RNA extraction and subsequent next-generation sequencing. Overall, 754 differentially expressed genes were identified in breed contrasts and contrast between ejaculates of different quality. Downstream analysis indicated that these genes could play significant roles in a broad range of physiological functions, including maintenance of spermatogenesis, fertilisation, conception, embryonic development, and offspring production performance. Overall results provide evidence that the spermatozoal transcriptome could be a crucial contributing factor in improving reproductive performance as well as in the overall productivity and profitability of sheep industries.


Assuntos
Reprodução/genética , Ovinos/genética , Motilidade Espermática/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/genética , Masculino , Gravidez , Análise do Sêmen , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espermatozoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma
11.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 209-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541700

RESUMO

Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at Iowa State University. For more information, visit www.securesheepwool.org.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 72, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400015

RESUMO

Eighteen 4-month-old lambs, with a mean live weight (LW) of 19.47 ± 0.20 kg, were used to evaluate the nutritive value of date palm leaves (DPL) ensiled with different additives in a completely randomized design. Lambs were stratified into three groups of 6 lambs each and fed a control diet comprising 60% concentrate feed mixture (CFM) and 40% DPL silage (T1). In other treatments, the DPL silage (DPLS) of the control treatment was replaced with EM1 additive-treated DPLS (T2) or El-Mofeed additive-treated DPLS (T3). Apparent digestibility, total digestible nutrient, digestible crude protein, dry matter intake, daily weight gain (DWG), price of DWG, daily profit, and economics of feed efficiency were higher (P < 0.05) for the additives-treated DPLS relative to the control, with T2 enhancing these parameters compared with T3. With exception of ruminal pH, which was reduced, concentrations of ruminal NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased 4 h post feeding. However, ruminal NH3-N and total VFA were greater (P < 0.05) for the additives-treated DPLS, with T2 producing higher values than T3. Ruminal pH and feed cost/kg LW gain were lower for T2 relative to other treatments. Blood constituents were within the normal ranges for lambs, though slightly altered by treatments. Whereas serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were affected (P < 0.05) in this rank order, T1 < T3 < T2, other serum parameters were not affected. Relative feed cost and relative daily profit were lower and higher respectively for T2 than for T3. It is concluded that additives-treated DPLS is nutritionally superior to untreated DPLS as a roughage source in total mixed rations fed to growing lambs. However, for improved performance of the lambs and economic benefits, EM1-treated DPLS is recommended.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Valor Nutritivo , Phoeniceae/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soro/química , Ovinos/sangue , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem/análise
13.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 207: 105819, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465420

RESUMO

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is involved in the development of preantral follicles. However, the effect of DHT on the development of antral follicles has yet to be fully investigated. Herein, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescence assays, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting to investigate the effect of DHT on antral follicle development. First, we detected the concentration of DHT and the expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in different antral follicles. Second, multiple DHT concentration (10-10-10-7 M) were added to granulosa cells cultured in vitro to examine the influence of DHT on AR expression. Third, to study changes in the expression of oestrogen (E2) synthase and receptors during the development of antral follicles, we divided them according to their diameters into small (≤ 2 mm), medium (2-5 mm), and large (≥ 5 mm) groups. Fourth, we added DHT (10-8 M) and flutamide (Flu, 10-7 M) to granulosa cells to determine whether DHT regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) and the associated receptors through the AR pathway. Fifth, we tested the effect of DHT and Flu on the expression of apoptotic genes and proteins in granulosa cells. We found that AR was expressed in sheep antral follicle granulosa cells and was regulated by DHT. During antral follicle development, the concentration of E2 and the expression of CYP19A1 and E2 receptors significantly increased in granulosa cells. DHT influenced this increase, at least partially, through the AR. Moreover, DHT regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and proteins through the AR. Our study expands our knowledge on the regulatory mechanism of DHT in antral follicle development and guides further research on the androgen regulation of ovarian function.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 1164-1174, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131822

RESUMO

Colostrum is a unique resource that contributes to the passive transfer of immunity and plays a central role in the health status of neonatal ruminants. However, digestion and absorption of colostral proteins in the gut remain incompletely understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of bovine colostrum feeding on blood metabolic traits and to quantify colostral bioactive proteins in the gastrointestinal digesta and blood to evaluate intestinal transfer in neonatal lambs in the first 24 h of life. Fifty-four newborn lambs were used in this study, including 27 lambs fed pooled bovine colostrum and slaughtered at 6 (C6h), 12 (C12h), or 24 h (C24h) after birth; 18 lambs not fed any colostrum or milk and slaughtered at birth (N0h) or 24 h (N24h) after birth; and 9 milk-fed lambs slaughtered at 24 h (M24h) after birth. Lambs receiving colostrum or milk were bottle-fed within the first 2 h to obtain intakes of 8% of body weight at birth. Samples of blood and digesta from the abomasum, jejunum, and ileum were collected after slaughter. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, total protein, and aspartate aminotransferase were higher in colostrum-fed lambs than in N0h lambs. Serum concentrations of insulin, total protein, insulin-like growth factor 1, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were higher in C24h lambs than in N24h or M24h lambs. Apparent efficiencies of IgG absorption in C6h, C12h, and C24h lambs were 14.4, 26.8, and 17.2%, respectively, whereas apparent efficiencies of lactoferrin (LF), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), and ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG) absorption were very low in colostrum-fed lambs, with mean values of 0.06, 0.002, and 0.003%, respectively. Concentrations of IgG, LF, α-LA, and ß-LG in the digesta of the abomasum, jejunum, and ileum rapidly decreased from C6h to C24h lambs, and the disappearance rates of IgG, LF, α-LA, and ß-LG were higher in lambs from C6h to C12h (62.1, 75.7, 91.3, and 95.0% for IgG, LF, α-LA, and ß-LG, respectively) than from C12h to C24h (34.6, 22.5, 7.5, and 2.2% for IgG, LF, α-LA, and ß-LG, respectively). These results indicated that bovine colostrum feeding improved the metabolic and immunological status of lambs, and that ingested colostral IgG was prone to intact uptake into the blood, whereas almost all ingested LF, α-LA, and ß-LG disappeared in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract in a time-dependent manner. The findings provide novel information for exploring selective absorption of colostral compounds in the small intestine of lambs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Colostro , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Abomaso/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Colostro/imunologia , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo
15.
J Anat ; 239(1): 242-250, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735739

RESUMO

I re-examined data for relative growth by the heart in four species of mammal to reconcile divergent reports that appear in the literature. Raw data for heart and body mass for Horro sheep, humans, gray kangaroos, and tammar wallabies were studied by linear and nonlinear regression, thereby enabling me to avoid the confounding effects of logarithmic transformation and to evaluate multiple statistical models for describing pattern in each set of observations. My analyses indicate that relative growth by the heart is monophasic in all four species and either isometric or near isometric on the arithmetic scale. The heart in these mammals consequently grows in mass in approximate proportion to growth in mass by the body. The appearance of biphasic allometric growth in prior studies was an artifact resulting from logarithmic transformation. Although parturition in sheep and humans is accompanied by a change in the distribution of blood out of the heart and into pulmonary and systemic circuits, the challenge is met without marked increases in absolute or relative size of the heart.


Assuntos
Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Macropodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Humanos
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(7): 3041-3048, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the proportion of pea (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%), as a partial replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in the fattening concentrate, on ruminal fermentation in lambs. Gas and methane (CH4 ) production, in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD), ammonia (NH3 -N), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production after 24 h of incubation were evaluated. The concentrates were also incubated in the rumen of the wethers for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h to evaluate the effects of pea inclusion on in situ dry matter degradability (DMD), organic matter degradability (OMD), nitrogen degradability (ND), NH3 -N, and VFA production. RESULTS: In the in vitro assay, the inclusion of pea only affected gas production (mL day-1 degraded dry matter), CH4 production (mL day-1 degraded dry matter), and IVDMD (P < 0.05), and tended to affect NH3 -N content (P < 0.10) without affecting VFA production. In the in situ assay, the inclusion of pea increased DMD, OMD, and ND linearly (P < 0.001), whereas pea inclusion decreased NH3 -N content linearly (P < 0.05). Neither total VFA production nor the proportion of acetic acid were affected by pea inclusion (P > 0.05), but the propionic proportion increased with the proportion of pea included. CONCLUSIONS: The best level of pea inclusion in the concentrate could not be established based on the results of this study. However, the results showed that the inclusion of pea provides a good alternative protein source. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Metano/metabolismo , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Gene ; 773: 145364, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359122

RESUMO

Vitamin E is generally believed to promote the production of ovine sperm mainly through its antioxidant effect. Our previous studies have shown that some non-antioxidant genes may also be key in mediating this process. The objective of this study was to identify key candidate proteins that were differentially expressed in response to a treatment with Vitamin E. Prepubertal ovine testicular cells were isolated and divided into two groups. They were either treated with 800 µM Vitamin E (based on our previous results) or used as a non-treated control. After 24 h, all the cells were harvested for proteomic analysis. We found 115 differentially expressed proteins, 4 of which were up-regulated and 111 were down-regulated. A GO term enrichment analysis identified 127 Biological Process, 63 Cell Component and 26 Molecular Function terms that were enriched. Within those terms, 13, 11 and 26 terms were significantly enriched, respectively. Terms related to membrane and enzyme activity including the inner acrosomal membrane, signal peptidase complex, cysteine-type endopeptidase activity, etc., were also markedly enriched, while none of the KEGG pathways were enriched. We found that many of the differentially expressed proteins, such as CD46 (membrane cofactor protein), FLNA (Filamin A), DYSF (Dysferlin), IFT20 (Intraflagellar transport 20), SPCS1 (Signal peptidase complex subunit 1) and SPCS3 (Signal peptidase complex subunit 3) were related to the acrosomal and plasma membranes. A parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis verified that Vitamin E improved spermatogenesis by regulating the expression of FLNA, SPCS3, YBX3 and RARS, proteins that are associated with the plasma membranes and protamine biosynthesis of the spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Protaminas/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espermatogênese/genética , Vitamina E/genética , Acrossomo/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Masculino , Proteômica , Ovinos/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo
18.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(2): 265-271, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325787

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a mediator of the effects of growth hormone and polymorphism in the IGF1 gene (IGF1) is reported to affect fat deposition in some livestock species. In this study, nucleotide sequence variation in three regions of ovine IGF1 (part of the 5' flanking region, the exon 3 region, and the exon 4 region) was investigated in 848 New Zealand Romney lambs using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to ascertain if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) existed. Six SNPs were identified across these three regions. The effect of the sequence variation in the exon 3 and exon 4 regions on growth and carcass traits were investigated. One of the PCR-SSCP sequence variants in the exon 3 region was associated with variation in hot carcass weight, carcass fat depth at the 12th rib measured using video imaging and the percentage proportion of leg lean meat, whereas the other was associated with variation in growth rate to weaning. No associations were detected for the other gene regions analyzed. The results suggest that polymorphism in exon 3 of ovine IGF1 has potential for use as a gene-marker for some carcass and growth traits.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Éxons/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18873, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139842

RESUMO

Freeze-dried spermatozoa typically shows a reduction in fertility primarily due to the DNA damage resulting from the sublimation process. In order to minimize the physical/mechanical damage resulting from lyophilization, here we focused on the freezing phase, comparing two cooling protocols: (i) rapid-freezing, where ram sperm sample is directly plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN-group), as currently done; (ii) slow-freezing, where the sample is progressively cooled to - 50 °C (SF-group). The spermatozoa dried in both conditions were analysed to assess residual water content by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and DNA integrity using Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). TGA revealed more than 90% of water subtraction in both groups. A minor DNA damage, Double-Strand Break (DSB) in particular, characterized by a lower degree of abnormal chromatin structure (Alpha-T), was detected in the SF-group, comparing to the LN-one. In accordance with the structural and DNA integrity data, spermatozoa from SF-group had the best embryonic development rates, comparing to LN-group: cleaved embryos [42/100 (42%) versus 19/75 (25.3%), P < 0.05, SL and LN respectively] and blastocyst formation [7/100 (7%) versus 2/75 (2.7%), P < 0.05, SF and LN respectively]. This data represents a significant technological advancement for the development of lyophilization as a valuable and cheaper alternative to deep-freezing in LN for ram semen.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Criopreservação , Dano ao DNA/genética , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Gravidez , Sêmen/metabolismo , Sêmen/fisiologia , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227032

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the association of cottonseed processing method with chitosan on carcass traits and meat quality of lambs finished in feedlot. Eighty lambs with an average body weight of 20.6 kg, with 04 months of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The factors were represented by two cottonseed processing method (whole or ground) and two levels of chitosan (0 and 136 mg/kg BW). The association of cottonseed processing method with chitosan in the lamb diet did not affect (P>0.05) carcasses traits. The pH, color, cooking losses, shear force, and proximate composition of meat were also not affected (P>0.05) by the processing method of cottonseed or its association with chitosan in the lamb diets. There was an increase in palmitoleic (c9-C16:1; P = 0.01) and conjugated linoleic (P = 0.02) fatty acids when ground cottonseed was associated with chitosan. Ground cottonseed associated with chitosan increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the meat of feedlot lambs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Quitosana/química , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Humanos , Carne/normas , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carneiro Doméstico
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