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2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(3): 1281-1291, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from being an oil crop, forage rape (Brassica napus) can be used to feed ruminants. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) diets with various levels of forage rape on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, meat nutritional value and rumen microbiota of Hu lambs, which was important for the efficient utilization of forage rape and alleviating the shortage of high-quality forage in China. RESULTS: Lambs fed on diets with 200-400 g kg-1 forage rape had greater average daily gain (ADG) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed on diets with 0-100 g kg-1 of forage rape (P < 0.05). As dietary forage rape levels increased, the content of intramuscular α-linolenic acid and a variety of amino acids in the muscle increased linearly (P < 0.05). No difference was found in carcass traits or meat quality among the dietary treatments (P > 0.05). However, the inclusion of forage rape increased the relative abundance of cellulolytic bacteria and short-chain fatty acid producers, including Succiniclasticum, Fibrobacter and members of the Lachnospiraceae. Besides, Succiniclasticum was found to be positively correlated with the final body weight of lambs. CONCLUSION: TMR diets that included 200-400 g kg-1 forage rape could improve the growth performance of lambs, and elevated the content of intramuscular α-linolenic acid and a variety of amino acids in the muscle, accompanied by increased abundance of cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carne/análise , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(1): 255-268, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763909

RESUMO

A major proportion of milk rumenic acid (RA; cis-9,trans-11 CLA) is synthesized through mammary Δ9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA; trans-11 18:1). Diet composition may determine the relative contribution of this endogenous synthesis to milk RA content, with effects that might differ between ruminant species. However, this hypothesis is mostly based on estimated values, proxies of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, and indirect comparisons between publications in the literature. With the aim of providing new insights into this issue, in vivo Δ9-desaturation of 13C-labeled VA (measured via milk 13C-VA and -RA secretion) was directly compared in sheep and goats fed a diet without lipid supplementation or including 2% of linseed oil. Four Assaf sheep and 4 Murciano-Granadina goats were used in a replicated 2 × 2 crossover design to test the effects of the 2 dietary treatments during 2 consecutive 25-d periods. On d 22 of each period, 500 mg of 13C-VA were i.v. injected to each animal. Dairy performance, milk fatty acid profile, including isotope analysis, and mammary mRNA abundance of genes coding for SCD were examined on d 21 to 25 of each period. Supplementation with linseed oil improved milk fat concentration and increased the content of milk VA and RA. However, the isotopic tracer assay suggested no variation in the relative proportion of VA desaturated to milk RA, and the percentage of this CLA isomer deriving from SCD activity would remain constant regardless of dietary treatment. These results put into question a major effect of lipid supplementation on the endogenous synthesis of milk RA and support that mammary Δ9-desaturation capacity would not represent a limiting factor when designing feeding strategies to increase milk RA content. The lack of diet-induced effects was common to caprines and ovines, but inherent interspecies differences in mammary lipogenesis were found. Thus, the higher proportions of VA desaturation and endogenous synthesis of milk RA in sheep supported a greater SCD activity compared with goats, a finding that was not associated with the similar mRNA abundance of SCD1 in the 2 species. On the other hand, transfer efficiency of the isotopic tracer to milk was 37% higher in caprine than in ovine, suggesting a greater efficiency in mammary fatty acid uptake from plasma in caprine.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Ovinos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Cabras , Lactação , Leite , Ácidos Oleicos , Ovinos/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941886

RESUMO

Fatty acids (FA) in ruminants, especially unsaturated FA (USFA) have important impact in meat quality, nutritional value, and flavour quality of meat, and on consumer's health. Identification of the genetic factors controlling the FA composition and metabolism is pivotal to select sheep that produce higher USFA and lower saturated (SFA) for the benefit of sheep industry and consumers. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiling in the liver tissues collected from sheep with divergent USFA content in longissimus muscle using RNA deep-sequencing. From sheep (n = 100) population, liver tissues with higher (n = 3) and lower (n = 3) USFA content were analysed using Illumina HiSeq 2500. The total number of reads produced for each liver sample were ranged from 21.28 to 28.51 million with a median of 23.90 million. Approximately, 198 genes were differentially regulated with significance level of p-adjusted value <0.05. Among them, 100 genes were up-regulated, and 98 were down-regulated (p<0.01, FC>1.5) in the higher USFA group. A large proportion of key genes involved in FA biosynthesis, adipogenesis, fat deposition, and lipid metabolism were identified, such as APOA5, SLC25A30, GFPT1, LEPR, TGFBR2, FABP7, GSTCD, and CYP17A. Pathway analysis revealed that glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis- keratan sulfate, adipokine signaling, galactose metabolism, endocrine and other factors-regulating calcium metabolism, mineral metabolism, and PPAR signaling pathway were playing important regulatory roles in FA metabolism. Importantly, polymorphism and association analyses showed that mutation in APOA5, CFHR5, TGFBR2 and LEPR genes could be potential markers for the FA composition in sheep. These polymorphisms and transcriptome networks controlling the FA variation could be used as genetic markers for FA composition-related traits improvement. However, functional validation is required to confirm the effect of these SNPs in other sheep population in order to incorporate them in the sheep breeding program.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo Genético , Ovinos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793556

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation can cause oviduct mucosal damage and immune dysfunction, leading to infertility, early pregnancy loss, ectopic pregnancy, tumors, and a decrease in reproductive capacities in female animals. Estrogen can suppress immune responses in different tissues and oviducts, and regulate the oviduct immune balance; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism of estrogen-regulated oviduct mucosal immunity and discover new estrogen targets for regulating oviduct mucosal immune homeostasis. Sheep oviduct epithelial cells (SOECs) were treated with 17-ß estradiol (E2). Transcriptome sequencing and analysis showed differentially expressed S100 calcium-binding protein A (S100A) genes that may participate in the oviduct mucosa immunoregulation of estrogen. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry analysis showed that S100A8 expression changed dynamically in E2-treated SOECs and peaked after 7 h of treatment. Estrogen nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled membrane receptors promoted E2-dependent S100A8 upregulation. The S100A8 gene was disrupted using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 method. Levels of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-4 were significantly upregulated in S100A8-knockdown SOECs, whereas those of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was downregulated. Following S100A8 knockdown in SOECs treated with E2 for 7 h, IL-10 levels increased significantly. Estrogen affected oviduct mucosa immune function and dynamically regulated S100A8 in SOECs. S100A8 knockdown caused an excessive immune response, indicating that S100A8 is beneficial for maintaining immune homeostasis in the oviduct mucosa. Moreover, estrogen can compensate for the effect of S100A8 knockdown by upregulating IL-10.


Assuntos
Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Homeostase/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Oviductos/metabolismo , Animais , Calgranulina A/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Estradiol/imunologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/imunologia , Feminino , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Oviductos/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
6.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 9432-9442, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606535

RESUMO

The microRNA (miR)-432 is differentially expressed in the mammary gland of two breeds of lactating sheep with different milk production traits, and between the non-lactating and peak-lactation periods, but there have been no reports describing the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, the effect of miR-432 on the proliferation of ovine mammary epithelial cells (OMECs) and the target genes of miR-432 were investigated. The effects of miR-432 on the expression of the target genes and the content of triglycerides in the OMECs were also analyzed. Transfection with a miR-432 mimic was found using CCK8 and Edu assays, to inhibit the viability of OMECs and reduce the number of proliferated OMECs. In contrast, a miR-432 inhibitor had the opposite effect to the miR-432 mimic, and together these results suggest that miR-432 inhibits the proliferation of OMECs. A dual luciferase assay revealed that the genes for stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are targeted by miR-432. The transfection of miR-432 mimic into OMECs resulted in decreases in the expression of SCD and LPL, and three other milk fat synthesis marker genes; FABP4, LPIN1 and ACACA. The mimic also decreased the content of triglycerides. The miR-432 inhibitor had the opposite effect to the mimic on the expression of these genes and the level of triglycerides. This is the first study to reveal the biological mechanisms by which miR-432 inhibits milk fat synthesis in sheep.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/biossíntese , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Ovinos/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Transfecção , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614022

RESUMO

Five groups of lambs (n = 9 each) were used to test the effect of plant extracts rich in hydrolysable (HT) or condensed tannin (CT) on animal performance, fatty acid composition of rumen content, liver and meat. The control group (CO) received a concentrate-based diet without tannins supplementation. The other groups received the same diet as the control lambs plus 4% chestnut (CH) and tara (TA) extracts as a source of HT and mimosa (MI) and gambier (GA) extracts as a source of CT. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the overall effect of dietary treatments, tannins supplementation (CO vs. CH+TA+MI+GA) and the effect of tannin type (HT vs. CT: CH+TA vs. MI+GA) on animal performance, rumen content, liver and intramuscular FA. Dietary CH negatively affected animal performance. The rumen content of the different groups showed similar levels of 18:3 c9c12c15, 18:2 c9c12, 18:2 c9t11, 18:1 t11 and 18:0, whereas 18:1 t10 was greater in CO. Also, 18:1 t10 tended to be lower in the rumen of HT than CT-fed lambs. These data were partially confirmed in liver and meat, where CO showed a greater percentage of individual trans 18:1 fatty acids in comparison with tannins-fed groups. Our findings challenge some accepted generalizations on the use of tannins in ruminant diets as they were ineffective to favour the accumulation of dietary PUFA or healthy fatty acids of biohydrogenation origin in the rumen content and lamb meat, but suggest a generalized influence on BH rather than on specific steps.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Fígado/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Análise Multivariada
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684464

RESUMO

As a precursor for a universal metabolic coenzyme, vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is a vital nutrient in all living organisms. We previously found that high-dose thiamine therapy prevents overnutrition-induced hepatic steatosis in sheep by enhancing oxidative catabolism. Based on this capacity, we hypothesized that thiamine might also reduce whole-body fat and weight. To test it, we investigated the effects of high-dose thiamine treatment in sheep under overnutrition and calorie-restricted undernutrition to respectively induce positive energy balance (PEB) and negative energy balance (NEB). Eighteen mature ewes were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (n = 6 each). The control group (CG) was administered daily with subcutaneous saline, whereas the T5 and T10 groups were administered daily with equivoque of saline containing 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of thiamine, respectively. Bodyweight and blood biochemistry were measured twice a week for a period of 22 days under PEB and for a consecutive 30 days under NEB. Surprisingly, despite the strong effect of thiamine on liver fat, no effect on body weight or blood glucose was detectable. Thiamine did, however, increase plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during NEB (575.5 ± 26.7, 657.6 ± 29.9 and 704.9 ± 26.1 µEqL-1 for CG, T5, and T10, respectively: p < 0.05), thereby favoring utilization of fatty acids versus carbohydrates as a source of energy. Thiamine increased serum creatinine concentrations (p < 0.05), which paralleled a trending increase in urea (p = 0.09). This may indicate an increase in muscle metabolism by thiamine. Reduction of fat content by thiamine appears more specific to the liver than to adipose tissue. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the potential implications of high-dose vitamin B1 therapy in muscle metabolism.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/metabolismo , Hipernutrição/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tiamina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Creatinina/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipólise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Minerais/sangue , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Tiamina/uso terapêutico
9.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500638

RESUMO

The effect of humidity on sheep wool during irradiation by an accelerated electron beam was examined. Each of the samples with 10%, 53%, and 97% relative humidity (RH) absorbed a dose of 0, 109, and 257 kGy, respectively. After being freely kept in common laboratory conditions, the samples were subjected to batch Co(II) sorption experiments monitored with VIS spectrometry for different lapses from electron beam exposure. Along with the sorption, FTIR spectral analysis of the wool samples was conducted for cysteic acid and cystine monoxide, and later, the examination was completed, with pH measuring 0.05 molar KCl extract from the wool samples. Besides a relationship to the absorbed dose and lapse, the sorptivity results showed considerable dependence on wool humidity under exposure. When humidity was deficient (10% RH), the sorptivity was lower due to limited transformation of cystine monoxide to cysteic acid. The wool pre-conditioned at 53% RH, which is the humidity close to common environmental conditions, demonstrated the best Co(II) sorptivity in any case. This finding enables the elimination of pre-exposure wool conditioning in practice. Under excessive humidity of 97% RH and enough high dose of 257 kGy, radiolysis of water occurred, deteriorating the sorptivity. Each wool humidity, dose, and lapse showed a particular scenario. The time and humidity variations in the sorptivity for the non-irradiated sample were a little surprising; despite the absence of electron irradiation, relevant results indicated a strong sensitivity to pre-condition humidity and lapse from the start of the monitoring.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Íons/química , Ovinos/metabolismo , Lã/química , Adsorção/fisiologia , Animais , Cistina/química , Elétrons , Umidade , Água/química
10.
J Dairy Res ; 88(3): 261-264, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372949

RESUMO

In this work we report a lipidomics approach to study the effects of two diet systems on the composition of ovine milk. Milk from two groups of Sarda sheep grazing on 40% (P40) and 60% (P60) of pasture were analyzed by a UHPLC-QTOF-MS analytical platform and data submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Pairwise partial least square discriminant analysis of the lipid profile of the data was carried out to classify samples and to find discriminant lipids. The two dietary groups were characterized by differences in triacylglycerols, phosphocholines and phosphatidylethanolamines levels. Discriminants of the P40 group were TG and PC containing in their backbone saturated medium chain FA thus suggesting greater de novo fatty synthesis in the mammary gland. On the other hand, the P60 group was characterized by TG and PC formed by unsaturated long chain FA originating from the diet or from lipid mobilization.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Leite/química , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Fosforilcolina/análise , Triglicerídeos
11.
Gene ; 804: 145897, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418471

RESUMO

This study was to explore the regulation effect of PGAM1 on the proliferation, apoptosis and glycolysis pathway of Tibetan sheep Sertoli cells. In this paper, the reproductive organs of male Tibetan sheep before pre-puberty (3 months old), sexual maturity (1 year old) and adult (3 years old) were used as experimental materials. The complete CDS region sequence of PGAM1 gene was cloned for bioinformatics analysis, and had the closest relationship with Tibetan antelope. QRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the expression and localization of PGAM1 in the testis and epididymis tissues of Tibetan sheep at different growth and development stages at the transcription and translation levels. Then the Tibetan sheep primary Sertoli cells (SCs) were isolated to construct PGAM1 gene overexpression and interference vectors, and to transfect primary SCs so as to promote and inhibit PGAM1 gene expression; CCK-8 and flow cytometry were used to detect the proliferation effect of SCs;qRT-PCR technology was employed to detect the changes in the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Different kits were used to detect pyruvate, lactic acid, ATP production and LDH activity during glycolysis, and to detect the changes in the expression of downstream genes in the glycolysis pathway. The results showed that the CDS region of Tibetan sheep PGAM1 gene was 765 bp in length, which can encode 254 amino acids; and the expression of PGAM1 protein in the testis and epididymis increased at 1Y group and 3Ygroup compared with 3 M group, and that the PGAM1 protein mainly existed in SCs and Leydig cells at different developmental stages. CCK-8 and flow cytometry test results found that compared with the empty vector group (pcDNA3.1(+)), the proliferation rate of the PGAM1 gene overexpression group (pcDNA3.1(+)-PGAM1) decreased. The mRNA expression of the cell proliferation related genes PCNA and Bcl2 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bax and caspase3 was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The expression of downstream genes in the glycolysis pathway was significant increased (P < 0.05), pyruvate content, ATP content, lactic acid production and LDH activity increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the interference control group (NC), the proliferation rate of the PGAM1 gene interference group (si-PGAM1) was weakened. The mRNA expression of the cell proliferation-related genes PCNA and Bcl2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the expression of cell apoptosis related genes Bax and caspase3 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The expression of downstream genes in the glycolysis pathway was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and the pyruvate content, ATP content, lactic acid production and LDH activity were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The PGAM1 gene might regulate the glycolytic metabolism pathway and regulate the sperm formation and maturation process by affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of SCs. This result provides basic data for the study of the function of PGAM1 in sheep testicular development.


Assuntos
Fosfoglicerato Mutase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Mutase/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Glicólise/fisiologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Células de Sertoli/citologia , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4191-4199, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086160

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) in the renin-angiotensin system regulates blood pressure by catalyzing angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. In this study, the ACE was purified and characterized from sheep lung. The kinetic properties of the ACE were designated. The inhibition effect of captopril, a specific ACE inhibitor, was determined. ACE was purified from sheep lung using the affinity chromatography method in one step. NHS-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow as column filler and lisinopril as a ligand in this method used. The molecular weight and purity of ACE were designated using the SDS-PAGE method. Optimum temperature and optimum pH were found for purified ACE. KM and Vmax values from Lineweaver-Burk charts determined. The inhibition type, IC50, and Ki values of captopril on purified ACE were identified. ACE was 6405-fold purified from sheep lung by affinity chromatography in one step and specific activity was 16871 EU/mg protein. The purity and molecular weight of ACE were found with SDS-PAGE and observed two bands at around 60 kDa and 70 kDa on the gel. Optimum temperature and optimum pH were designated for purified ACE. Optimum temperature and pH were found as 40 °C and pH 7.4, respectively. Vmax and KM values were calculated to be 35.59 (µmol/min).mL-1 and 0.18 mM, respectively. IC50 value of captopril was found as 0.51 nM. The inhibition type of captopril was determined as non-competitive from the Lineweaver-Burk graph and the Ki value was 0.39 nM. As a result, it was observed in this study that the ACE enzyme can be successfully purified from sheep lungs in one step. Also, it was determined that captopril, which is a specific ACE inhibitor, has a significant inhibitory effect with a very low IC50 value of 0.51 nM.


Assuntos
Pulmão/enzimologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Captopril/farmacologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Lisinopril/farmacologia , Peso Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Temperatura
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12329, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112842

RESUMO

Minerals play an important role in animal metabolism. Knowledge of mineral requirements allows well-formulated diets to be provided, which is the main factor that affects performance. To determine the macromineral and trace element requirements for growth and maintenance, thirty-eight 2-month-old Santa Ines lambs with initial body weight (BW) of 13.0 ± 1.49 kg were distributed in a factorial design with feeding levels (ad libitum, 30% and 60% feed restriction) and sex classes [castrated (CM) and intact males (IM)]. The net mineral requirements for gain were higher (P < 0.05) with increasing BW and average daily gain, except for Ca and Na, which remained constant as the empty BW (EBW) increased. The macromineral net requirement for maintenance (g/kg EBW0.75) and the true retention coefficient (k; %) were 0.0784 and 65.2 for Ca, 0.0926 and 80.0 for P, and 0.0379 and 59.0 for K, respectively. The k of Mg was higher (P < 0.05) for IM (11.3 for IM and 7.9 for CM). Sex did not affect (P > 0.05) the maintenance requirement of the trace elements Co, Cu, Zn and Cr which were 0.0015, 0.037, 0.698, and 0.0055 (mg/kg EBW0.75), respectively. Our study indicated that the Santa Ines net mineral requirements are different from the main nutritional requirements established by committees for sheep, which may result in unbalanced diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Minerais/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia
14.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13556, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973682

RESUMO

The effect of alfalfa saponins (AS) supplementation on the meat quality especially the color for growing lamb was investigated. Fifty Hu male lambs with body weights (BW, 19.21 ± 0.45 kg) were divided into five groups and supplemented AS with 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg/kg of dietary dry matter intake. After 90 days, all lambs were slaughtered. The longissimus thoracis muscle in lamb displayed significant changes in the content of intramuscular fat, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and drip loss within AS treatment (p < .05) between control and treatments groups. Redness (a*) significantly improved in both 0-day and 7-day storage with the AS supplementation coupled with the percentage of met-myoglobin reduction (p < .05). The redness (a*) change may result from improved met-myoglobin reducing activity, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase (p < .05) by AS supplementation in muscle. These enzymes may help to protect mitochondria function and reduce met-myoglobin, which bring a bright and red meat color.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cor , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Medicago sativa/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13553, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938599

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate growth performance and meat quality of Ujimqin lambs fed native grass hay without or with concentrate (HC) or pellets. Ninety non-castrated 6-month-old male lambs of good health and similar body weight (26.83 ± 0.26 kg) were randomly divided into three groups (five lambs per cage). The average daily gain and intake of the pellets and HC groups were significantly greater (p < .05) than those in the hay group. The carcass weight, net meat mass, loin eye area, and backfat thickness were significantly greater (p < .05) in the HC groups. The intramuscular fat was significantly greater (p < .05) in the pellets and HC groups, while the shear force was significantly decreased (p < .05) in pellets and HC groups. The C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9c, and C18:2n6 contents were significantly greater (p < .05) in the HC and pellet groups, while the C18:3n3 content was significantly greater (p < .05) in the hay group. Collectively, the present study suggested that feeding native grass hay with concentrate or pellets improved the growth in lambs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Poaceae , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Mongólia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 684-692, May-June 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278367

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of yellow grease supplementation on the intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance in sheep. Twenty Santa Inês lambs with a mean age of 95 ± 10 d and body weight of 19.29 ± 3.17kg were evaluated in a completely randomized design. The diets were supplemented with oil at concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 gkg-1 of dry matter (DM) of the concentrate. The diets were based on roughage and concentrate (50:50). The experimental period lasted 19 d and included 14 adaptation days and five collection days for the total supplied diet, orts, feces, and urine. Supplementation with yellow grease had no significant effect on the intake of DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), or non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). However, the ether extract (EE) intake increased linearly with supplementation of yellow grease. Moreover, no effect was observed for DM, CP, NDF, and NFC digestibility and nitrogen balance. EE digestibility increased linearly with the yellow grease dietary supplementation. Thus, sheep dietary supplementation with yellow grease may be used at a level of up to 80 gkg-1 of DM of concentrate without impairing nutrient intake and digestibility.(AU)


Objetivou-se, com o estudo, avaliar os efeitos do óleo residual de fritura, em dietas para ovinos, sob o consumo, a digestibilidade e o balanço de nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 20 cordeiros Santa Inês, com idade de 95 ± 10 dias e peso corporal de 19,29 ± 3,17kg, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. As dietas continham óleo de fritura nas concentrações de 0; 20; 40; 60 e 80gkg-1 da matéria seca (MS) do concentrado. As dietas tinham relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50. O período experimental foi de 19 dias, incluindo 14 dias em adaptação e cinco dias de coleta do fornecido, das sobras, das fezes e da urina. A suplementação com óleo de fritura não alterou o consumo de MS, proteína bruta (PB), matéria orgânica (MO), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF). Entretanto, o consumo de extrato etéreo (EE) aumentou com a inclusão do óleo. Não foi observado efeito na digestibilidade da MS, da PB, da FDN, dos CNF e no balanço de nitrogênio. A digestibilidade do EE aumentou com a inclusão do óleo. Assim, a inclusão de óleo de fritura em dietas para ovinos pode ser utilizada em até 80gkg-1 da MS do concentrado, sem limitar ingestão e digestibilidade dos nutrientes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Vegetais , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Resíduos/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800742

RESUMO

Thermogenesis plays an important role in the survival of sheep exposed to low temperatures; however, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying cold adaptation in sheep. We examined 6 Altay (A) and 6 Hu (H) six-month-old ewe lambs. Altay sheep are raised in northern China and are adapted to dry, cold climates, while Hu sheep are raised in southern China and are adapted to warm, humid climates. Each breed was divided into two groups: chronic cold sheep, exposed to -5 °C for 25 days (3 Ac; 3 Hc), and thermo-neutral sheep, maintained at 20 °C (3 Aw; 3 Hw). The transcriptome profiles of hypothalamus, tail-fat and perirenal fat tissues from these four groups were determined using paired-end sequencing for RNA expression analysis. There are differences in cold tolerance between Hu and Altay sheep. Under cold exposure of the lambs: (1) UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and calcium- and cAMP-signaling pathways were activated; and (2) different fat tissues were activated in Hu and Altay lambs. Several candidate genes involved in thermogenesis including UCP1, ADRB3, ADORA2A, ATP2A1, RYR1 and IP6K1 were identified. Molecular mechanisms of thermogenesis in the sheep are discussed and new avenues for research are suggested.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ovinos , Termogênese/fisiologia , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800240

RESUMO

Neurotrophins constitute a group of growth factor that exerts important functions in the nervous system of vertebrates. They act through two classes of transmembrane receptors: tyrosine-kinase receptors and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). The activation of p75NTR can favor cell survival or apoptosis depending on diverse factors. Several studies evidenced a link between p75NTR and the pathogenesis of prion diseases. In this study, we investigated the distribution of several neurotrophins and their receptors, including p75NTR, in the brain of naturally scrapie-affected sheep and experimentally infected ovinized transgenic mice and its correlation with other markers of prion disease. No evident changes in infected mice or sheep were observed regarding neurotrophins and their receptors except for the immunohistochemistry against p75NTR. Infected mice showed higher abundance of p75NTR immunostained cells than their non-infected counterparts. The astrocytic labeling correlated with other neuropathological alterations of prion disease. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of p75NTR and the astrocytic marker GFAP, suggesting an involvement of astrocytes in p75NTR-mediated neurodegeneration. In contrast, p75NTR staining in sheep lacked astrocytic labeling. However, digital image analyses revealed increased labeling intensities in preclinical sheep compared with non-infected and terminal sheep in several brain nuclei. This suggests that this receptor is overexpressed in early stages of prion-related neurodegeneration in sheep. Our results confirm a role of p75NTR in the pathogenesis of classical ovine scrapie in both the natural host and in an experimental transgenic mouse model.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Scrapie/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Scrapie/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6631, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758223

RESUMO

We used palaeoproteomics and peptide mass fingerprinting to obtain secure species identifications of key specimens of early domesticated fauna from South Africa, dating to ca. 2000 BP. It can be difficult to distinguish fragmentary remains of early domesticates (sheep) from similar-sized local wild bovids (grey duiker, grey rhebok, springbok-southern Africa lacks wild sheep) based on morphology alone. Our analysis revealed a Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS) marker (m/z 1532) present in wild bovids and we demonstrate through LC-MS/MS that it is capable of discriminating between wild bovids and caprine domesticates. We confirm that the Spoegrivier specimen dated to 2105 ± 65 BP is indeed a sheep. This is the earliest directly dated evidence of domesticated animals in southern Africa. As well as the traditional method of analysing bone fragments, we show the utility of minimally destructive sampling methods such as PVC eraser and polishing films for successful ZooMS identification. We also show that collagen extracted more than 25 years ago for the purpose of radiocarbon dating can yield successful ZooMS identification. Our study demonstrates the importance of developing appropriate regional frameworks of comparison for future research using ZooMS as a method of biomolecular species identification.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Arqueologia , Proteômica , Ovinos/classificação , Ovinos/metabolismo , África Austral , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Dairy Res ; 88(1): 8-15, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663634

RESUMO

Recent calls advocate that a huge reduction in the consumption of animal products (including dairy) is essential to mitigate climate change and stabilise global warming below the 1.5 and 2°C targets. The Paris Agreement states that to stabilise temperatures we must reach a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the second half of this century. Consequently, many countries have adopted overall GHG reduction targets (e.g. EU, at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990). However, using conventional metric-equivalent emissions (CO2-e GWP100) as the basis to account for emissions does not result in capturing the effect on atmospheric warming of changing emission rates from short-lived GHG (e.g. methane: CH4), which are the main source of GHG emissions by small ruminants. This shortcoming could be solved by using warming-equivalent emissions (CO2-we, GWP*), which can accurately link annual GHG emission rates to its warming effect in the atmosphere. In our study, using this GWP* methodology and different modelling approaches, we first examined the historical (1990-2018) contribution of European dairy small ruminant systems to additional atmosphere warming levels and then studied different emission target scenarios for 2100. These scenarios allow us to envision the necessary reduction of GHG emissions from Europe's dairy small ruminants to achieve a stable impact on global temperatures, i.e. to be climatically neutral. Our analysis showed that, using this type of approach, the whole European sheep and goat dairy sector seems not to have contributed to additional warming in the period 1990-2018. Considering each subsector separately, increases in dairy goat production has led to some level of additional warming into the atmosphere, but these have been compensated by larger emission reductions in the dairy sheep sector. The estimations of warming for future scenarios suggest that to achieve climate neutrality, understood as not adding additional warming to the atmosphere, modest GHG reductions of sheep and goat GHG would be required (e.g. via feed additives). This reduction would be even lower if potential soil organic carbon (SOC) from associated pastures is considered.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Cabras/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Europa (Continente) , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Leite
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