Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.160
Filtrar
1.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(2): 85-93, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235117

RESUMO

From an economic point of view, Bovidae represent the most important family of the Ruminantia suborder. Thus, the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of Bos taurus were among the first genomes to be sequenced after the sequencing of the human genomes. Over the millennia, the evolution of the genomes of the 3 main species belonging to the Bovidae family - B. taurus (BTA), Ovis aries (OAR), and Capra hircus (CHI) - has led to few chromosome rearrangements. Certainly, the availability and free access to the animal genomes significantly contributed to the improvement of animal genetics; however, some errors may exist due to the high automation in the genomic assembly construction process. In this work, some differences between the genomes of cattle, goat, and sheep highlighted by bioinformatics analysis have been verified by FISH, confirming that some errors persist even in the most recent genome assemblies. This type of approach has allowed us to detect a misassembly of a region belonging to BTA16 and to the homologues OAR12 and CHI16, a misassembly of a short tract in BTA22, OAR19, and CHI22, an incorrect mapping of a region of BTA21 and of CHI27 and OAR26, a discrepancy in the BTA26, OAR22, and CHI26 assemblies, a missed inversion in CHI1 compared to BTA1 and OAR1, and the exact assembly of a region of about 7 Mb in OAR10 and CHI12. Incorrect positioning of genomic tracts can cause unintended consequences in genetic analyses, especially when the data represent a starting point for the construction of genetic tools. In the new genomic assemblies published after the conclusion of our experiments, however, the accuracy in the construction of animal assemblies has been much improved, even if the new assemblies present more extended unmapped portions than the previous versions. The gap could be filled by comparative analyses between similar species or FISH.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Cabras/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genômica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente
2.
Gene ; 731: 144335, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927007

RESUMO

Deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) is essential for mammalian spermatogenesis as it regulates proliferation, development, maturation and functional maintenance of male germ cells. Its expression and regulation vary with different species or in the same animal at different developmental stages, and despite its importance, very little is known about its roles in sheep, especially Tibetan sheep. To investigate the expression patterns and regulatory roles of DZAL in Tibetan sheep testis, testicular tissue was isolated from sheep at three crucial development stages: 3 months old, 1 year old and 3 years old. Using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, we found that DAZL mRNA first decreased and then increased with advancing age, while DAZL protein exhibited an opposite expression pattern, with first increased and subsequently decreased levels. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed that DAZL protein was located predominantly in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells and in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of spermatids. ELISA indicated that testosterone content within developing testes was first enhanced and then declined. Our results, taken together, demonstrate, for the first time, that DAZL gene is involved in Tibetan sheep spermatogenesis by regulating the development of spermatids in post-pubertal rams, along with a novel role in functional maintenance of Leydig cells in postnatal rams.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ovinos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Espermátides/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo , Tibet , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875422

RESUMO

Poor maternal nutrition during gestation can have immediate and life-long negative effects on offspring growth and health. In livestock, this leads to reduced product quality and increased costs of production. Based on previous evidence that both restricted- and overfeeding during gestation decrease offspring muscle growth and alter metabolism postnatally, we hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would reduce the growth and development of offspring muscle prenatally, reduce the number of myogenic progenitor cells, and result in changes in the global expression of genes involved in prenatal muscle development and function. Ewes were fed a control (100% NRC)-, restricted (60% NRC)-, or overfed (140% NRC) diet beginning on day 30 of gestation until days 45, 90, and 135 of gestation or until parturition. At each time point fetuses and offspring (referred to as CON, RES, and OVER) were euthanized and longissimus dorsi (LM), semitendinosus (STN), and triceps brachii (TB) were collected at each time point for histological and RNA-Seq analysis. In fetuses and offspring, we did not observe an effect of diet on cross-sectional area (CSA), but CSA increased over time (P < 0.05). At day 90, RES and OVER had reduced secondary:primary muscle fiber ratios in LM (P < 0.05), but not in STN and TB. However, in STN and TB percent PAX7-positive cells were decreased compared with CON (P < 0.05). Maternal diet altered LM mRNA expression of 20 genes (7 genes downregulated in OVER and 2 downregulated in RES compared with CON; 5 downregulated in OVER compared with RES; false discovery rate (FDR)-adj. P < 0.05). A diet by time interaction was not observed for any genes in the RNA-Seq analysis; however, 2,205 genes were differentially expressed over time between days 90 and 135 and birth (FDR-adj. P < 0.05). Specifically, consistent with increased protein accretion, changes in muscle function, and increased metabolic activity during myogenesis, changes in genes involved in cell cycle, metabolic processes, and protein synthesis were observed during fetal myogenesis. In conclusion, poor maternal nutrition during gestation contributes to altered offspring muscle growth during early fetal development which persists throughout the fetal stage. Based on muscle-type-specific effects of maternal diet, it is important to evaluate more than one type of muscle to fully elucidate the effects of maternal diet on offspring muscle development.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/embriologia , Ovinos/embriologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Ovinos/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima/genética , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
4.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863114

RESUMO

The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are structural components of wool fibers and variation in the genes encoding the KAPs can affect wool traits. In this study, sequence variation in the ovine KAP7-1 gene (KRTAP7-1) was investigated in 222 sheep across 5 different Pakistani breeds and breed crosses. Two previously identified variants (A and B) of the KRTAP7-1 coding sequence were identified. The frequency of the genotypes AA and AB was 76% and 23%, respectively, and that of BB was 1%. The association of sequence variation with various wool traits and measurements included yield (the proportion of greasy fleece weight that is clean fleece), mean staple length (MSL), wool bulk, mean fiber diameter, fiber diameter SD, the coefficient of variation of fiber diameter, medullation, the SD of medullation, the coefficient of variation of medullation, fiber opacity, the SD of opacity, and the coefficient of variation of opacity. Variation in KRTAP7-1 was found to be associated with yield (P = 0.017). The adjusted mean yield of sheep of genotype AA (n = 169) was 79.9 ±â€…2.72%, while that of genotype AB (n = 51) was 81.9 ±â€…3.37%. There was also an association between variation in KRTAP7-1 and MSL (P = 0.024), with sheep of genotype AA (n = 169) having an adjusted mean MSL of 47.3 ±â€…0.57 mm compared with sheep of genotype AB (n = 51, 50.9 ±â€…0.65 mm). Yield and MSL are both important wool production traits, hence variation in KRTAP7-1 needs to be further investigated in more sheep of differing breed.


Assuntos
Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Ovinos/genética , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Queratinas/genética , Fenótipo
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 763-770, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863181

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals, caused by cryptic species complex belonging to the platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). This disease is distributed worldwide, with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) being the most widespread of the species. High genetic variability has been demonstrated within E. granulosus s.s. studying single cyst per infected animal identifying a number of different haplotypes. However, few studies have addressed the genetic diversity of this parasite within a single intermediate host with multiple Echinococcus cysts. To date, it remains unknown if specific haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. produce differences in biological features of the cyst. Here, we use the full length of the mitochondrial gene cox1 to determine E. granulosus s.s. haplotypes in samples from both cattle and sheep which harboured more than one cyst in different areas in Chile, where this parasite is endemic. We found 16 different haplotypes in 66 echinococcal cysts from 10 animals, and both cattle and sheep can harbour up to five different haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. in the same animal. Regarding cyst fertility, five animals had both fertile and infertile Echinococcus cysts in both single and multiple haplotype infections. There was no association between haplotype and cyst fertility, size, or adventitial layer characteristics. Sampling and sequencing every Echinococcus cyst found in the intermediate host reveals a high molecular variability. We speculate that multiple haplotype infections could also suggest that intermediate hosts come from hyperendemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Chile , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Fertilidade , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Ovinos/genética
6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 794, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small ungulates (sheep and goat) display a seasonal breeding, characterised by two successive periods, sexual activity (SA) and sexual rest (SR). Odours emitted by a sexually active male can reactivate the ovulatory cycle of anoestrus females. The plasticity of the olfactory system under these hormonal changes has never been explored at the peripheral level of odours reception. As it was shown in pig that the olfactory secretome (proteins secreted in the nasal mucus) could be modified under hormonal control, we monitored its composition in females of both species through several reproductive seasons, thanks to a non-invasive sampling of olfactory mucus. For this purpose, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-E), western-blot with specific antibodies, MALDI-TOF and high-resolution (nano-LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry, RACE-PCR and molecular modelling were used. RESULTS: In both species the olfactory secretome is composed of isoforms of OBP-like proteins, generated by post-translational modifications, as phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and O-GlcNAcylation. Important changes were observed in the olfactory secretome between the sexual rest and the sexual activity periods, characterised in ewe by the specific expression of SAL-like proteins and the emergence of OBPs O-GlcNAcylation. In goat, the differences between SA and SR did not come from new proteins expression, but from different post-translational modifications, the main difference between the SA and SR secretome being the number of isoforms of each protein. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD014833. CONCLUSION: Despite common behaviour, seasonal breeding, and genetic resources, the two species seem to adapt their olfactory equipment in SA by different modalities: the variation of olfactory secretome in ewe could correspond to a specialization to detect male odours only in SA, whereas in goat the stability of the olfactory secretome could indicate a constant capacity of odours detection suggesting that the hallmark of SA in goat might be the emission of specific odours by the sexually active male. In both species, the olfactory secretome is a phenotype reflecting the physiological status of females, and could be used by breeders to monitor their receptivity to the male effect.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cabras/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/metabolismo , Acilação , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Glicosilação , Cabras/genética , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Análise de Sequência , Ovinos/genética
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614839

RESUMO

We have previously reported that glyoxalase domain-containing protein 4 (GLOD4) is expressed in sheep testes by proteome analysis, but its roles during testicular development remain unclear. The aim of this study was to understand the expression characteristics and biological functions of the GLOD4 gene in developmental Tibetan sheep testes. The cDNA sequence of the Tibetan sheep GLOD4 gene was cloned by the RT-PCR method, and the structural characteristics of the GLOD4 protein were analyzed using relevant bioinformatics software, including ProtParam, TMHMM, Signal P 4.1, SOPMA, and phyre2. The expression patterns and immunolocalization of GLOD4 were examined in developmental testes derived from three-month-old (3M), one-year-old (1Y), and three-year-old (3Y) Tibetan sheep using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence staining. The sequence analysis showed that the coding sequence (CDS) region of the GLOD4 gene was 729 bp in length and encoded 242 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis found that the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of Tibetan sheep GLOD4 exhibited the highest sequence similarity with goat and chiru, and the least with zig-zag eel, of the species compared. GLOD4 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in the testes of the 1Y and 3Y groups than those in the 3M group (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated that the GLOD4 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells from Tibetan sheep testes throughout the development stages. These results taken together suggest that the GLOD4 gene may be implicated in the development of the Leydig cells of Tibetan sheep during different stages of maturity.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Ovinos/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antílopes/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabras/genética , Masculino , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Diferenciação Sexual , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Tibet
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 735, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematode infection (GNI) is the most important disease affecting the small ruminant industry in U.S. The environmental conditions in the southern United States are ideal for the survival of the most pathogenic gastrointestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus. Host genetic variation for resistance to H. contortus allows selective breeding for increased resistance of animals. This selection process increases the prevalence of particular alleles in sheep and goats and creates unique genetic patterns in the genome of these species. The aim of this study was to identify loci with divergent allelic frequencies in a candidate gene panel of 100 genes using two different approaches (frequentist and Bayesian) to estimate Fst outliers in three different breeds of sheep and goats exposed to H. contortus. RESULTS: Our results for sheep populations showed SNPs under selection in C3AR1, CSF3, SOCS2, NOS2, STAT5B, TGFB2 and IL2RA genes using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. For goats, SNPs in CD1D, ITGA9, IL12A, IL13RA1, CD86 and TGFB2 genes were under selection. Common signatures of selection in both species were observed in NOS2, TGFB2 and TLR4 genes. Directional selection was present in all SNPs evaluated in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 13 SNPs within 7 genes of our candidate gene panel related to H. contortus exposure were identified under selection in sheep populations. For goats, 11 SNPs within 7 genes were identified under selection. Results from this study support the hypothesis that resistance to H. contortus is likely to be controlled by many loci. Shared signatures of selection related to mechanisms of immune protection against H. contortus infection in sheep and goats could be useful targets in breeding programs aimed to produce resistant animals with low FEC.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Cabras/genética , Imunidade , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Frequência do Gene , Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Haemonchus/patogenicidade , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos/fisiologia
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 719, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic evaluation is usually based on a set of markers assumed to be linked with causal mutations. Selection and precise management of major genes and the remaining polygenic component might be improved by including causal polymorphisms in the evaluation models. In this study, various methods involving a known mutation were used to estimate prediction accuracy. The SOCS2 gene, which influences body growth, milk production and somatic cell scores, a proxy for mastitis, was studied as an example in dairy sheep. METHODS: The data comprised 1,503,148 phenotypes and 9844 54K SNPs genotypes. The SOCS2 SNP was genotyped for 4297 animals and imputed in the above 9844 animals. Breeding values and their accuracies were estimated for each of nine traits by using single-step approaches. Pedigree-based BLUP, single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) involving the 54K ovine SNPs chip, and four weighted ssGBLUP (WssGBLUP) methods were compared. In WssGBLUP methods, weights are assigned to SNPs depending on their effect on the trait. The ssGBLUP and WssGBLUP methods were again tested after including the SOCS2 causal mutation as a SNP. Finally, the Gene Content approach was tested, which uses a multiple-trait model that considers the SOCS2 genotype as a trait. RESULTS: EBV accuracies were increased by 14.03% between the pedigree-based BLUP and ssGBLUP methods and by 3.99% between ssGBLUP and WssGBLUP. Adding the SOCS2 SNP to ssGBLUP methods led to an average gain of 0.26%. Construction of the kinship matrix and estimation of breeding values was generally improved by placing emphasis on SNPs in regions with a strong effect on traits. In the absence of chip data, the Gene Content method, compared to pedigree-based BLUP, efficiently accounted for partial genotyping information on SOCS2 as accuracy was increased by 6.25%. This method also allowed dissociation of the genetic component due to the major gene from the remaining polygenic component. CONCLUSIONS: Causal mutations with a moderate to strong effect can be captured with conventional SNP chips by applying appropriate genomic evaluation methods. The Gene Content method provides an efficient way to account for causal mutations in populations lacking genome-wide genotyping.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Genômica/métodos , Mutação Puntual , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416156

RESUMO

The SPP1, LAP3, and LCORL are located on chromosome 6 of sheep and a domain of 36.15-38.56 Mb, which plays an essential role in tissue and embryonic growth. In this study, we cloned the complete coding sequences of SPP1 and partial coding regions of LAP3 and LCORL from Hu sheep (Gansu Province, China) and analyzed their genomic structures. The RT-qPCR showed that the three genes were expressed widely in the different tissues of Hu sheep. The SPP1 expression was significantly higher in the kidney (p < 0.01) and LAP3 expression was significantly higher in the spleen, lung, kidney, and duodenum than in the other tissues (heart, liver, rumen, muscle, fat, and ovary; p < 0.05). The LCORL was preferentially expressed in the spleen, duodenum, and lung (p < 0.05). In addition, the nucleotide substitution NM_001009224.1:c.132A>C was found in SPP1; an association analysis showed that it was associated with birth weight and yearling weight (p < 0.05), and NM_001009224.1:c.132C was the dominant allele. Two mutations XM_012179698.3:c.232C>G and XM_012179698.3:c.1154C>T were identified in LAP3. The nucleotide substitution XM_012179698.3:c.232C>G was confirmed to be associated with birth weight, 1-month weight, 3-month weight (p < 0.05), and 2-month weight (p < 0.01). The nucleotide substitution XM_012179698.3:c.1154C>T was associated with birth weight (p < 0.01), 1-month weight, and 2-month weight (p < 0.05). The LAP3 gene XM_012179698.3:c.232C>G mutation with the C allele has higher body weight than other sheep, and CC genotype individuals show higher birth weight, 1-month weight, and weaning weight than the GG genotype individuals (p < 0.05). Our results support the conclusion that the mutations on ovine SPP1 and LAP3 successfully track functional alleles that affect growth in sheep, and these genes could be used as candidate genes for improving the growth traits of sheep during breeding.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Leucil Aminopeptidase/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Leucil Aminopeptidase/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106117, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405468

RESUMO

Based on ovarian and follicular variables, there was determination of ewes with different FecGE genotypes. Based on the FecGE genotype, 65 Santa Inês ewes were assigned to three experimental groups: homozygous wild-type (n = 25; FecG+/+), mutant heterozygous (n = 27; FecG+/E) and mutant homozygous (n = 13; FecGE/E). The ewe's ovaries were weighed and measured, then the follicles (oocyte, nucleus and nucleolus) were histologically evaluated for morphometry and morphology. Morphologically normal follicles, in the primordial and transitional stages, explained 70.18% of the variability morphological characteristics between mutant and wild-type ewes. Conducting the morphometric evaluation resulted in a more precise determination of the genotype groups when there was assessment of the primordial and secondary follicular developmental stages. The diameter of the oocyte and the oocyte nucleus of the primordial follicles explained 36.76% of the variability in follicular morphology between ewes with the mutation and those with the wildtype group. Similarly, the core diameter of oocytes in secondary follicles explained 10.63% of the variability in follicular morphology among FecGE/E, FecG+/E and FecG+/+ ewes. Thus, morphologically normal follicles in the primordial and transitional stages of development are the variables that allow for a more precise differentiation of Santa Inês ewes with the FecGE mutation. These variables may be evaluated to make more efficient the adoption of biotechniques that when conducted there is utilisation of follicles in the initial developmental stages as a physiological basis for classifying whether specific follicles are useful when conducting the techniques.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/genética , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genótipo , Ovinos/genética
12.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 136(6): 495-504, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364226

RESUMO

Infection with Haemonchus contortus is the most economically important gastrointestinal nematode parasitosis and the most important cause of mortality in sheep production. The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of gastrointestinal parasite resistance traits, maternal efficiency (ME) and ewe adult weight (AW) in Santa Inês breed in tropical conditions. The phenotypic records were collected from 700 animals, belonging to four flocks located south-east and north-east in Brazil. The evaluated traits were as follows: degree of anaemia assessed using the FAMACHA chart (FMC), haematocrit (HCT), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), platelets (PLT), faecal egg count (EPGlog ), ME, metabolic maternal efficiency (MME), AW and metabolic ewe adult weight (MAW). From the 700 animals, 576 (82% of the evaluated population) were genotyped with the Ovine SNP12k BeadChip (Illumina, Inc.). Markers with unknown genomic position, located on sex chromosomes, monomorphic, with minor allele frequency <0.05, call rate <90% and with excess heterozygosity were excluded. The variance components were estimated using a single-trait animal model with ssGBLUP procedure. The correlation between the parasite's resistance indicators and the ME suggested that selecting animals with both higher adult weight and ME will also favour the selection of animals with better resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes parasites, specially H. contortus. Therefore, since there are few or no studies with Santa Inês breed in this area, it is important to study those traits to better manage selection programs.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ovinos/fisiologia
13.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 70, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hu sheep, a unique Chinese breed with high reproductive performance, are also well known for their rare white lambskin in China. The quality of lambskin is affected by hair follicles, and dermal papilla cells are an important component of hair follicles that plays a key role in hair follicle growth and development. This study helps elucidate the effect of miR-148a and miR-10a on hair follicle growth and development. RESULTS: Based on the results of gene chip and high-throughput sequencing, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) was used as a research object. Bioinformatics analysis and the dual-luciferase reporter system indicated that, along with Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) that miR-148a and miR-10a target relationships with BMP7. BMP7 was the target gene both for miR-148a and miR-10a by the dual-luciferase reporter system and Western blot. Hu sheep dermal papilla cells were successfully isolated and purified, and after transfecting miR-148a/miR-10a mimics and inhibitors into dermal papilla cells, a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to determine that miR-148a/miR-10a inhibited the proliferation of Hu sheep dermal papilla cells. In addition, after the overexpression of miR-148a, the expression levels of Smad3 (P < 0.05), Smad6 (P < 0.05), Smad4 (P < 0.01), and Smad5 (P < 0.01) were significantly higher than those of the control groups. After the inhibition of miR-148a, the expression levels of Smad3 (P < 0.05), Smad4 (P < 0.05), and TGF-ß (P < 0.01) were significantly lower than those of the control groups. After the overexpression of miR-10a, the expression levels of Smad1 (P < 0.01), Smad2 (P < 0.05), Smad4 (P < 0.01), Smad5 (P < 0.01), and TGF-ß (P < 0.05) were significantly lower than those of the control groups. After the inhibition of miR-10a, the expression levels of Smad1 (P < 0.01) and Smad2 (P < 0.05) were significantly lower than those of the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed the target relationship between miR-148a, miR-10a and BMP7, and the effect of miR-148a and miR-10a on the proliferation of dermal papilla cells. They will provide the basis for a follow-up study on how miR-148a, and miR-10a mediate BMP7 regulation of hair follicle growth and development.


Assuntos
Derme/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovinos/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Humanos
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6278-6286, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arctic muskox has economic potential as an alternative meat species and is becoming increasingly popular. The present study aimed to determine the primary structure and pseudoperoxidase activity of muskox myoglobin (Mb) compared to cattle and water buffalo myoglobins. RESULTS: The primary structure of muskox Mb was determined via a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based mapping approach using the sheep Mb as a reference sequence. The muskox Mb consists of 153 amino acid residues and shows 100% identity with sheep Mb, whereas 98.69% and 97.38% identity is found with cattle and water buffalo Mbs, respectively. Muskox Mb has an autoxidation rate (MetMb formation) higher than both cattle and water buffalo Mbs at pH 7.2 (37 °C). Moreover, its pseudoperoxidase activity is higher than both cattle and water buffalo Mbs at pH 7.4 (physiological pH), whereas it is slightly lower than cattle Mb and higher than water buffalo at a lower pH (5.8), corresponding to the conditions in meat. CONCLUSION: For the first time, the present study reports the purification of myoglobin from muskoxen and, furthermore, a comparative study is conducted on autoxidation and pseudoperoxidase activity with respect to cattle and water buffalo Mbs at both physiological and acid pH. Overall, the results of the current research provide novel information for future studies useful to the meat industry when considering the importance of myoglobin as a principal pigment in meat colour stability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mioglobina/química , Mioglobina/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Cor , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Mioglobina/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ovinos/genética
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305225

RESUMO

A reliable and sensitive identification method is required to tackle food adulteration mainly in meat production. We developed a dry reagent based ready-to-use single tube quadruplex PCR assay for accurate identification of chicken, mutton, beef and pork. The assay was found to be specific and reproducible. Thermo-stability studies of lyophilized PCR master mix were conducted at different temperature and time intervals, which revealed significant stability for 75 days at 4°C and for 60 days at 25°C. The developed assay was shown to be sensitive down to 16 pg DNA per reaction and the detection limit was found to be 0.01% (w/w) of each species. Furthermore, this method has been applied to the analysis of 68 commercial meat products and the results indicated that nine samples contained non-declared meat components. This dry reagent-based quadruplex PCR assay can be utilized to monitor various processed food products and also to maintain quality control in food industries mainly in the resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , DNA/genética , Análise de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Ovinos/genética , Suínos/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Controle de Qualidade
16.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 37, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at identifying genomic regions that underlie genetic variation of worm egg count, as an indicator trait for parasite resistance in a large population of Australian sheep, which was genotyped with the high-density 600 K Ovine single nucleotide polymorphism array. This study included 7539 sheep from different locations across Australia that underwent a field challenge with mixed gastrointestinal parasite species. Faecal samples were collected and worm egg counts for three strongyle species, i.e. Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were determined. Data were analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM). RESULTS: Both RHM and GWAS detected a region on Ovis aries (OAR) chromosome 2 that was highly significantly associated with parasite resistance at a genome-wise false discovery rate of 5%. RHM revealed additional significant regions on OAR6, 18, and 24. Pathway analysis revealed 13 genes within these significant regions (SH3RF1, HERC2, MAP3K, CYFIP1, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC3, HERC5, HERC6, IBSP, SPP1, ISG20, and DET1), which have various roles in innate and acquired immune response mechanisms, as well as cytokine signalling. Other genes involved in haemostasis regulation and mucosal defence were also detected, which are important for protection of sheep against invading parasites. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified significant genomic regions on OAR2, 6, 18, and 24 that are associated with parasite resistance in sheep. RHM was more powerful in detecting regions that affect parasite resistance than GWAS. Our results support the hypothesis that parasite resistance is a complex trait and is determined by a large number of genes with small effects, rather than by a few major genes with large effects.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hereditariedade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/genética , Ovinos/genética
17.
Theriogenology ; 136: 138-142, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265943

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of FecGE mutation on the development of ovarian follicles. To this end, 42 Santa Inês ewes were genotyped for FecGE mutation and classified as wild-type (FecG+/+), heterozygous (FecG+/E) or mutant homozygous (FecGE/E). Ovarian fragments were processed, and the follicles were analyzed with regard to the morphology and morphometry using classical histology. For the evaluation of follicular dynamics, ewes underwent oestrous synchronization and were monitored throughout an interovulatory period. A higher (P < 0.05) percentage of morphologically normal follicles in the primordial stage was identified in FecGE/E (90.0%) and FecG+/E (88.1%) ewes than in the FecG+/+ (73.0%) ewes. There was also a significantly greater (P < 0.05) number of morphologically normal follicles in the FecGE/E (87.3%) and FecG+/E (83.3%) ewes than in FecG+/+ (76.8%) ewes in the transitional stage. A smaller (P < 0.05) diameter was observed in the secondary follicles in FecGE/E (93.8 µm) ewes than in FecG+/E (171.8 µm) ewes. Regarding follicular dynamics, FecGE/E ewes showed a greater (P < 0.05) number of ovulations (2.5 ±â€¯0.2) than FecG+/+ ewes (1.5 ±â€¯0.3) ewes. Ovulatory follicles were smaller (P < 0.05) in the FecGE/E (5.1 mm) and FecG+/E (5.2 mm) ewes than in FecG+/+ (5.8 mm) ewes. Santa Inês nulliparous ewes carrying the FecGE mutation showed a greater proportion of morphologically normal follicles in the primordial and transitional stages than those not carrying the mutation. FecGE/E ewes demonstrated a higher number of ovulated follicles and that FecGE/E and FecG+/E ewes presented ovulatory follicles with a smaller diameter.


Assuntos
Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação , Ovulação/fisiologia , Ovinos/classificação
18.
J Dairy Res ; 86(3): 331-336, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288873

RESUMO

We investigated whether variation of the sheep Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR), Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Receptor (GHRHR) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) genes were associated with milk coagulation properties (MCP) in sheep. The GHR, GHRHR and IGF1 genes are part of the GH system, which is known to modulate metabolism, growth and reproduction as well as mammogenesis and galactopoiesis in dairy species. A total of 380 dairy Sarda sheep were genotyped for 36 SNPs mapping to these three genes. Traditional MCP were measured as rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (k20) and curd firmness at 30 m (a30). Modeling of curd firming over time (CFt) was based on a 60 m lactodynamographic test, generating a total of 240 records of curd firmness (mm) for each milk sample. The model parameters obtained included: the rennet coagulation time as a result of modeling all data available (RCTeq, min); the asymptotic potential value of curd firmness (CFP, mm) at an infinite time; the CF instant rate constant (kCF, %/min); the syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, %/min); the maximum value of CF (CFmax, mm) and the time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min). Statistical analysis revealed that variation of the GHR gene was significantly associated with RCT, kSR and CFP (P < 0.05). No other significant associations were detected. These findings may be useful for the dairy industry, as well as for selection programs.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Leite/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Hormônios Reguladores de Hormônio Hipofisário/genética , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Quimosina/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Itália , Lactação/genética , Leite/química , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Theriogenology ; 138: 137-144, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352175

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of l-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on steroid hormone receptors in non-pregnant ovine endometrium. All experimental ewes were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 6), a nutrient-restricted group (n = 6), or an L-Arg supplemented nutrient-restricted group (n = 6). The effects of L-Arg on estrogen receptor α/ß (ERα/ß) and progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in the ovine endometrium were assessed. Our results showed that levels of ERß and PGR expression were significantly increased by nutrient restriction, but L-Arg counteracted the effect of nutrient restriction on ERß and PGR expression (p < 0.05). Also, expression of endometrial ERα was substantially increased (p < 0.05) by L-Arg supplementation. Furthermore, ERα/ß and PGR were mainly detected in the endometrial luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. Therefore, we isolated and identified endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) from sheep. Different concentrations of L-Arg were added to investigate the effects on ERα/ß and PGR in EECs. The expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, ERß, and PGR were significantly increased in response to low-concentration (200 µmol) L-Arg supplementation, which subsequently decreased with a high concentration (800 µmol) (p < 0.05). Otherwise, ERα expression was remarkably increased at both L-Arg concentrations in EECs (p < 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that L-Arg performed crucial roles in the regulation of ovine steroid hormone receptor expression in the endometrium. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical means for the normal function of endometrium in response to low nutrient levels.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Restrição Calórica , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Ovinos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Células Cultivadas , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes , Gravidez , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
20.
Theriogenology ; 138: 154-163, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357118

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to be involved in the reduced developmental capacity of early prepubertal ewe oocytes compared to their adult counterparts. In this study, we have analyzed the global DNA methylation pattern and in vitro meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage obtained from adult and 3-month-old donors. All oocytes were aspirated from antral follicles with a diameter ≥3 mm, and DNA methylation on 5-methylcytosine was detected by immunofluorescence using an anti-methyl cytosine antibody. The main global chromatin configuration pattern shown by both prepubertal and adult ovine oocytes corresponded to condensed chromatin localized close to the nuclear envelope (the SNE pattern). Immunofluorescence showed that a global bright nuclear staining of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) occurred in all germinal vesicle stage oocytes and matched the propidium iodide staining pattern. The total fluorescence intensity values of lamb GVs were not lower than those observed in adult GVs. The meiotic competence and cleavage rates were similar in adult and prepubertal oocytes, however, the developmental competence of embryos to reach blastocysts was higher for adult oocytes than lamb oocytes (p<0.0001). In conclusion, our results indicate that adult-size oocytes derived from 3 to 4 month old prepubertal ewes show similar GV morphology and DNA methylation staining patterns to those obtained from adult animals, despite exhibiting a lower developmental competence.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Ovinos , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Meiose/genética , Doação de Oócitos/veterinária , Ovinos/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA