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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2933, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190602

RESUMO

Although numerous studies exist relating ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations to diet composition and animal performance, minimal information is available describing how VFA dynamics respond to diets within the context of the whole rumen environment. The objective of this study was to characterize how protein and fiber sources affect dry matter intake, rumen pH, fluid dynamics, fermentation parameters, and epithelial gene expression. Four diet treatments (soybean meal or heat-treated soybean meal and beet pulp or timothy hay) were delivered to 10 wethers. The soybean meals served as crude protein (CP) sources while the beet pulp and timothy hay represented neutral detergent fiber (NDF) sources. Feed intake, rumen pH, fluid pool size, and fluid passage rate were unaffected by treatment. Butyrate synthesis and absorption were greater on the beet pulp treatment whereas synthesis and absorption of other VFA remained unchanged. Both CP and NDF treatment effects were associated with numerous VFA interconversions. Expression levels of rumen epithelial genes were not altered by diet treatment. These results indicate that rumen VFA dynamics are altered by changes in dietary sources of nutrients but that intake, rumen environmental parameters, and the rumen epithelium may be less responsive to such changes.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Fermentação/genética , Expressão Gênica , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Soja
2.
Gene ; 817: 146231, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063577

RESUMO

Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf) functions to mediate follicular atresia and oocyte growth in mice. It has been proven that TGF-ß can induce Bmf expression via the Smad4 pathway in a variety of cells, and then induce cell apoptosis. Based on this, we hypothesized that Smad4 and Bmf may play important roles in the apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) in domestic animals. This study used small-tailed Han sheep follicular GCs cultured in vitro as a model system, and overexpression or interference experiments, to explore the biological roles of Bmf and reveal the preliminary regulatory mechanisms between Smad4 and Bmf in the process of GCs' apoptosis. We found that the proliferation rate of sheep GCs was significantly increased after the knockdown of Bmf, whereas overexpressing Bmf increased the apoptosis rate of GCs, results also verified by the expression patterns of PCNA, Bcl-2, and Bax genes. After the Smad4 knockdown, the apoptosis rate of GCs was increased, while the mRNA and protein expression of Bmf was significantly up-regulated. A rescue experiment verified that the Bmf knockdown could alleviate GCs' apoptosis induced by Smad4 knockdown. In conclusion, our study not only elucidated an important role for Bmf in the apoptosis of sheep GCs but also revealed a new regulatory pathway between Smad4 and Bmf in this process.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Apoptose , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Proteína Smad4/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/veterinária , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ovinos/genética , Proteína Smad4/genética
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1301-1308, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355670

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin concentration and reproductive performance of ewes supplemented with orange residue prior to insemination. Fifty-five multiparous ewes were divided into two corrals, and 15 unbred ewes were kept individually to measure feed consumption. Two integral diets were administered; T0: control treatment and T1: with 20% of dry matter of orange residue. Ten days after the start of supplementation, the ewes were synchronized. Supplementation was finalized prior to artificial insemination, then, a blood sample was taken to measure the antioxidant capacity and glucose and insulin concentration. An analysis of variance was made to evaluate the effect of treatment on the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin; and to analyze the response to estrus, percentage of gestation and prolificity a ji squared test was performed. Of 9 antioxidant compounds found in the orange residue, hesperidin (7.44%), chlorogenic acid (0.50%) and protocatechuic acid had the highest concentration. Feed intake, estrus response, percentage of gestation, antioxidant capacity, and glucose and insulin concentration were not affected by the treatment. It is concluded that inclusion of 20% of orange residue in the diet prior to insemination in ewes is possible.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e insulina e o comportamento reprodutivo de ovelhas suplementadas com resíduo de laranja antes da inseminação. Cinquenta e cinco ovelhas multíparas foram divididas em dois currais e 15 ovelhas sem raça foram mantidas individualmente para se medir o consumo de ração. Duas dietas integrais foram administradas; T0: tratamento controle e T1: dieta com 20% de resíduo de laranja seco. Dias após o início da suplementação, as ovelhas foram sincronizadas. A suplementação foi finalizada antes da inseminação artificial e, em seguida, foi coletada uma amostra de sangue para medir a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração de glicose e insulina. Uma análise de variância foi feita para avaliar o efeito do tratamento sobre a capacidade antioxidante, a glicose e a insulina, e um teste do ji quadrado foi realizado para analisar a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação e de prolificidade. Dos nove compostos antioxidantes encontrados no resíduo laranja, a hesperidina (7,44%), o ácido clorogênico (0,50%) e o ácido protocatecuico foram os de maior concentração. O consumo alimentar, a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação, a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e a insulina não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Conclui-se que é possível a inclusão de 20% de resíduos de laranja na dieta antes da inseminação em ovelhas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Glicemia/análise , Ovinos/fisiologia , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Insulinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Resíduos de Alimentos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972110

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to impact a large number of organisms in many ecosystems, including several threatened mammals. A better understanding of climate impacts on species can make conservation efforts more effective. The Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) are economically important wild ungulates in northern Pakistan because they are sought-after hunting trophies. However, both species are threatened due to several human-induced factors, and these factors are expected to aggravate under changing climate in the High Himalayas. In this study, we investigated populations of ibex and blue sheep in the Pamir-Karakoram mountains in order to (i) update and validate their geographical distributions through empirical data; (ii) understand range shifts under climate change scenarios; and (iii) predict future habitats to aid long-term conservation planning. Presence records of target species were collected through camera trapping and sightings in the field. We constructed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model on presence record and six key climatic variables to predict the current and future distributions of ibex and blue sheep. Two representative concentration pathways (4.5 and 8.5) and two-time projections (2050 and 2070) were used for future range predictions. Our results indicated that ca. 37% and 9% of the total study area (Gilgit-Baltistan) was suitable under current climatic conditions for Himalayan ibex and blue sheep, respectively. Annual mean precipitation was a key determinant of suitable habitat for both ungulate species. Under changing climate scenarios, both species will lose a significant part of their habitats, particularly in the Himalayan and Hindu Kush ranges. The Pamir-Karakoram ranges will serve as climate refugia for both species. This area shall remain focus of future conservation efforts to protect Pakistan's mountain ungulates.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Paquistão
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21363, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725398

RESUMO

Small ruminants are suited to a wide variety of habitats and thus represent promising study models for identifying genes underlying adaptations. Here, we considered local Mediterranean breeds of goats (n = 17) and sheep (n = 25) from Italy, France and Spain. Based on historical archives, we selected the breeds potentially most linked to a territory and defined their original cradle (i.e., the geographical area in which the breed has emerged), including transhumant pastoral areas. We then used the programs PCAdapt and LFMM to identify signatures of artificial and environmental selection. Considering cradles instead of current GPS coordinates resulted in a greater number of signatures identified by the LFMM analysis. The results, combined with a systematic literature review, revealed a set of genes with potentially key adaptive roles in relation to the gradient of aridity and altitude. Some of these genes have been previously implicated in lipid metabolism (SUCLG2, BMP2), hypoxia stress/lung function (BMPR2), seasonal patterns (SOX2, DPH6) or neuronal function (TRPC4, TRPC6). Selection signatures involving the PCDH9 and KLH1 genes, as well as NBEA/NBEAL1, were identified in both species and thus could play an important adaptive role.


Assuntos
Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Animais , Cruzamento , Ecossistema , França , Itália , Região do Mediterrâneo , Espanha
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 531, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734335

RESUMO

Raising sheep and goats in the gulf region is a large entrepreneurial business. This is, of course, derived from the big demands of lamb and goat meats for citizens and expatriates. There is a major population living in the rural desert areas whose main income steps from rising local sheep and goats. Despite large number of farmers into sheep production, the country still imports from foreign countries to meet augment local demand. Thus, improving local sheep production is a means to reduce the importation of sheep from foreign land. The low twinning rates in the main two indigenous breeds (i.e., Najdi and Noemi) in the region motivated the researchers to pursue an avenue for maximizing the neonatal outcomes is a contributing factor to low level of sheep proliferation in the region. Thus, pursuing an avenue for maximizing the neonatal outcome per female is a good strategy. Application of hormonal induction protocol support reproductive efficiency by improving viable twin birth in single-bearing ewes. By applying this method, several sheep raisers could retain their business more effectively.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos/fisiologia
7.
J Therm Biol ; 100: 103027, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503774

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental conditions and species on thermoregulatory responses, acid-base and electrolyte balance of black goats and ewes in an equatorial semi-arid environment. Ten Canindé goats and seven Morada Nova ewes with black coat color, all multiparous, aged between 2 and 3 years, non-lactating, non-pregnant, and body weight (BW) of 22.84 ± 4.17 kg for goats and 22.60 ± 3.18 kg for ewes were used in this study. Air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) were measured. Respiratory rate (RR), Rectal temperature (RT), sweating rate (SR), hydrogen potential (pH), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), venous oxygen pressure (PO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO2), venous oxygen saturation (SO2), sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) were recorded. Animal species (caprine and ovine) and environmental conditions (Thermoneutral condition, TC and Heat condition, HC) were considered as fixed effects. Univariate and multivariate analysis techniques were used. Differences were observed between the two environmental conditions. Significant changes in all thermoregulatory responses for goats and ewes were observed according to the environmental condition effect. The general means of the species showed that only SR was high in ewes (P < 0.05), following a reverse change when compared to goat SR. For the environmental condition effect, only the blood pH of goats did not change under HC (P < 0.05), while the BE and TCO2 did not change for ewes. The general means of PCO2, HCO3, BE, TCO2 and SO2 were higher in ewes compared to goats. For electrolytic balance, Na + demonstrated elevations in HC. Brazilian black goats and ewes raised in an equatorial semi-arid environment tend to have particular homeothermy, acid-base and electrolytic balance which mostly depend on the environmental conditions they are raised. The results support the changes in physiological mechanisms between black goats and ewes; however, both are locally adapted.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Animais , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Umidade
8.
J Therm Biol ; 100: 103064, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503804

RESUMO

Ruminant testes are ~2-6 °C below body temperature; increased testicular temperature reduces sperm motility and morphology. Our objective was to serially monitor scrotal subcutaneous temperatures during testicular heat stress and relate those to sperm quality. Two experiments were conducted, with temperature sensors surgically implanted in scrotal subcutaneous tissues recording temperatures every 15 min and semen collected and evaluated weekly. After an initial control interval, testicular temperature was increased. In Experiment 1, in two Angus bulls, whole-scrotum insulation for 96 h increased scrotal subcutaneous temperatures by ~2.0-2.5 °C (P < 0.05). Total and progressive motility decreased (P < 0.05) and reached a nadir at Week 3 (~20 and 10%, respectively). Furthermore, morphologically normal sperm and acrosome integrity also decreased significantly, reaching nadirs at Weeks 3 (15%) and 4 (34%). In Experiment 2, 10 Dorset rams were allocated randomly into two equal groups and either: 1) exposed to 28 °C ambient temperature and 30-34% RH for 8 h/d for 4 d; or 2) subjected to scrotal neck insulation that was applied and removed at the same time as the start and completion, respectively, of heat exposures in the other rams. Scrotal subcutaneous temperatures (monitored in three rams per group) were increased in response to whole-body heating (~0.8 °C, P < 0.05), but not significantly changed by scrotal neck insulation. Decreases in sperm quality were generally similar between treatments, with the most profound changes evident 4 wk after heat stress, with ~10 percentage point reductions in both total and progressive motility and ~10 and 20 percentage point decreases in morphologically normal sperm in rams with whole-body heating versus scrotal neck insulation, respectively. In conclusion, scrotal subcutaneous temperature was significantly increased by scrotal insulation or whole-body heating, but not by scrotal neck insulation; however, all three heat-stress models decreased sperm motility and morphology in bulls and rams.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Escroto/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea , Acrossomo/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Masculino , Escroto/citologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
9.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 234: 106855, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583145

RESUMO

This review is part of the Festschrift in honor of Dr. Duane Garner and provides an overview of current techniques in cooled storage of semen from livestock animals such as camelids, goats, and sheep. Facing worldwide environmental changes and a trend towards more conscious and healthy eating behaviors, the development of a stable animal breeding industry is a significant challenge for the near future. In the present review, factors influencing semen handling in camelids, goats and sheep are described and relevant methods as well as current trends to improve liquid-storage of cooled semen are discussed, including extenders, additives, cooling rates, and storage temperatures. The species-specific physiology and resulting challenges are taken into consideration. While the main problem for camelid semen processing is the relatively greater viscosity as compared with that of some other animals, the deciding factor for successful artificial insemination (AI) in goats and sheep is the site (i.e., cervical or vaginal) of semen placement in the reproductive tract. Due to the type of cervical anatomy, the penetration of the cervix when using AI instruments is rather difficult. Furthermore, the seminal plasma of small ruminants affects the interaction with milk-based extenders and egg yolk which results in species-specific regimens for cooled liquid-preservation. Comparing all three species, the greatest pregnancy rates were obtained by AI with goat semen after cooled liquid-storage for several days.


Assuntos
Camelidae/fisiologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Cabras/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Masculino
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0244909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383758

RESUMO

The extent of dysfunction of the Eustachian tube (ET) is relevant in understanding the pathogenesis of secondary otological diseases such as acute or chronic otitis media. The underlying mechanism of ET dysfunction remains poorly understood except for an apparent genesis such as a nasopharyngeal tumor or cleft palate. To better describe the ET, its functional anatomy, and the biomechanical valve mechanism and subsequent development of diagnostic and interventional tools, a three-dimensional model based on thin-layer histology was created from an ET in this study. Blackface sheep was chosen as a donor. The 3-D model was generated by the coherent alignment of the sections. It was then compared with the cone-beam computed tomography dataset of the complete embedded specimen taken before slicing. The model shows the topographic relation of the individual components, such as the bone and cartilage, the muscles and connective tissue, as well as the lining epithelium with the lumen. It indicates a limited spiraling rotation of the cartilaginous tube over its length and relevant positional relationships of the tensor and levator veli palatine muscles.


Assuntos
Tuba Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cartilagem/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Otopatias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/fisiopatologia , Otite Média/fisiopatologia , Otite Média com Derrame/fisiopatologia , Músculos Palatinos/fisiopatologia , Ovinos/fisiologia
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 834-842, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285262

RESUMO

Urolithiasis has a high incidence among confined sheep. It is multifactorial and may cause economic damage. Our aim was to determine the capacity of urinary acidification using ammonium chloride in sheep. Twenty-five 3-month-old male sheep were confined and randomly divided into three groups; the G200 and G500 groups received 200mg/kg/GW and 500mg/kg/GW of ammonium chloride daily for 56 consecutive days, respectively, whereas the CG group did not receive ammonium chloride. Sampling times and clinical evaluation were performed weekly, starting from the 14th day of confinement (M1 or immediately before administering ammonium chloride) until the 17th day (M9) of the feedlot. Hemogasometry, biochemical examination of serum urea and creatinine concentration and ultrasound evaluation of the urinary tract were performed. The urinalysis indicated a higher incidence of ammonium magnesium phosphate crystals at the beginning of the study, showing a migration to urate crystal formation, mainly in the G500 group because of urinary acidification. No hemogasometric, serum biochemistry, ruminal fluid, or ultrasonographic changes were observed. Urinary acidification was achieved and maintained after M7 during the administration of ammonium chloride in the G500 group, but not in the other study groups.(AU)


A urolitíase apresenta alta incidência em ovinos confinados, etiologia multifatorial, e pode causar prejuízo econômico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a capacidade da acidificação urinária mediante o uso de cloreto de amônio em ovinos. Foram utilizados 25 ovinos de três meses de idade, confinados e divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: grupo CG (controle) não recebeu cloreto de amônio; grupo G200 (200mg/kg/PV) recebeu cloreto de amônio por 56 dias consecutivos; grupo G500 (500mg/kg/PV) recebeu cloreto de amônio por 56 dias consecutivos, administrados diariamente por via oral. Os momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e de avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M1 (imediatamente antes do cloreto de amônio), M2 (sete dias após) até M9, totalizando 70 dias de confinamento. Foram realizadas hemogasometria, concentração sérica de ureia e creatinina e avaliação ultrassonográfica do trato urinário. Na urinálise, houve uma maior incidência de cristais de fosfato amônio magnesiano no início do estudo, com migração para formação de cristais de urato, principalmente no G500, devido à acidificação urinária. Não houve alterações hemogasométricas, na bioquímica sérica, no líquido ruminal, ou alterações ultrassonográficas. A acidificação urinária foi obtida e mantida a partir do M7 durante a administração do cloreto de amônio no grupo G500, não ocorrendo nos outros grupos de estudo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/fisiologia , Litíase/veterinária , Urolitíase/veterinária , Cloreto de Amônio/administração & dosagem , Gasometria/veterinária , Urinálise/veterinária
12.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 231: 106799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225237

RESUMO

Perinatal mortality of lambs is the major source of reproductive loss in extensive sheep production systems. Treatment with caffeine has reduced intra-partum mortality and/or improved metabolic indicators in other species following hypoxia. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine for improving perinatal lamb survival. Experiment 1 comprised group-fed Merino ewes grazing pasture and offered 1.8 g/day (estimated 20 mg/kg live weight) caffeine throughout a 4-week lambing period, and a control without caffeine. The survival of lambs to marking (vaccinated, tail docked, males castrated) age in the caffeine treatment group (0.81) did not differ (P = 0.199) from that of control lambs (0.73; total born n = 877). Experiment 2 comprised Merino ewes lambing from three successive weekly joining groups. Treated ewes were drenched with an aqueous caffeine solution at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg live weight from the day before anticipated lambing, until the individual lambed. Control ewes were drenched with water. The proportion of lambs born dead (0.07) and the survival of lambs to marking age (caffeine 0.61; control 0.62) were similar between treatment groups (total born n = 1158). In both experiments, ewe mortality and the weight of lambs at marking were not altered by caffeine treatments. The results from this large-scale field study indicate caffeine is not an effective therapeutic agent to increase either intra-partum or perinatal survival, or lamb growth rates.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Distocia/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12329, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112842

RESUMO

Minerals play an important role in animal metabolism. Knowledge of mineral requirements allows well-formulated diets to be provided, which is the main factor that affects performance. To determine the macromineral and trace element requirements for growth and maintenance, thirty-eight 2-month-old Santa Ines lambs with initial body weight (BW) of 13.0 ± 1.49 kg were distributed in a factorial design with feeding levels (ad libitum, 30% and 60% feed restriction) and sex classes [castrated (CM) and intact males (IM)]. The net mineral requirements for gain were higher (P < 0.05) with increasing BW and average daily gain, except for Ca and Na, which remained constant as the empty BW (EBW) increased. The macromineral net requirement for maintenance (g/kg EBW0.75) and the true retention coefficient (k; %) were 0.0784 and 65.2 for Ca, 0.0926 and 80.0 for P, and 0.0379 and 59.0 for K, respectively. The k of Mg was higher (P < 0.05) for IM (11.3 for IM and 7.9 for CM). Sex did not affect (P > 0.05) the maintenance requirement of the trace elements Co, Cu, Zn and Cr which were 0.0015, 0.037, 0.698, and 0.0055 (mg/kg EBW0.75), respectively. Our study indicated that the Santa Ines net mineral requirements are different from the main nutritional requirements established by committees for sheep, which may result in unbalanced diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Minerais/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia
14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 231: 106793, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126541

RESUMO

Many subclinical diseases associated with inflammation occur in sheep during the periparturient period. Clinical symptoms are usually detected at an advanced stage of the disease; therefore, there are considerable risks of permanent health disorders in fetuses or dams. Determination of acute phase proteins (APPs) as markers of inflammation may allow for an earlier diagnosis and effective treatment. Furthermore, multi-fetus pregnancies are often associated with hematological disturbances. The study objective was to compare plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), fibrinogen (Fb), and cortisol in ewes bearing one and two fetuses in the period from 2 weeks before to 2 weeks after parturition as well as to determine hematological parameters in peripheral blood. There was an important effect of fetal number on APP and cortisol concentrations in periparturient ewes. There was a greater concentration of SAA, Hp, Fb, and cortisol in ewes bearing two fetuses compared with those bearing one fetus. Profiles for APP and cortisol concentrations and hematological parameters were similar for ewes bearing one and two fetuses, and trends were within normal reference ranges for the periparturient period. Furthermore, there were no differences in values for hematological variables between ewes bearing one and two fetuses. with there being no ewes with anemia. In summary, separate determination of the previously undefined physiological ranges of APPs and cortisol for ewes bearing one and two fetuses may facilitate diagnosis of subclinical disorders and enable comparison of laboratory test results with different reference values for ewes bearing different numbers of fetuses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Período Periparto/sangue , Ovinos/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Período Periparto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Ovinos/fisiologia
15.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 231: 106797, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175553

RESUMO

Because intrauterine environment differs between twins and singletons, twin-born lambs are often studied when effects of fetal programming are evaluated. In sheep, fetal programming might have effects on reproductive physiology and behavior after sexual maturation. The aim of this study was to compare sperm output and sexual behavior in developing singleton- or twin-born lambs of similar body weight. Singleton lambs (n = 12) and twin (n = 9) male-male lambs were used. From 5.4 until 9.1 months of age, body weight, scrotal circumference (every 3-4 weeks), sexual behavior (every 14 days) and semen characteristics (every 28 days) were evaluated. In the third ejaculate, singleton lambs ejaculated a larger volume of semen than twins (P = 0.03). Considering a pool of the three ejaculates, twin lambs ejaculated semen with a greater sperm concentration than singleton lambs (P = 0.015). There was an interaction between group and time to the onset of courtship behavior (P = 0.02) and a tendency for an interaction in the number of mount attempts (P = 0.052). Singleton-born lambs, during the first evaluation period began courtship behavior earlier than twin-born lambs (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, there were only slight differences in semen and sexual behavior between male ram lambs born as singletons or twins with similar weight. Male ram lambs born as singletons initiated the courtship behavior earlier than twins during the first sexual behavioral evaluation period, ejaculated a larger volume of semen in the third consecutive ejaculate, and there was a lesser sperm concentration in the three ejaculates.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Gravidez Múltipla , Sêmen/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
16.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13553, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938599

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate growth performance and meat quality of Ujimqin lambs fed native grass hay without or with concentrate (HC) or pellets. Ninety non-castrated 6-month-old male lambs of good health and similar body weight (26.83 ± 0.26 kg) were randomly divided into three groups (five lambs per cage). The average daily gain and intake of the pellets and HC groups were significantly greater (p < .05) than those in the hay group. The carcass weight, net meat mass, loin eye area, and backfat thickness were significantly greater (p < .05) in the HC groups. The intramuscular fat was significantly greater (p < .05) in the pellets and HC groups, while the shear force was significantly decreased (p < .05) in pellets and HC groups. The C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9c, and C18:2n6 contents were significantly greater (p < .05) in the HC and pellet groups, while the C18:3n3 content was significantly greater (p < .05) in the hay group. Collectively, the present study suggested that feeding native grass hay with concentrate or pellets improved the growth in lambs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Poaceae , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Mongólia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia
17.
J Dairy Res ; 88(2): 128-133, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024288

RESUMO

The aim of this research communication was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with wheat-based dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of bioethanol production, on yield, composition, and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk. Forty-five purebred mid-lactating Chios ewes (average milk yield 2.23 kg/d in 96 ± 5 d in lactation) were offered three iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets (15 animals per diet) for a 10 d adaptation period followed by a 5-week recording and sampling period. The diets contained 0, 6, and 12% DDGS on DM basis for the DG0, DG6, and DG12 treatment, respectively, as a replacement of concentrate mix, whilst concentrate-to-forage ratio remained at 60:40 in all treatments. Individual milk yield, milk composition, and FA profile were recorded weekly and analyzed using a complete randomized design with repeated measurements. No significant differences were observed among groups concerning dry matter intake (overall mean of 2.59 kg/d), milk yield or 6% fat-corrected milk and milk protein percentage or protein yield. Milk fat percentage was decreased in the DG12 (4.76%) compared to DG0 (5.69%) without, however, significantly affecting the daily output of milk fat. The concentration of all major saturated FA between C4:0 to C16:0 was reduced, whereas long-chain (>16 carbons), mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated FAs were increased in the milk of DDGS groups. Among individual FA, increments of oleic acid and C18:1 trans-monoenes like C18:1 trans-10 and C18:1 trans-11 were demonstrated in DG12 group, whereas linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA cis-9, trans-11) were elevated in both DDGS groups compared to control. Changes in FA profile resulted in a decline in the atherogenic index of milk by 20% and 35% in DG6 and DG12 treatments, respectively, compared with control. In conclusion, feeding DDGS to dairy ewes increased the levels of unsaturated FA that are potentially beneficial for human health without adversely affecting milk, protein or fat yield.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Leite/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Triticum , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Destilação , Etanol , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13561, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018642

RESUMO

This study examined how inclusion of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in finishing lamb diets for different periods affects some physiological indicators and meat quality. A total of 40 male lambs were divided into four groups according to feeding regimen during the 120-day finishing period as follows: C120: no DDGS included in diet for 120 days; D120: DDGS included in diet for 120 days; D75: no DDGS included in diet for 45 days + DDGS included in diet for 75 days; D45: no DDGS included in diet for 75 days + DDGS included in diet for 45 days. Dietary inclusion rate of DDGS was 27.5%. Fattening performance and rumen parameters were not affected by treatment. Feeding regimens had no significant effect on meat quality except the instrumental tenderness and juiciness score. DDGS fed lambs had higher level of total trans fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in meat. 10t-C18:1, 11t-C18:1 and 9c,11t conjugated linoleic acid contents of adipose tissue were higher in all the DDGS groups compared with C120 lambs (p < .001). These results suggest that soybean meal can be replaced with corn DDGS in lamb diets for up to 120 days during the finishing period with no adverse effects on some physiological response feedlot performance and meat quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/fisiologia , Soja , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043635

RESUMO

Research suggests that many sheep farmers continue to carry out traditional antibiotic use practices despite new 'good practice' recommendations. The aim of this study was to group farmers depending on their attitudes around antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, and determine the behaviours that are associated with the farmers in these groups. In 2017, a flock health survey was sent to British sheep farmers. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of farmers with similar attitudes towards antibiotic use and resistance. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to determine the associations between farmers' past behaviours and their antibiotic attitude group. There were 461 responses. Two groups of farmers were identified based on their antibiotic attitudes. Cluster 1 were defined as the "discordant" group who had positive views of using antibiotics prophylactically and negative views of reducing antibiotic use. Cluster 2 were defined as the "concordant" group who were positive about reducing antibiotic use and had negative views about using antibiotics prophylactically. Using antibiotics in all lambs (OR = 2.689, CI = 1.571, 4.603), using antibiotics in all ewes (OR = 3.388, CI = 1.318, 8.706), always trimming diseased feet over the past three years (OR = 2.487, CI = 1.459, 4.238), not using a computer to record information over the past three years (OR = 1.996, CI = 1.179, 3.381), not changing worming practices over the past three years (OR = 1.879, CI = 1.144, 3.087), and farmers' perceptions that their sheep flock did not make a financial loss in the past three years (OR = 2.088, CI = 1.079, 4.040) were significantly associated with belonging to the discordant group. Talking to their veterinarian about antibiotic use or the frequency of veterinary visits were not associated with antibiotic attitude group. These results suggest that farmers who had attitudes relating to antibiotic use that did not align with current recommendations carried out more traditional practices, which were strengthened by their positive perceptions of profitability.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovinos/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
20.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 230: 106767, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030069

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of gallic acid as the single antioxidant to the base medium for in vitro culture of sheep secondary follicles and if the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is involved in the action of gallic acid. Secondary follicles were isolated and cultured for 12 days in α-MEM supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), insulin, glutamine, hypoxanthine, transferrin, selenium, and ascorbic acid (control medium: α-MEM+) or in α-MEM supplemented with BSA, insulin, glutamine, hypoxanthine and different concentrations of gallic acid (25, 50 or 100 µM), thus replacing transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid in the medium. Follicle morphology, glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial activity, and meiotic resumption were evaluated. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K pathway was performed by pretreatment with LY294002. After 12 days of culture, the follicle survival in a medium containing 100 µM gallic acid was similar (P > 0.05) to α-MEM+ and greater (P < 0.05) compared with other gallic acid concentrations. Antrum formation, follicle diameter, GSH, and mitochondrial activity, and meiotic resumption, however, were greater (P < 0.05) when 100 µM gallic acid was included in the α-MEM+ culture medium compared with the control medium. Furthermore, LY294002 inhibited (P < 0.05) follicle survival, development, and meiotic resumption stimulated by 100 µM gallic acid. In conclusion, concentration of 100 µM of gallic acid can be a substitute for transferrin, selenium, and ascorbic acid in the base medium during in vitro culture of sheep secondary follicles, inducing follicle development likely through the PI3K pathway.


Assuntos
Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Cromatina , Cromonas/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/veterinária
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