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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of medicinal herbal mixtures rich in phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations and lipid oxidation in tissues of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite (Haemonchus contortus). Parallel in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using two different herbal mixtures (Mix1 and Mix2). The in vitro study was conducted in a 2 (infection status; non-infected versus infected) × 3 (diets; control, Mix1 and Mix2) factorial design. In the in vivo study, 24 lambs were equally divided into four treatments: non-infected lambs fed a control diet, infected lambs fed the control diet, infected lambs fed a diet with Mix1 and infected lambs fed a diet with Mix2. Herbal mixtures (100 g dry matter (DM)/d) were added to the basal diets of meadow hay (ad libitum) and a commercial concentrate (500 g DM/d). The experimental period lasted for 70 days. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production were not affected by infection in vivo or in vitro. Both herbal mixture supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P < 0.01) and DM digestibility (P < 0.01) in vitro. Archaea population was slightly diminished by both herbal mixtures (P < 0.05), but they did not lower methane production in vitro or in vivo (P > 0.05). Infection of H. contortus or herbal mixtures modulated FA proportion mainly in the liver, especially the long chain FA proportion. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum were significantly higher after 70 days post-infection in the infected lambs. Herbal Mix1 supplementation reduced TBARS concentrations in meat after seven days of storage. In conclusion, supplementing of herbal mixtures to the diets of GIN parasite infected lambs did not affect the basic ruminal fermentation parameters. Herbal mixtures may improve few FA proportions mainly in liver as well as decrease lipid oxidation in meat.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 215-223, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088940

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic response of native lambs fed Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon dactylon) or Maniçoba hay (Manihot pseudoglaziovii) associated with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). Sixteen Morada Nova lambs were used, with a mean initial weight of 19.36±1.48kg, distributed in a randomized block design, with two treatments and eight replications. Dry matter intake was higher for lambs fed Maniçoba hay compared to Tifton hay, while the body weight at slaughter was not influenced by diets. Regarding the blood metabolites, only the serum concentration of urea was influenced, with higher value observed in the lambs that fed the diet containing Tifton hay. When analyzing blood biomarkers, in the different biweekly collections, a linear increase in the blood concentration of urea, glucose, fructosamine, alkaline phosphatase and sodium was observed, as well as a quadratic effect for serum potassium. The other blood metabolites were not influenced in function of the collection days. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay for Maniçoba hay does not cause negative changes in the dynamics of different biomarkers and presents itself as a promising forage resource.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta metabólica de cordeiros nativos alimentados com feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon) ou feno de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii) associados à palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 19,36±1,48kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos e oito repetições. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com feno de maniçoba em comparação ao feno de tifton, enquanto o peso corporal ao abate não foi influenciado pelas dietas. Em relação aos metabólitos sanguíneos, apenas a concentração sérica de ureia foi influenciada, com maior valor observado nos cordeiros que ingeriram a dieta contendo feno de capim-tifton. Quando foi realizada a análise dos biomarcadores sanguíneos nas diferentes coletas quinzenais, foi observado aumento linear nas concentrações sanguíneas de ureia, glicose, frutosamina, fosfatase alcalina e sódio, e efeito quadrático para o potássio sérico. Os demais metabólitos sanguíneos não foram influenciados em função dos dias de coleta. A substituição do feno de tifton 85 por feno de maniçoba influencia positivamente o metabolismo de cordeiros sem causar alterações na dinâmica dos diferentes biomarcadores e se apresenta como um promissor recurso forrageiro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Manihot , Cactaceae , Cynodon
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 153-160, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088926

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a disponibilidade de cálcio (Ca2+) a partir de duas formas farmacêuticas (oral e intravaginal) e o seu efeito sobre o metabolismo de ruminantes. O estudo foi realizado na fazenda experimental da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, foram estudadas 24 ovelhas lactantes, divididas de forma randomizada em 4 grupos: dispositivo tratamento (DT); dispositivo controle (DC); oral tratamento (OT); e oral controle (OC). Os animais tratados receberam formiato de cálcio e cloreto de magnésio, as avaliações foram realizadas após a administração dos tratamentos. Foi feita avaliação de cálcio total (CaT), magnésio (Mg), proteínas plasmáticas totais (PPT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), gama glutamil transpeptidase (GGT), ureia, albumina e pH urinário, e realizado exame clínico em todos os animais. As concentrações séricas de CaT, CaI e Mg diferiram entre os grupos (P≤ 0,05), os animais dos grupos DT e DC, diferiram nas três avaliações, o grupo DT apresentou as maiores médias, sendo significativamente igual ao grupo OT. Não houve diferença nas concentrações séricas de PPT, AST, GGT, Albumina, Ureia e pH urinário. Conclui-se que a disponibilidade sanguínea de CaT, CaI e Mg é igual quando a administração de formiato de cálcio e magnésio é por via intravaginal ou por via oral, sem alterar outros parâmetros metabólicos avaliados.(AU)


The aim of the study was to evaluate the availability of calcium (Ca2+) from two pharmaceutical forms (oral and intravaginal) and its effect on the metabolism of ruminants. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Pelotas. Twenty-four lactating ewes were randomly divided into 4 groups: treatment device (TD); control device (DC); oral treatment (OT); and oral control (OC). Treated animals received calcium formate and magnesium chloride, evaluations were performed after administration of the treatments. Total calcium (CaT), magnesium (Mg), total plasma proteins (PPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urea, albumin and urinary pH, and clinical examination were performed on all animals. Serum CaT, CaI and Mg levels differed between the groups (P≤ 0.05), the animals in the DT and DC groups differed in the three evaluations, the DT group had the highest mean values, being significantly equal to the OT group. There was no difference in the serum concentrations of PPT, AST, GGT, Albumin, Urea and urinary pH. In conclusion, the blood availability of CaT, CaI and Mg is the same when administration of calcium and magnesium formate is intravaginal or orally, without altering other metabolic parameters evaluated.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Administração Intravaginal , Ovinos/metabolismo , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Magnésio/administração & dosagem
4.
Gene ; 731: 144335, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927007

RESUMO

Deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) is essential for mammalian spermatogenesis as it regulates proliferation, development, maturation and functional maintenance of male germ cells. Its expression and regulation vary with different species or in the same animal at different developmental stages, and despite its importance, very little is known about its roles in sheep, especially Tibetan sheep. To investigate the expression patterns and regulatory roles of DZAL in Tibetan sheep testis, testicular tissue was isolated from sheep at three crucial development stages: 3 months old, 1 year old and 3 years old. Using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, we found that DAZL mRNA first decreased and then increased with advancing age, while DAZL protein exhibited an opposite expression pattern, with first increased and subsequently decreased levels. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed that DAZL protein was located predominantly in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells and in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of spermatids. ELISA indicated that testosterone content within developing testes was first enhanced and then declined. Our results, taken together, demonstrate, for the first time, that DAZL gene is involved in Tibetan sheep spermatogenesis by regulating the development of spermatids in post-pubertal rams, along with a novel role in functional maintenance of Leydig cells in postnatal rams.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ovinos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Espermátides/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo , Tibet , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 124-128, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778853

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of LFX in sheep after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of 2 mg/kg LFX once a day for 5 days and to evaluate its tissue depletion in the muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys. Twenty healthy female sheep were randomly divided into two equal groups. Each group was further randomly subdivided into two equal subgroups (n = 5). Group 1 was used for blood collection and underwent a crossover design (2 × 2 Latin square). Group 2 was randomly subdivided into two equal subgroups (n = 5) for IV and PO route respectively, and used for tissue collection. A single sheep was sacrificed at each time point and the organs were harvested. Samples were analyzed using a validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection. LFX administered orally was rapidly absorbed with a peak plasma concentration of 2866 ± 239 ng/mL and an absolute oral bioavailability of 114 ± 27.7%. The pharmacokinetic estimates were comparable between PO and IV administration. According to the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic surrogate index (area under the curve / minimum inhibitory concentration) of 100-125, LFX has the potential to be an effective treatment for infections caused by bacteria with a MIC of 0.049-0.061 µg/mL. LFX was detected for up to 48 h in all the tissues samples. The kidney had the highest LFX concentration after IV and PO administration. The AUCtissue/plasma ratio was lower than 1 in all tissues indicating absence of LFX tissue accumulation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Levofloxacino/farmacocinética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2093-2102, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055115

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade e o desempenho de ovinos, arraçoados com dietas isoproteicas, contendo 75% de resíduos da agroindústria frutífera (abacaxi, acerola, maracujá e cupuaçu), uma dieta com feno de tifton e 25% de concentrado, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. A participação do resíduo de maracujá na dieta proporcionou os maiores níveis de consumo de matéria seca (1170,6g d-1) em relação aos resíduos de abacaxi (693,8g d-1), acerola (644,2g d-1), cupuaçu (452,9g d-1) e feno de tifton (962,7g d-1), o que se relaciona aos seus níveis de digestibilidade (77,8; 63,1; 59,1; 61,7 e 71,8%, respectivamente). Tal resultado gerou diferenças significativas, destacando-se o resíduo de maracujá quanto à conversão alimentar (8,3), e o ganho médio diário de peso (141,5g d-1). Apesar de ter tido a mesma conversão observada para o feno de tifton (13,2), apresentou maior ganho médio diário (75,6g d-1). Os demais resíduos apresentaram efeitos sobrepostos, contudo o resíduo de acerola ficou com a pior conversão (51,4) e o menor ganho médio diário (15,6g d-1), sendo esse sem diferença em relação ao cupuaçu (23,0g d-1). Os resíduos podem ser utilizados como alternativa para a alimentação de ovinos.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the consumption, digestibility and performance of the sheep with iso protein diets, with 75% of residues from fruit agro-industries (pineapple, acerola, passion fruit, and cupuassu) and a diet with tifton hay, and 25% of concentrate, in a totally randomized design. The participation of passion fruit residue on the diet provided the highest consumption levels of dry matter (1170.6g d -1 ) compared with the residues of pineapple (693.8g d -1 ), acerola (644.2g d -1 ), cupuassu (452.9g d -1 ) and tifton hay (962.7g d -1 ), which is related to their levels of digestibility (77.85, 63.14, 59.07, 61.68 and 71.83%, respectively). Such a result generated significant differences with emphasis on passion fruit residue regarding food inversion (8.30) and average daily weight gain (141.50g d -1 ), in spite of having the same conversion detected for tifton hay (13.2), it showed a higher average daily gain (75.6g d -1 ). The other residues showed overlapping effects, however, acerola residue showed the worst conversion level (51.4) and the lowest average daily gain (15.6g d -1 ), and this one showed no difference compared with cupuassu (23.0g d -1 ). The residues can be used as an alternative for sheep feeding.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/metabolismo , Malvaceae , Malpighiaceae , Passiflora , Ananas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Ração Animal , Resíduos Industriais
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2065-2074, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055118

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (EO) doses on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen metabolism, as well as performance and coccidia oocyst discharge. In experiment I, 20 rumen-cannulated wethers received the experimental diets containing 80% dry matter (DM) of haylage and 20% DM of concentrate. Treatments were 25mg of monensin/kg DM or doses of 1.25, 2.50, or 3.75g of thyme EO/kg DM. In experiment II, 50 ewe lambs received the same diets from experiment I, including a diet without feed additives. Wethers fed with diets containing 1.25g/kg DM of thyme EO had higher molar proportion of propionate (P= 0.03) and butyrate (P< 0.01), and lower (P= 0.04) acetate to propionate ratio than other treatments. Adding thyme EO to diets increased (P= 0.02) nitrogen retention compared to monensin. The performance of ewe lambs was not affected (P≥ 0.05) by treatments. However, lambs fed monensin had a lower (P= 0.04) number of coccidia oocyst discharge than others. Adding 1.25g/kg DM of thyme EO in high-forage diet improved ruminal fermentation. Thyme EO enhanced nitrogen metabolism, however, it did not improve performance.(AU)


Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito de doses de óleo essencial (OE) de tomilho (Thymus vulgaris) sobre a fermentação ruminal, a digestibilidade de nutrientes e o metabolismo de nitrogênio, bem como sobre o desempenho e a descarga de oocistos de coccídeos. No experimento I, 20 ovinos canulados receberam dietas experimentais contendo 80% de matéria seca (MS) de pré-secado e 20% de MS de concentrado. Os tratamentos foram 25mg de monensina/kg de MS ou doses de 1,25, 2,50 ou 3,75g de OE de tomilho/kg de MS. No experimento II, 50 borregas receberam as mesmas dietas do experimento I, incluindo uma dieta sem aditivos. Os animais alimentados com dietas contendo 1,25g de OE de tomilho apresentaram maior proporção molar de propionato (P=0,03) e de butirato (P<0,01) e menor (P=0,04) relação acetato/propionato do que outros tratamentos. A adição de OE de tomilho nas dietas aumentou (P=0,02) a retenção de nitrogênio em comparação com a monensina. O desempenho de cordeiros não foi afetado (P≥0,05) pelos tratamentos. No entanto, cordeiros alimentados com monensina apresentaram menor (P=0,04) número de oocistos de coccídeos. A adição de 1,25g/kg de MS de OE de tomilho na dieta forrageira melhorou o perfil da fermentação ruminal. O OE de tomilho aumentou a retenção de nitrogênio, no entanto não melhorou o desempenho.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Ovinos/metabolismo , Monensin , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Thymus (Planta)/química , Nitrogênio , Aditivos Alimentares
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 794, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small ungulates (sheep and goat) display a seasonal breeding, characterised by two successive periods, sexual activity (SA) and sexual rest (SR). Odours emitted by a sexually active male can reactivate the ovulatory cycle of anoestrus females. The plasticity of the olfactory system under these hormonal changes has never been explored at the peripheral level of odours reception. As it was shown in pig that the olfactory secretome (proteins secreted in the nasal mucus) could be modified under hormonal control, we monitored its composition in females of both species through several reproductive seasons, thanks to a non-invasive sampling of olfactory mucus. For this purpose, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-E), western-blot with specific antibodies, MALDI-TOF and high-resolution (nano-LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry, RACE-PCR and molecular modelling were used. RESULTS: In both species the olfactory secretome is composed of isoforms of OBP-like proteins, generated by post-translational modifications, as phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and O-GlcNAcylation. Important changes were observed in the olfactory secretome between the sexual rest and the sexual activity periods, characterised in ewe by the specific expression of SAL-like proteins and the emergence of OBPs O-GlcNAcylation. In goat, the differences between SA and SR did not come from new proteins expression, but from different post-translational modifications, the main difference between the SA and SR secretome being the number of isoforms of each protein. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD014833. CONCLUSION: Despite common behaviour, seasonal breeding, and genetic resources, the two species seem to adapt their olfactory equipment in SA by different modalities: the variation of olfactory secretome in ewe could correspond to a specialization to detect male odours only in SA, whereas in goat the stability of the olfactory secretome could indicate a constant capacity of odours detection suggesting that the hallmark of SA in goat might be the emission of specific odours by the sexually active male. In both species, the olfactory secretome is a phenotype reflecting the physiological status of females, and could be used by breeders to monitor their receptivity to the male effect.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cabras/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/metabolismo , Acilação , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Glicosilação , Cabras/genética , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Análise de Sequência , Ovinos/genética
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614839

RESUMO

We have previously reported that glyoxalase domain-containing protein 4 (GLOD4) is expressed in sheep testes by proteome analysis, but its roles during testicular development remain unclear. The aim of this study was to understand the expression characteristics and biological functions of the GLOD4 gene in developmental Tibetan sheep testes. The cDNA sequence of the Tibetan sheep GLOD4 gene was cloned by the RT-PCR method, and the structural characteristics of the GLOD4 protein were analyzed using relevant bioinformatics software, including ProtParam, TMHMM, Signal P 4.1, SOPMA, and phyre2. The expression patterns and immunolocalization of GLOD4 were examined in developmental testes derived from three-month-old (3M), one-year-old (1Y), and three-year-old (3Y) Tibetan sheep using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence staining. The sequence analysis showed that the coding sequence (CDS) region of the GLOD4 gene was 729 bp in length and encoded 242 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis found that the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of Tibetan sheep GLOD4 exhibited the highest sequence similarity with goat and chiru, and the least with zig-zag eel, of the species compared. GLOD4 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in the testes of the 1Y and 3Y groups than those in the 3M group (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated that the GLOD4 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells from Tibetan sheep testes throughout the development stages. These results taken together suggest that the GLOD4 gene may be implicated in the development of the Leydig cells of Tibetan sheep during different stages of maturity.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Ovinos/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antílopes/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabras/genética , Masculino , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Diferenciação Sexual , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Tibet
10.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6374-6384, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508643

RESUMO

Data indicate that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in newborns can be partly alleviated through the supply of l-arginine (Arg) and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG). The current work aimed to explore whether Arg and NCG promote intestinal function by regulating antioxidant capacity in suckling lambs with IUGR via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathway. Forty eight newly born Hu lambs with normal weights at birth (CON) or suffering from IUGR were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 12 per group), namely, the CON, IUGR, IUGR + 1% Arg, and IUGR + 0.1% NCG groups. The animals were used for experiments from the age of day 7 to 28. Compared with the lambs in the IUGR group, the lambs in the Arg or NCG group had higher (P < 0.05) final body weights. The plasma insulin, NO, and NO synthase (NOS) concentrations in the IUGR group were higher (P < 0.05) compared with those in IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG. The jejunal level of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the IUGR lambs was greater (P < 0.05) compared with that in IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG. The plasma and jejunal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) values for the IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG group were greater (P < 0.05) compared with those for the IUGR group. Compared with the IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG lambs, the IUGR lambs had lower (P < 0.05) abundance of mRNA and protein abundance of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase (HO-1), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, inducible NOS (iNOS), and epithelial NOS (eNOS). Overall, the data suggest that the Arg or NCG supplementation to suckling lambs with IUGR enhances the intestinal function by regulating the oxidant status via the NO-dependent pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/tratamento farmacológico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/genética , Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/fisiopatologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 315, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postbiotics have been established as potential feed additive to be used in monogastric such as poultry and swine to enhance health and growth performance. However, information on the postbiotics as feed additive in ruminants is very limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of supplementation of postbiotics in newly-weaned lambs on growth performance, digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial population, blood metabolite and expression of genes related to growth and volatile fatty acid transport across the rumen epithelium. RESULTS: Postbiotic supplementation increased weight gain, feed intake, nutrient intake and nutrient digestibility of the lambs. No effect on ruminal pH and total VFA, whereas butyrate and ruminal ammonia-N concentration were improved. The lambs fed with postbiotics had higher blood total protein, urea nitrogen and glucose. However, no difference was observed in blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Postbiotics increased the population of fibre degrading bacteria but decreased total protozoa and methanogens in rumen. Postbiotics increased the mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-1 and ruminal MCT-1. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of postbiotics from L. plantarum RG14 in newly-weaned lambs improved growth performance, nutrient intake and nutrient digestibility reflected from better rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, blood metabolites and upregulation of growth and nutrient intake genes in the post-weaning lambs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Receptores da Somatotropina/metabolismo , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum , Masculino , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/sangue , Ovinos/metabolismo , Desmame
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6515-6521, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fortification of animal products with natural bioactive compounds appears to improve their quality and protects consumers against oxidation effects. An experiment was therefore conducted to examine the effects of hesperidin or naringin on milk oxidative stability, yield, composition, coagulation properties, and the fatty acid profile in dairy sheep. Thirty-six Chios ewes were assigned to four groups. A control group was fed a concentrate diet without supplementation. The other three groups were provided with the same diet further supplemented with hesperidin (6000 mg kg-1 ), naringin (6000 mg kg-1 ), or α-tocopheryl acetate (200 mg kg-1 ). The efficacy of flavonoids after a change in diet composition that lowered milk oxidation values by itself was also tested. The duration of the experiment was 28 days with alfalfa hay being the only forage source for the first 14 days, whereas after the 15th day a mixture of alfalfa hay and wheat straw (65:35) was provided. RESULTS: The oxidative stability of milk was improved after 14 days of addition of the examined flavonoids (P < 0.05). Milk malondialdehyde (MDA) values were also decreased as a result of flavonoid dietary supplementation, 14 days after the modification of the forage source. On the other hand, no significant differences in yield, chemical composition, coagulation properties, and fatty acid profile of ewe milk were observed among the treatments throughout the experiment. CONCLUSION: Enrichment of dairy ewes' diets with hesperidin and naringin might be effective in improving milk's oxidative stability without any effects on the milk's chemical composition, coagulation properties, and fatty acid profile. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Leite/química , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
13.
Theriogenology ; 138: 137-144, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352175

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of l-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on steroid hormone receptors in non-pregnant ovine endometrium. All experimental ewes were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 6), a nutrient-restricted group (n = 6), or an L-Arg supplemented nutrient-restricted group (n = 6). The effects of L-Arg on estrogen receptor α/ß (ERα/ß) and progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in the ovine endometrium were assessed. Our results showed that levels of ERß and PGR expression were significantly increased by nutrient restriction, but L-Arg counteracted the effect of nutrient restriction on ERß and PGR expression (p < 0.05). Also, expression of endometrial ERα was substantially increased (p < 0.05) by L-Arg supplementation. Furthermore, ERα/ß and PGR were mainly detected in the endometrial luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. Therefore, we isolated and identified endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) from sheep. Different concentrations of L-Arg were added to investigate the effects on ERα/ß and PGR in EECs. The expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, ERß, and PGR were significantly increased in response to low-concentration (200 µmol) L-Arg supplementation, which subsequently decreased with a high concentration (800 µmol) (p < 0.05). Otherwise, ERα expression was remarkably increased at both L-Arg concentrations in EECs (p < 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that L-Arg performed crucial roles in the regulation of ovine steroid hormone receptor expression in the endometrium. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical means for the normal function of endometrium in response to low nutrient levels.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Restrição Calórica , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Ovinos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Células Cultivadas , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes , Gravidez , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
14.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 54, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overgrazing is a major factor that causes steppe degradation in Inner Mongolian, resulting in extensive ecosystem damage. Scarcity of grass means sheep are smaller and therefore mutton and cashmere production is greatly reduced, which has resulted in massive annual economic losses. Liver is the primary metabolic organ in mammals. It is also the key source of energy supply and detoxification of metabolites in animals, has a close relationship with animal growth. However, investigations on the responses of sheep induced by consequence of overgrazing, particularly those relating to liver-related molecular mechanisms and related metabolic pathways, remain elusive. RESULTS: The body weight daily gain of sheep, immune organ indices (liver and spleen), and serum parameters related to immune response, protein synthesis and energy supply (IgG, albumin, glucose and non-esterified fatty acid) were significantly lower in the overgrazing group. Other serum parameters including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and interleukin-6 were significantly higher in the overgrazing group. For the RNA-Seq results, we identified approximately 50 differentially expressed genes, of which half of were up-regulated and the other half were down-regulated (overgrazing group versus light grazing group). Bioinformatics analysis identified two enriched KEGG pathways including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway (related to lipolysis) and ECM-receptor interaction (related to liver injury and apoptosis). Additionally, several of the down-regulated genes were related to detoxification and immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, based on the high-throughput RNA sequencing profile integrated with the results of serum biochemical analyses, consequences of lower forage availability and quality under overgrazing condition induced altered expression levels of genes participating in energy metabolism (particularly lipid metabolism) and detoxification and immune responses, causing lipolysis and impaired health status, which might be key reasons for the reduced growth performance of sheep. This investigation provides a novel foundation for the development of sheep hepatic gene interactive networks that are a response to the degraded forage availability under overgrazing condition.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Ovinos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(7): 702-708, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline (PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite (M-I) after IV administration of increasing doses of PTX to sheep. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult Merino sheep. PROCEDURES: Each sheep received 10-, 20-, and 40-mg/kg doses of PTX, IV, with a 15-day washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected before and at predetermined times after administration of each dose to determine plasma PTX and M-I concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS: No adverse effects were observed after administration of the 10- and 20-mg/kg doses. Following administration of the 40-mg/kg dose, all sheep developed tachycardia and hypersalivation and appeared agitated for approximately 4 hours. Plasma PTX concentrations considered therapeutic in other species were achieved in all sheep after administration of all 3 doses. Pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I varied in a dose-dependent linear manner. For PTX, the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), elimination half-life, and volume of distribution increased with dose and ranged from 15.67 to 94.66 h·µg/mL, 0.68 to 0.91 hours, and 0.55 to 0.66 L/kg, respectively, whereas clearance decreased with dose and ranged from 0.42 to 0.64 L/h/kg. The mean ratio of the AUC for M-I to AUC for PTX ranged from 0.38 to 0.46. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I varied in a dose-dependent linear manner in healthy sheep. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic threshold and optimal dosage for PTX in sheep.


Assuntos
Pentoxifilina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Meia-Vida , Pentoxifilina/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6241-6247, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of spineless cactus in finishing diets for lambs improves the carcass quality. However, data about its influence on meat traits is very scarce. The effects of spineless cactus inclusion in the finishing diet of lambs at four levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg-1 of dry matter, DM) in replacement of Tifton hay on the physicochemical and sensory properties of meat were studied. RESULTS: The spineless cactus modified the chemical composition increasing the protein (P < 0.001) and the fat (P < 0.01) contents of meat, presenting the greatest values in lambs fed diets with 150 and 300 g kg-1 (DM) replacing levels, respectively. However, the spineless cactus did not influence the growth performance from 23.7 to 37.3 kg of body weight (on average). In addition, colour parameters of the meat were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs, resulting in mean values of 37.55, 14.96 and 8.49 for lightness, redness and yellowness, respectively. There were no statistical differences among treatments for cooking loss and shear force, with mean values of 34.8% and 14.8 N, respectively. Finally, the sensorial properties were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs. CONCLUSION: Spineless cactus could be included up to the level of 300 g kg-1 DM in the finishing diets of lambs to increase the fat content of meat without compromising its sensorial properties. However, further studies about the fatty acid composition of meat from lambs fed diets containing spineless cactus are necessary. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
17.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(5): 1295-1302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250490

RESUMO

Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a major constraint in extensive animal production systems in the tropics and Mediterranean. The objective of this study was to characterize the amino acid profile of muscle and hepatic tissues of Australian Merino, Damara and Dorper lambs under restricted feeding to evaluate the impact of SWL at the metabolic and physiological levels. SWL induced generalized muscle protein breakdown among restricted groups of all breeds, with varying intensity. Dorper breed mobilized less muscle amino acids when under these conditions, with the Damara having frequent significant differences, namely by having lower amino acid concentrations in the muscle of restricted lambs. Damara lambs showed greater ability to catabolize branched-chain amino acids in the muscle tissue, which indicates yet another mechanism that provides the Damara with the necessary tools to endure harsh conditions. Overall, the Damara breed mobilized more muscle amino acids than the other breeds, with a better capacity to catabolize branched-chain amino acids in the muscle, while maintaining muscle structural integrity.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Privação de Alimentos , Ovinos/genética , Perda de Peso
18.
Food Chem ; 297: 124976, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253293

RESUMO

Milk fat is arguably one of the most complex fats found in nature and varies widely between animal species. Analysis of its digestion products is tremendously challenging, due to the complexity, diversity, and large range of concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and their digestion products (i.e. diacylglycerols (DAGs), monoacylglycerols (MAGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs)). Therefore, a method combined the solid phase extraction (SPE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and multi-dimension mass spectrometry (MDMS) was developed to identify and semi-quantify the TAGs, DAGs and MAGs in milk fat after in vitro digestion. Up to 105, 64, 14 and 30 species of TAGs, DAGs, MAGs, and FFAs were determined with their concentrations of 0.01-22.3, 0.01-39.2, 0.01-47.8, and 0.04-191.0 mg/g fat, respectively, during the in vitro digestion of cow and sheep milk. The validation of the method shows that this method was precise and reliable.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/análise , Leite/química , Ovinos/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/veterinária , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Diglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Monoglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
19.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(7): 267-278, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150314

RESUMO

Amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is determined by the rate of intramembranous (IM) transport of amniotic fluid (AF) across the amnion. This transport is regulated by fetal urine-derived stimulators and AF inhibitors. Our objective was to utilize a multiomics approach to determine the IM transport pathways and identify the regulators. Four groups of fetal sheep with experimentally induced alterations in IM transport rate were studied: control, urine drainage (UD), urine drainage with fluid replacement (UDR), and intra-amniotic fluid infusion (IA). Amnion, AF, and fetal urine were subjected to transcriptomics (RNA-Seq) and proteomics studies followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The analysis uncovered nine transport-associated pathways and four groups of differentially expressed transcripts and proteins. These can be categorized into mediators of vesicular uptake and endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, pathway activation and signaling, and energy metabolism. UD decreased IM transport rate and AFV in conjunction with enhanced expression of vesicular endocytosis regulators but reduced expression of intracellular trafficking mediators. With UDR, IM transport rate decreased and AFV increased. Energy metabolism activators increased while trafficking mediators decreased in expression. IA increased IM transport rate and AFV together with enhanced expressions of vesicular endocytosis and trafficking mediators. We conclude that IM transport across the amnion is regulated by multiple vesicular transcytotic and signaling pathways and that the mediators of intracellular trafficking most likely play an important role in determining the rate of IM transport. Furthermore, the motor protein cytoplasmic dynein light chain-1, which coexpressed in AF and fetal urine, may function as a urine-derived IM transport stimulator.


Assuntos
Âmnio/metabolismo , Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Feto/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Prenhez , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Bexiga Urinária/embriologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170190

RESUMO

This study describes the muscle transcriptome profile of Bandur breed, a consumer favoured, meat type sheep of India. The transcriptome was compared to the less desirable, unregistered local sheep population, in order to understand the molecular factors related to muscle traits in Indian sheep breeds. Bandur sheep have tender muscles and higher backfat thickness than local sheep. The longissimus thoracis transcriptome profiles of Bandur and local sheep were obtained using RNA sequencing (RNA Seq). The animals were male, non-castrated, with uniform age and reared under similar environment, as well as management conditions. We could identify 568 significantly up-regulated and 538 significantly down-regulated genes in Bandur sheep (p≤0.05). Among these, 181 up-regulated and 142 down-regulated genes in Bandur sheep, with a fold change ≥1.5, were considered for further analysis. Significant Gene Ontology terms for the up-regulated dataset in Bandur sheep included transporter activity, substrate specific transmembrane, lipid and fatty acid binding. The down-regulated activities in Bandur sheep were mainly related to RNA degradation, regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascades and innate immune response. The MAPK signaling pathway, Adipocytokine signaling pathway and PPAR signaling pathway were enriched for Bandur sheep. The highly connected genes identified by network analysis were CNOT2, CNOT6, HSPB1, HSPA6, MAP3K14 and PPARD, which may be important regulators of energy metabolism, cellular stress and fatty acid metabolism in the skeletal muscles. These key genes affect the CCR4-NOT complex, PPAR and MAPK signaling pathways. The highly connected genes identified in this study, form interesting candidates for further research on muscle traits in Bandur sheep.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Índia
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