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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800240

RESUMO

Neurotrophins constitute a group of growth factor that exerts important functions in the nervous system of vertebrates. They act through two classes of transmembrane receptors: tyrosine-kinase receptors and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). The activation of p75NTR can favor cell survival or apoptosis depending on diverse factors. Several studies evidenced a link between p75NTR and the pathogenesis of prion diseases. In this study, we investigated the distribution of several neurotrophins and their receptors, including p75NTR, in the brain of naturally scrapie-affected sheep and experimentally infected ovinized transgenic mice and its correlation with other markers of prion disease. No evident changes in infected mice or sheep were observed regarding neurotrophins and their receptors except for the immunohistochemistry against p75NTR. Infected mice showed higher abundance of p75NTR immunostained cells than their non-infected counterparts. The astrocytic labeling correlated with other neuropathological alterations of prion disease. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of p75NTR and the astrocytic marker GFAP, suggesting an involvement of astrocytes in p75NTR-mediated neurodegeneration. In contrast, p75NTR staining in sheep lacked astrocytic labeling. However, digital image analyses revealed increased labeling intensities in preclinical sheep compared with non-infected and terminal sheep in several brain nuclei. This suggests that this receptor is overexpressed in early stages of prion-related neurodegeneration in sheep. Our results confirm a role of p75NTR in the pathogenesis of classical ovine scrapie in both the natural host and in an experimental transgenic mouse model.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Scrapie/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Scrapie/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo
2.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13508, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416198

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets for finishing sheep, containing leucaena hay as a source of effective fibre and forage palm. Twenty-one male sheep were used in a randomized block design with three treatments, represented by total diets, where the forage was leucaena hay and forage palm in natura in proportions 350:650, 450:550 and 550:450 g/kg respectively. For the pH and NH3 -N in the ruminal fluid, and urea in the blood serum, plots split in time were adopted. Dry matter and nutrient digestibility, and the nitrogen balance were not influenced (p > .05) by the diets. The neutral detergent fibre digestibility decreased (p < .05) as the proportions of leucaena hay in the diets increased. The pH and NH3 -N were suitable for ruminal fermentation, and blood urea was maintained under normal physiological conditions for sheep. Combining 350 to 550 g/kg of leucaena hay with 450 to 650 g/kg of forage palm in total diets with a forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40 in late-maturing sheep meets the nutritional requirements for daily gain 200 g, characterizing leucaena hay as important source of effective fibre and nutrients in diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fabaceae , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Digestão/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 846-858, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405917

RESUMO

Tan is a local fat-tail sheep that is famous for its great eating quality but with little attention to its meat metabolome. The aim of this study was to investigate Tan-lamb meat metabolome as well as the key rumen bacteria related to the beneficial compound deposition in the muscle using untargeted and targeted metabolomics under different feeding regimes: indoor feeding (F), artificial pasture grazing with indoor feeding (GF), and pure artificial pasture grazing (G). The untargeted metabolome was detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ruminal bacterial communities were detected by 16S rRNA sequencing. Using untargeted metabolomics, the main three altered metabolic pathways in the lamb, including amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide metabolisms, were found in the G group compared to the GF and F groups. Increased N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, acetylcarnitine, and l-carnitine, but decreased carnosine and creatinine, were the main newly found G group-associated metabolites, which might contribute to the improved lamb meat functional quality. Compared to the F group, the G group feeding increased the contents of sweet amino acids (e.g., glycine, alanine, serine, and threonine) and umami amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid and aspartic acid) in the muscle, and G and GF groups increased the level of meat polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially the concentration of n3 PUFA, and reduced n6/n3 in the muscle by targeted metabolomics. The abundance of ruminal Moryella was decreased, and Schwartzia and Anaeroplasma were increased in the G group, which were both strongly correlated with the n3 PUFA and other functional compounds in the muscle of lambs. In conclusion, artificial pasture grazing modified the meat amino acid and fatty acid composition as well as the related biological pathways through rescheduling the rumen bacterial community, which would be a better selection for production of healthier lamb meat products.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13494, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368854

RESUMO

Assessing the resilience of Awassi sheep to water shortages during pregnancy, thereby investigating the effects of water scarcity on gestation efficiency in animals, could provide valuable and pertinent insight into future scenarios posed by climate change risks. In this study, 40 pregnant Awassi ewes randomly allocated to free watering group (C, n = 20) received water ad libitum and the water restricted group (WR) received 50% less water than the amount provided to group C. Water restriction decreased (p < .05) lambs' birth weights, placental weights (PWs), and cotyledon numbers (CNs). Placental efficiency (PE) and cotyledon efficiency (CE) were significantly higher in the WR group (p < .05). A marked difference in cotyledon weight - an increase of 12.1% - was recorded in the C group. The body weights of the pregnant ewes in the WR group decreased significantly (p < .05) by 22% during pregnancy. Significant increases (p < .05) in plasma ADH, cholesterol, Cl- , and Na+ levels were observed in the WR group ewes, indicating intense dehydration. We conclude that the Awassi breed of sheep can endure 50% water restriction during pregnancy and maintain successful parturition, a key outcome for sustainability.


Assuntos
Secas , Placenta/fisiologia , Prenhez/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Privação de Água/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Cloro/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Sódio/sangue , Vasopressinas/sangue
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21920, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318609

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to increased steroid hormones, including estrogens, androgens or glucocorticoids during pregnancy results in chronic conditions in offspring that manifest in adulthood. Little is known about effects of progesterone administration in early pregnancy on fetal development. We hypothesised that maternal early pregnancy progesterone supplementation would increase fetal progesterone, affect progesterone target tissues in the developing fetal reproductive system and be metabolised to other bioactive steroids in the fetus. We investigated the effects of progesterone treatment during early pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma progesterone concentrations, transcript abundance in the fetal pituitary and testes and circulating steroids, at day 75 gestation, using a clinically realistic ovine model. Endogenous progesterone concentrations were lower in male than female fetuses. Maternal progesterone administration increased male, but not female, fetal progesterone concentrations, also increasing circulating 11-dehydrocorticosterone in male fetuses. Maternal progesterone administration altered fetal pituitary and testicular function in ovine male fetuses. This suggests that there may be fetal sex specific effects of the use of progesterone in early pregnancy, and highlights that progesterone supplementation should be used only when there is clear evidence of efficacy and for as limited time as necessary.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/embriologia , Hipófise/embriologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Testículo/embriologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Progesterona/efeitos adversos
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687154

RESUMO

Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria could be a diagnostic tool for determining the subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) risk in individual ruminants; however, a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of the abundance of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the rumen digesta and the muscle of sheep. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the variation of rumen cellulolytic bacteria on the rumen fermentation, rumen digesta, and muscle FA composition of fattening lambs fed an identical diet. Forty-eight lambs were reared in individual units and fed a high-concentrate diet consisting of 20% forage and 80% concentrate. All lambs were adapted to diets and facilities for 14 d, and sampling was for 63 d. At the end of the experiment, the rumen fluid, rumen digesta, and longissimus dorsi were collected after slaughter for the measurement of volatile fatty acids, ruminal bacterial DNA, rumen digesta, and muscle FAs. The lambs were classified into the lower cellulolytic bacteria (LCB, n = 10) group and the higher cellulolytic bacteria (HCB, n = 10) group according to the abundance of pH-sensitive cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens) in the rumen. Ruminal acetate concentration was positively correlated with the number of R. flavefaciens, F. Succinogenes, and B. fibrisolvens (P < 0.05, r > 0.296), whereas propionate and valerate concentrations were negatively correlated with the amount of F. succinogenes and B. fibrisolvens (P < 0.05, r > 0.348). Compared with the LCB group, the acetate (P = 0.018) as well as acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.012) in the HCB group was higher, but the valerate ratio was lower (P = 0.002). The proportions of even-chain FAs and odd- and branched-chain fatty acid in the rumen digesta of lambs with the HCB were higher (P < 0.05), while the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased than those in the LCB lambs (P < 0.05), but those FA proportions in the meat were similar between the two groups. The proportion of C17:0 in the meat of lambs in the HCB group was lower than that of lambs in the LCB group (P = 0.033). The proportions of conjugated linoleic acid in rumen digesta and meat were both higher in the HCB group than that in the LCB group (P = 0.046). These results indicated that the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria can alter the FA compositions in rumen digesta and further influenced the FA compositions in the meat of sheep.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Carne/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Acidose/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(4): 510-518, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609558

RESUMO

Optimal oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) in neonatal lung injury, such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), is not known. Our goal was to determine the SpO2 range in lambs with MAS and PPHN that results in the highest brain oxygen delivery (bDO2) and pulmonary blood flow (Qp) and the lowest pulmonary vascular resistance and oxidative stress. Meconium was instilled into endotracheal tubes in 25 near-term gestation lambs, and the umbilical cord was occluded to induce asphyxia and gasping, causing MAS and PPHN. Lambs were randomized into four groups and ventilated for 6 hours with fixed fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 1.0 irrespective of SpO2, and three groups had FiO2 titrated to keep preductal SpO2 between 85% and 89%, 90% and 94%, and 95% and 99%, respectively. Tissues were collected to measure nitric oxide synthase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-isoprostanes. Throughout the 6-hour exposure period, lambs in the 95-99% SpO2 target group had the highest Qp, lowest pulmonary vascular resistance, and highest bDO2 but were exposed to higher FiO2 (0.5 ± 0.21 vs. 0.29 ± 0.17) with higher lung 3-nitrotyrosine (0.67 [interquartile range (IQR), 0.43-0.73] ng/mcg protein vs. 0.1 [IQR, 0.09-0.2] ng/mcg protein) and lower lung nitric oxide synthase activity (196 [IQR, 192-201] mMol nitrite/mg protein vs. 270 [IQR, 227-280] mMol nitrite/mg protein) compared with the 90-94% target group. Brain 3-nitrotyrosine was lower in the 85-89% target group, and brain/lung 8-isoprostane levels were not significantly different. In term lambs with MAS and PPHN, Qp and bDO2 through the first 6 hours are higher with target SpO2 in the 95-99% range. However, the 90-94% target range is associated with significantly lower FiO2 and lung oxidative stress. Clinical trials comparing the 90-94% versus the 95-99% SpO2 target range in term infants with PPHN are warranted.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oximetria/métodos , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/farmacologia , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520963

RESUMO

The tolerance of ruminants to gossypol, a natural phenolic compound derived from the cotton plant, is greater than that of monogastric animals, partially because of the gossypol-degrading bacteria in the rumen of the ruminants. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of gossypol supplementation on fermentation characteristics, bacterial α-diversity and community structure in the rumen fluid of sheep to analyse the change of bacterial in response to gossypol. 8 sheep with permanent fistula were randomly divided into 2 groups, a control and gossypol acetate supplementation groups. Sheep in the latter group were supplemented with gossypol acetate at the levels of 600 mg and 1,200 mg/animal per day during the first (S1, days 1 to 27) and subsequent (S2, days 28 to 47) stages. Gossypol supplementation significantly increased the molar proportion of acetate, and decreased the molar proportion of isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid in the rumen fluid. Gossypol supplementation have no significant effect on bacterial diversity in the rumen fluid. At the phylum level, gossypol had no effect on bacterial community. At the genus level, gossypol supplementation significantly increased the relative abundance of Treponema_2. However, there were no significant differences in the relative abundance of dominant bacterial genera. In conclusion, gossypol supplementation had an effect on molar proportion of acetate, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid, but had no significant effect on the bacterial diversity and relative abundance of dominant bacteria in rumen fluid of sheep.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossipol/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Gossipol/farmacologia , Rúmen/microbiologia
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538524

RESUMO

Our hypothesis suggests an improvement in carcass and meat quality of pasture-finished animals by introducing concentrate feed into diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of protein-energy supplementation on carcass and meat characteristics of Texel lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures, and compare the results with those obtained from confined animals. Thirty 2-month-old intact lambs were divided into five treatments: pasture with mineral supplementation, pasture containing daily supplies of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% BW protein-energy supplementation, and confinement (reference treatment). All animals were slaughtered 104 days after the beginning of the experiment. Lambs submitted to 1.6% and 2.4% BW supplementation presented similar characteristics to animals kept in confinement and were superior to animals treated with 0 or 0.8% of BW supplementation levels (p < .05). Increases of subcutaneous fat thickness were verified for 0.0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4% BW, and confinement treatments, being respectively of 0.25, 0.74, 1.61, 1.69, and 1.98. Conversely, treatments had no influence on meat physical-chemical characteristics, being all considered moderately soft, juicy (tender), and with mild tastes and odors. Lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures have high-quality meat, but more protein-energy supplementation is needed to be an alternative for the feedlots for young animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Constituição Corporal , Brachiaria , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Herbivoria , Carne , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of medicinal herbal mixtures rich in phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations and lipid oxidation in tissues of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite (Haemonchus contortus). Parallel in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using two different herbal mixtures (Mix1 and Mix2). The in vitro study was conducted in a 2 (infection status; non-infected versus infected) × 3 (diets; control, Mix1 and Mix2) factorial design. In the in vivo study, 24 lambs were equally divided into four treatments: non-infected lambs fed a control diet, infected lambs fed the control diet, infected lambs fed a diet with Mix1 and infected lambs fed a diet with Mix2. Herbal mixtures (100 g dry matter (DM)/d) were added to the basal diets of meadow hay (ad libitum) and a commercial concentrate (500 g DM/d). The experimental period lasted for 70 days. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production were not affected by infection in vivo or in vitro. Both herbal mixture supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P < 0.01) and DM digestibility (P < 0.01) in vitro. Archaea population was slightly diminished by both herbal mixtures (P < 0.05), but they did not lower methane production in vitro or in vivo (P > 0.05). Infection of H. contortus or herbal mixtures modulated FA proportion mainly in the liver, especially the long chain FA proportion. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum were significantly higher after 70 days post-infection in the infected lambs. Herbal Mix1 supplementation reduced TBARS concentrations in meat after seven days of storage. In conclusion, supplementing of herbal mixtures to the diets of GIN parasite infected lambs did not affect the basic ruminal fermentation parameters. Herbal mixtures may improve few FA proportions mainly in liver as well as decrease lipid oxidation in meat.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 573-580, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128427

RESUMO

This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of thyme essential oils (EO) on rumen parameters, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in wethers fed with high-concentrate diet. Twenty rumen-cannulated wethers were blocked according to body weight (BW= 64.0±2.1kg), and received one of the following treatments: 25mg of monensin/kg of dry matter (DM; MON) or doses of thyme EO (1.25, 2.50 or 3.75g/kg of DM). The diet was composed of 90% concentrate. Thyme EO was composed mainly by thymol (46.6% of DM) and p-cymene (38.9% of DM). The nutrient intake and apparent digestibility were similar among treatments. The inclusion of 3.75g of thyme EO tended (P= 0.07) to increase butyrate compared to MON and 1.25OE and wethers fed with 1.25g of thyme EO tended (P= 0.07) to decrease ruminal pH on the 14th day compared to MON. The treatments did not affect acetate:propionate ratio, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and nitrogen retention. Results from this study suggest that adding thyme EO to high-concentrate diets may be used as an alternative to monensin as feed additive in feedlot lambs.(AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo essencial (OE) de tomilho nos parâmetros ruminais, na digestibilidade e no balanço de nitrogênio em borregos alimentados com elevado teor de concentrado. Vinte borregos providos de cânulas ruminais foram blocados de acordo com o peso corporal (PC=64,0±2,1kg) e receberam um dos tratamentos: 25mg de monensina/kg de matéria seca (MS; MON) ou doses de OE de tomilho (1,25; 2,50 ou 3,75g/kg de MS). A dieta foi composta por 90% de concentrado. A composição do OE de tomilho foi principalmente timol (46,6% da MS) e p-cimeno (38,9% da MS). A ingestão e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. A inclusão de 3,75g de OE de tomilho tendeu (P=0,07) a aumentar o butirato em relação aos tratamentos MON e 1,25OE. Os borregos alimentados com 1,25g de OE tenderam (P=0,07) a apresentar menor pH ruminal no 14º dia comparado a MON. No entanto, os tratamentos não afetaram a relação acetato:propionato, concentração total de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta e retenção de nitrogênio. Os resultados sugerem que a adição de OE de tomilho em dietas com elevado teor de concentrado pode ser uma alternativa à monensina como aditivo alimentar para cordeiros em confinamento.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Rúmen/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ovinos/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Nitrogênio , Monensin , Aditivos Alimentares
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1750, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019949

RESUMO

The growth and development of embryonic skeletal muscle plays a crucial role in sheep muscle mass. But proteomic analyses for embryonic skeletal development in sheep had been little involved in the past research. In this study, we explored differential abundance proteins during embryonic skeletal muscle development by the tandem mass tags (TMT) and performed a protein profile analyses in the longissimus dorsi of Chinese merino sheep at embryonic ages Day85 (D85N), Day105 (D105N) and Day135 (D135N). 5,520 proteins in sheep embryonic skeletal muscle were identified, and 1,316 of them were differential abundance (fold change ≥1.5 and p-value < 0.05). After the KEGG enrichment analyses, these differential abundance proteins were significant enriched in the protein binding, muscle contraction and energy metabolism pathways. After validation of the protein quantification with the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), 41% (16/39) significant abundance proteins were validated, which was similar to the results of protein quantification with TMT. All results indicated that D85N to D105N was the stage of embryonic muscle fibers proliferation, while D105N to D135N was the stage of their hypertrophy. These findings provided a deeper understanding of the function and rules of proteins in different phases of sheep embryonic skeletal muscle growth and development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético , Proteômica/métodos
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1613, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005859

RESUMO

Ruminants contribute to the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular methane, due to the microbial anaerobic fermentation of feed in the rumen. The rumen simulation technique was used to investigate the effects of the addition of different supplemental plant oils to a high concentrate diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition. The control (CTR) diet was a high-concentrate total mixed ration with no supplemental oil. The other experimental diets were supplemented with olive (OLV), sunflower (SFL) or linseed (LNS) oils at 6%. Rumen digesta was used to inoculate the fermenters, and four fermentation units were used per treatment. Fermentation end-products, extent of feed degradation and composition of the microbial community (qPCR) in digesta were determined. Compared with the CTR diet, the addition of plant oils had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on ruminal pH, substrate degradation, total volatile fatty acids or microbial protein synthesis. Gas production from the fermentation of starch or cellulose were decreased by oil supplementation. Methane production was reduced by 21-28% (P < 0.001), propionate production was increased (P < 0.01), and butyrate and ammonia outputs and the acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P < 0.001) with oil-supplemented diets. Addition of 6% OLV and LNS reduced (P < 0.05) copy numbers of total bacteria relative to the control. In conclusion, the supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils, in particular from sunflower or linseed, causes some favorable effects on the fermentation processes. The addition of vegetable oils to ruminant mixed rations will reduce methane production increasing the formation of propionic acid without affecting the digestion of feed in the rumen. Adding vegetable fats to ruminant diets seems to be a suitable approach to decrease methane emissions, a relevant cleaner effect that may contribute to alleviate the environmental impact of ruminant production.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo
14.
Biochem Genet ; 58(2): 335-347, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893322

RESUMO

POU domain class 2 transcription factor 3 (POU2F3) plays an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study identified four sheep POU2F3 transcript variants (POU2F3-1, POU2F3-2, POU2F3-3, and POU2F3-4), encoding three POU2F3 protein isoforms (POU2F3-1, POU2F3-2, and POU2F3-3). However, the functional differences among the three POU2F3 isoforms remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the tissue expression pattern of the four POU2F3 transcript variants in sheep and to investigate the functional differences in cell proliferation among the three POU2F3 isoforms. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the four POU2F3 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all tested adult sheep tissues, and POU2F3-1 exhibited higher expression level than the other three POU2F3 transcript variants in skin (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation assay showed that overexpression of any one of the three POU2F3 isoforms significantly inhibited the proliferation of sheep fetal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells at 48 and 72 h after transfection (P < 0.05). POU2F3-3 had less inhibitory effect on cell proliferation than POU2F3-1 and POU2F3-2 (P < 0.05), and POU2F3-1 and POU2F3-2 had similar inhibitory effects (P > 0.05). Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that overexpression of any one of the three POU2F3 isoforms significantly inhibited the promoter activities of keratin 14 (KRT14) and matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) genes (P < 0.05). POU2F3-3 had less inhibitory effect on the promoter activities of KRT14 and MMP19 genes than POU2F3-1 and POU2F3-2 (P < 0.05), and POU2F3-1 and POU2F3-2 had similar inhibitory effects (P > 0.05). These results suggest three sheep POU2F3 isoforms have similar functional effects, but to a different extent.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Queratina-14/genética , Queratinócitos/citologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz Secretadas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
15.
Gene ; 731: 144335, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927007

RESUMO

Deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) is essential for mammalian spermatogenesis as it regulates proliferation, development, maturation and functional maintenance of male germ cells. Its expression and regulation vary with different species or in the same animal at different developmental stages, and despite its importance, very little is known about its roles in sheep, especially Tibetan sheep. To investigate the expression patterns and regulatory roles of DZAL in Tibetan sheep testis, testicular tissue was isolated from sheep at three crucial development stages: 3 months old, 1 year old and 3 years old. Using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, we found that DAZL mRNA first decreased and then increased with advancing age, while DAZL protein exhibited an opposite expression pattern, with first increased and subsequently decreased levels. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed that DAZL protein was located predominantly in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells and in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of spermatids. ELISA indicated that testosterone content within developing testes was first enhanced and then declined. Our results, taken together, demonstrate, for the first time, that DAZL gene is involved in Tibetan sheep spermatogenesis by regulating the development of spermatids in post-pubertal rams, along with a novel role in functional maintenance of Leydig cells in postnatal rams.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ovinos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Espermátides/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo , Tibet , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 215-223, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088940

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic response of native lambs fed Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon dactylon) or Maniçoba hay (Manihot pseudoglaziovii) associated with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). Sixteen Morada Nova lambs were used, with a mean initial weight of 19.36±1.48kg, distributed in a randomized block design, with two treatments and eight replications. Dry matter intake was higher for lambs fed Maniçoba hay compared to Tifton hay, while the body weight at slaughter was not influenced by diets. Regarding the blood metabolites, only the serum concentration of urea was influenced, with higher value observed in the lambs that fed the diet containing Tifton hay. When analyzing blood biomarkers, in the different biweekly collections, a linear increase in the blood concentration of urea, glucose, fructosamine, alkaline phosphatase and sodium was observed, as well as a quadratic effect for serum potassium. The other blood metabolites were not influenced in function of the collection days. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay for Maniçoba hay does not cause negative changes in the dynamics of different biomarkers and presents itself as a promising forage resource.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta metabólica de cordeiros nativos alimentados com feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon) ou feno de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii) associados à palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 19,36±1,48kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos e oito repetições. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com feno de maniçoba em comparação ao feno de tifton, enquanto o peso corporal ao abate não foi influenciado pelas dietas. Em relação aos metabólitos sanguíneos, apenas a concentração sérica de ureia foi influenciada, com maior valor observado nos cordeiros que ingeriram a dieta contendo feno de capim-tifton. Quando foi realizada a análise dos biomarcadores sanguíneos nas diferentes coletas quinzenais, foi observado aumento linear nas concentrações sanguíneas de ureia, glicose, frutosamina, fosfatase alcalina e sódio, e efeito quadrático para o potássio sérico. Os demais metabólitos sanguíneos não foram influenciados em função dos dias de coleta. A substituição do feno de tifton 85 por feno de maniçoba influencia positivamente o metabolismo de cordeiros sem causar alterações na dinâmica dos diferentes biomarcadores e se apresenta como um promissor recurso forrageiro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Manihot , Cactaceae , Cynodon
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 153-160, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088926

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a disponibilidade de cálcio (Ca2+) a partir de duas formas farmacêuticas (oral e intravaginal) e o seu efeito sobre o metabolismo de ruminantes. O estudo foi realizado na fazenda experimental da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, foram estudadas 24 ovelhas lactantes, divididas de forma randomizada em 4 grupos: dispositivo tratamento (DT); dispositivo controle (DC); oral tratamento (OT); e oral controle (OC). Os animais tratados receberam formiato de cálcio e cloreto de magnésio, as avaliações foram realizadas após a administração dos tratamentos. Foi feita avaliação de cálcio total (CaT), magnésio (Mg), proteínas plasmáticas totais (PPT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), gama glutamil transpeptidase (GGT), ureia, albumina e pH urinário, e realizado exame clínico em todos os animais. As concentrações séricas de CaT, CaI e Mg diferiram entre os grupos (P≤ 0,05), os animais dos grupos DT e DC, diferiram nas três avaliações, o grupo DT apresentou as maiores médias, sendo significativamente igual ao grupo OT. Não houve diferença nas concentrações séricas de PPT, AST, GGT, Albumina, Ureia e pH urinário. Conclui-se que a disponibilidade sanguínea de CaT, CaI e Mg é igual quando a administração de formiato de cálcio e magnésio é por via intravaginal ou por via oral, sem alterar outros parâmetros metabólicos avaliados.(AU)


The aim of the study was to evaluate the availability of calcium (Ca2+) from two pharmaceutical forms (oral and intravaginal) and its effect on the metabolism of ruminants. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Pelotas. Twenty-four lactating ewes were randomly divided into 4 groups: treatment device (TD); control device (DC); oral treatment (OT); and oral control (OC). Treated animals received calcium formate and magnesium chloride, evaluations were performed after administration of the treatments. Total calcium (CaT), magnesium (Mg), total plasma proteins (PPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urea, albumin and urinary pH, and clinical examination were performed on all animals. Serum CaT, CaI and Mg levels differed between the groups (P≤ 0.05), the animals in the DT and DC groups differed in the three evaluations, the DT group had the highest mean values, being significantly equal to the OT group. There was no difference in the serum concentrations of PPT, AST, GGT, Albumin, Urea and urinary pH. In conclusion, the blood availability of CaT, CaI and Mg is the same when administration of calcium and magnesium formate is intravaginal or orally, without altering other metabolic parameters evaluated.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Administração Intravaginal , Ovinos/metabolismo , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Magnésio/administração & dosagem
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 124-128, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778853

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of LFX in sheep after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of 2 mg/kg LFX once a day for 5 days and to evaluate its tissue depletion in the muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys. Twenty healthy female sheep were randomly divided into two equal groups. Each group was further randomly subdivided into two equal subgroups (n = 5). Group 1 was used for blood collection and underwent a crossover design (2 × 2 Latin square). Group 2 was randomly subdivided into two equal subgroups (n = 5) for IV and PO route respectively, and used for tissue collection. A single sheep was sacrificed at each time point and the organs were harvested. Samples were analyzed using a validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection. LFX administered orally was rapidly absorbed with a peak plasma concentration of 2866 ± 239 ng/mL and an absolute oral bioavailability of 114 ± 27.7%. The pharmacokinetic estimates were comparable between PO and IV administration. According to the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic surrogate index (area under the curve / minimum inhibitory concentration) of 100-125, LFX has the potential to be an effective treatment for infections caused by bacteria with a MIC of 0.049-0.061 µg/mL. LFX was detected for up to 48 h in all the tissues samples. The kidney had the highest LFX concentration after IV and PO administration. The AUCtissue/plasma ratio was lower than 1 in all tissues indicating absence of LFX tissue accumulation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Levofloxacino/farmacocinética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 22-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596014

RESUMO

Twelve Hu sheep × thin-tail Han crossbred dry ewes with an average body weight of 32.6 ± 0.68 kg and an age of 3 years were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design, with each experimental period of 24 d to evaluate the effect of substituting alfalfa hay in a portion of concentrate on nutrient intake, digestibility, N utilisation efficiency and methane emissions. The ratios of corn straw to alfalfa to concentrate for 3 diet treatments were 60:0:40, 60:15:25 and 60:30:10, respectively. Intake and digestibility were measured for each of the ewes, which were housed in individual metabolism crates for 6 d after an adaptation period of 14 d, and the feed was offered at 1.2 MEm to ensure approximately 10% orts. Methane emissions were determined in a respiration chamber for 2 consecutive d. An increase in the levels of alfalfa as a substitute for concentrate significantly increased the roughage, NSC and ADF intake and faecal N output as a proportion of N intake and manure N output. Furthermore, this increase in alfalfa input levels decreased DE, ME and N intake; nutrient digestibility; DE/GE, ME/GE and CH4 emissions per day; CH4 output expressed as a portion of the DM, OM and GE intake; and urinary N and ammonia N output, especially between extreme treatments. Alfalfa input levels had no effect on the BW, DM and GE intake; the EB or EB/GE intake; and the retained N. This study indicated that increasing alfalfa input as a substitute for concentrate could significantly decrease the digestibility, CH4 emissions and urinary N and NH4 + -N outputs; and shift the N excretion from urine to faeces; and could sustain a similar DM intake.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Medicago sativa , Metano/biossíntese , Ovinos/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Nitrogênio/urina
20.
Genomics ; 112(1): 934-942, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200027

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs are transcribed into RNA molecules that are >200 nucleotides in length. However, the expression and function analysis of lncRNAs in the sheep pituitary gland are still lacking. In this study, we identified 1755 lncRNAs (545 annotated lncRNAs and 1210 novel lncRNAs) from RNA-seq data in the pituitary gland of embryonic and adult sheep. A total of 235 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between embryonic and adult group. We verified the presence of some lncRNAs using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, and identified some differentially expressed lncRNAs using qPCR. We also investigated the role of cis-acting lncRNAs on target genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of lncRNAs were involved in the regulation of hormones secretion and some signaling pathways in the sheep pituitary gland. Our study provides comprehensive expression profiles of lncRNAs and valuable resource for understanding their function in the pituitary gland.


Assuntos
Hipófise/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipófise/embriologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos/embriologia , Ovinos/metabolismo
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