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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20199, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443342

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Resistance ovary syndrome (ROS) is a disease characterized by hypergonadotropic amenorrhea but with normal ovarian reserve. Currently, its pathogenesis is still unclear and the treatment methods are complex. Nevertheless, there are evident negative effects of this disease on females' physical and mental health such as gonadal dysplasia, infertility, anxiety, and depression. This article reports a case of successful ovulation induction and pregnancy with letrozole combined with HMG. This can provide clinical treatment guidelines for the disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient underwent several hormone replacement cycles and ovulation induction cycles. But the dominant follicles were not extracted even after using large doses of gonadotropin. DIAGNOSIS: Resistant ovary syndrome; Primary infertility INTERVENTIONS:: Larger doses of letrozole combined with HMG were injected to stimulate ovulation and sensitize the ovaries during menstruation. This helped to examine the peripheral effects of letrozole in relation to gonadotropin. OUTCOMES: The patient displayed a dominant follicular growth and notable ovulation which resulted in a full-term pregnancy and successful delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The resistance ovary syndrome (ROS) can be treated and the findings from this case provides a possible treatment for ROS patients with infertility.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Gonadotropinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intramusculares/métodos , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Nascimento Vivo , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/fisiologia , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 165-175, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056416

RESUMO

An alternative hyper-ovulator inducer to replace clomiphene citrate (CC) is needed as it is unsuitable for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective hyper-ovulator inducer, but has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a hyper-ovulator inducer and to an extent compare it with CC in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, paxillin and FAK, which are uterine receptivity markers in the surface luminal uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that paxillin is localized in focal adhesions at the base of the uterine epithelial cells at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, paxillin disassembles from the basal focal adhesions and localizes and increases its expression apically. FAK is faintly expressed at the basal aspect of the uterine epithelial cells while moderately expressed at the cell-to-cell contact at day 1 in all groups from where it disassembles and relocates apically and becomes more intensely expressed at day 6 of pregnancy in untreated and anastrozole treated rats. Although paxillin is localized apically at day 6, its expression is significantly down-regulated with CC treatment suggesting its interference with the implantation process. These findings seem to suggest that anastrozole could favor implantation.


Para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno (CC) es necesario un inductor de hiperovulación alternativo, ya que no es adecuado para mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico y está asociado con tasas bajas de embarazo. El anastrozol es un inductor eficaz del hiper-ovulador, pero no se ha investigado adecuadamente. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como inductor del hiper-ovulador y, en cierta medida, compararlo con CC en situaciones similares, este estudio determinó los efectos de estos fármacos en la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, paxillin y FAK, uterinas marcadores de receptividad en la superficie luminal de células uterinas epiteliales, del día 1 y día 6 en ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la paxilina se localiza en adherencias focales en la base de las células epiteliales uterinas en el día 1 del embarazo, mientras que en el día 6, la paxilina se desmonta de las adherencias focales basales y localiza y aumenta su expresión apicalmente. FAK se expresa débilmente en el aspecto basal de las células epiteliales uterinas, mientras que se expresa moderadamente en el contacto de célula a célula en el día 1 en todos los grupos, donde se separa y se reubica apicalmente y se expresa con mayor intensidad el día 6 de la preñez, en pacientes no tratados y tratados. ratas tratadas con anastrozol. Aunque la paxillina se localiza apicalmente en el día 6, su expresión está significativamente disminuida con el tratamiento con CC, lo que sugiere su interferencia con el proceso de implantación. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol podría favorecer el proceso de implantación.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Anastrozol/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Adesões Focais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/efeitos dos fármacos , Paxilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Microscopia de Fluorescência
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18383, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of letrozole and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) in the treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) resistant to clomiphene citrate (CC). METHODS: A total of 96 clomiphene resistance polycystic ovary syndrome patients infertility were randomly divided into an LE group, and HMG group (n = 48). LE group orally received letrozole at 5.0 mg/d on the 3rd-5th days of menstrual cycle for 5 consecutive days, and 75 U/d HMG was given through intramuscular injection for 5 days starting from the third day of menstrual cycle in HMG group. Number of growing and mature follicles, serum E2 (pg/mL), serum P (ng/mL), endometrial thickness, occurrence of pregnancy and miscarriage were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the number of ovulation cycles between the 2 groups (53.6% vs 64.7%, P > .05). The number of mature follicular cycles in the HMG group was higher than that of the letrozole group (P < .01). There were no significant differences in the clinical pregnancy rate (22.9% vs 27.1%, P > .05) and abortion rate (6.2% vs 10.4%, P > .05). There was no significant difference in the endometrial thickness between the 2 groups on the day of HCG injection [(9.1 ±â€Š0.2) mm vs (10.7 ±â€Š1.6) mm, P > .05]; the serum estradiol (E2) was lower in the letrozole group. The incidence of ovarian cysts was lower than that of HMG group (P < .05). There was2 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in the letrozole group; the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in the HMG group was 12.5%. CONCLUSION: Letrozole-induced ovulation can obtain ovulation rate and pregnancy rate similar to gonadotropin, but reduce the risk associated with treatment. It can be used as an effective ovulation option for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who are resistant to clomiphene.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Menotropinas/uso terapêutico , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Clomifeno/farmacologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Cistos Ovarianos/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/induzido quimicamente , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
Life Sci ; 241: 117100, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783052

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aims to define maturation, yield, health, and ease of collection of murine immature oocytes recovered using the conventional method or from mice treated with cilostazol. MAIN METHODS: The conventional method included the superovulation of mice and the recovery of germinal vesicle (GV) or metaphase (MI) oocytes from preovulatory follicles. The cilostazol method included the oral treatment of superovulated mice with 7.5 mg cilostazol once or twice to result in the ovulation of MI or GV oocytes, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: The cilostazol method resulted in >95% of GV or MI oocytes with a diameter range of 60-90 µm or 50.1-70 µm in comparison to <60.0% of GV or MI oocytes resulting from the conventional method, respectively (P < 0.0001). The cilostazol method resulted in GV oocytes having higher levels of co-occurrence of peripheral cortical granules (CG) and chromatin configuration of surrounded nucleolus and MI oocytes having higher levels of co-occurrence of normally organized spindles/chromosomes and peripheral CG with free domains than did the conventional method (P < 0.001). The cilostazol method was more time and labor efficient and resulted in higher oocyte yields of normal morphology than did the conventional method (P < 0.01). SIGNIFICANCE: The presented method provides not only oocytes with uniform size and synchronized developmental maturation but also a technique of oocyte collection that is efficient and resourceful. It is possible that not all immature oocytes resulting from the conventional method are from preovulatory follicles nor have been developed adequately and consequently ovulated as opposed to the presented method.


Assuntos
Cilostazol/farmacologia , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 3/farmacologia , Animais , Nucléolo Celular , Núcleo Celular , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Metáfase , Camundongos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Superovulação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 288: 113373, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874135

RESUMO

Using medaka, we found that in vitro follicle ovulation, but not germinal vesicle breakdown, was inhibited by three gap junction blockers, carbenoxolone, mefloquine, and flufenamic acid. The blockers specifically inhibited follicular expression of matrix metalloproteinase-15 mRNA and the protein (mmp15/Mmp15), a protease indispensable for medaka ovulation, indicating that gap junctional communication may be required for successful ovulation and mmp15/Mmp15 expression. Further experiments using carbenoxolone as the representative of the gap junction blockers showed that expression of nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), a transcription factor required for mmp15 expression, was not affected by carbenoxolone treatment, but the formation of phosphorylated Pgr was considerably suppressed. Carbenoxolone treatment caused a decrease in the Pgr binding to the promoter region of mmp15. mRNA expression of cyclin-dependent protein kinase-9 (cdk9) and cyclin I (ccni), whose translation products are demonstrated to be involved in Pgr phosphorylation in the medaka ovulating follicles, was suppressed by carbenoxolone treatment. Transcripts of connexin 34.5 (cx34.5) and connexin 35.4 (cx35.4) were dominantly expressed in the follicle cells of ovulating follicles. The results indicate that gap junctional communication plays an important role in medaka ovulation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz/genética , Oryzias/fisiologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carbenoxolona/farmacologia , Feminino , Ácido Flufenâmico/farmacologia , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz/metabolismo , Mefloquina/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovulação/genética , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2743-2755, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882220

RESUMO

Our objectives were to test the efficacy of intravaginal (IVG) administration of PGF2α to induce corpus luteum (CL) regression, compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles in cows receiving IVG versus intramuscular (IM) treatment with PGF2α, and evaluate reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were synchronized using a Double-Ovsynch protocol [GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 1 d later PGF2α, 32 h later GnRH, 16 to 20 h timed artificial insemination (TAI)] to receive TAI at 67 ± 3 d in milk. Seven days after the first GnRH treatment (time 0), cows with at least 1 visible CL ≥15 mm were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to a treatment that consisted of IM injection (IM-PGF; n = 201) or IVG instillation (IVG-PGF; n = 201) of PGF2α. Cows in IM-PGF received a single 25-mg dose of PGF2α (dinoprost tromethamine) intramuscularly. Cows in IVG-PGF received two 25-mg doses of PGF2α 12 h apart delivered through a catheter in the cranial portion of the vagina. Blood samples were collected at 0, 12, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Ovulation to the first GnRH of Double-Ovsynch was determined through transrectal ultrasonography. Only cows with P4 ≥1 ng/mL (functional CL) at time 0 (IM-PGF = 169; IVG-PGF = 179) were included in the analyses. Binary and quantitative data were analyzed by logistic regression and ANOVA with repeated measures, respectively. Results are presented as least squares means. Concentrations of P4 and the proportion of cows with a new CL at time 0 did not differ. Overall, the proportion of cows with CL regression using 1 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 89.0%; IVG-PGF = 86.7%) or 0.5 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 82.2%; IVG-PGF = 82.1%) as the cutoff did not differ. Concentrations of P4 were affected by treatment, time, and treatment × time interaction. Cows in IVG-PGF had greater mean P4 at 12 h than cows in IM-PGF. Mean P4 did not differ at 48 or 72 h after treatment. The proportion of cows with estrus recorded within 3 d of treatment (IM-PGF = 45.4%; IVG-PGF = 48.9%), ovulation risk after treatment (IM-PGF = 88.5%; IVG-PGF = 85.1%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination after TAI (IM-PGF = 51.5%; IVG-PGF = 57.8%) did not differ. We concluded that 2 IVG doses of 25 mg of PGF2α 12 h apart were as effective as a single 25-mg IM dose of PGF2α for inducing luteal regression in lactating dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Reprodução , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Theriogenology ; 141: 26-34, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494459

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a single versus multiple doses of a 10-amino acid fragment of human (hKp) or murine (mKp) kisspeptin on LH secretion and the fate of the dominant follicle. In all experiments, a new wave was induced (Day 0) by ultrasound-guided ablation of >5 mm follicles, a progesterone device (CIDR) was placed in the vagina, animals given prostaglandin F2α analog im on Day 3.5 and 4, and hKp or mKp treatment given on Day 6. The experimental design maintained growth and ovulatory potential of the dominant follicle for 12 days and allowed hypothesis testing during the low-progesterone period (plasma progesterone ≤1.8 ng/ml on Day 6) wherein spontaneous wave emergence and ovulation did not occur between Day 6 and Day 12. In Experiment 1, heifers (n = 10/group) were given single iv dose of 45 mg hKp, 45 mg mKp, or 2 ml normal saline (control). Post-treatment plasma LH concentrations from 15 to 90 min were higher (P < 0.01) in hKp group than in the mKp and control groups. Two heifers ovulated in hKp group versus none in other groups. In Experiment 2, heifers (n = 6/group) were given 45 mg hKp over a 2 h period divided into multiple iv doses treatments or 2 ml normal saline (control). Post-treatment plasma LH concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) in all hKp treatment groups than in the control group. The ovulation rate was higher (P = 0.06) after hKp treatments (11/18) than in the control group (0/6). In Experiment 3, heifers (n = 6/group) were given 45 mg mKp over a 2 h period divided into multiple iv doses treatments or a single iv dose of gonadorelin acetate (positive control). Plasma LH concentration was higher (P < 0.01) and the ovulation rate was greater (P = 0.01) in the GnRH group (5/6) than mKp groups (1/12). In summary, hKp was more effective to induce ovulation than mKp. Human kisspeptin-10 given over a 2 h period induced ovulations at a rate similar to that of GnRH treatment in heifers under a low plasma progesterone state.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/sangue , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Kisspeptinas/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Camundongos , Progesterona/metabolismo
8.
Theriogenology ; 141: 202-210, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606718

RESUMO

The present study tested the hypothesis that administration of GnRH on day 5 of the estrous cycle in embryo transfer (ET) recipients would increase progesterone (P4) concentrations, embryo size, and improve fertility. Holstein and cross-bred Holstein heifers (n = 1562) were synchronized using a modified 5-day CIDR-Synch protocol as follows (All AM treatments): D-8, CIDR inserted; D-3, CIDR removed and PGF2α (500 µg cloprostenol) treatment; D-2, second PGF2α; D0, GnRH (G1, 100 µg gonadorelin acetate) to induce ovulation. On D5 in the afternoon, heifers were assigned in a completely randomized design to one of two treatments: Control (untreated) or GnRH (200 µg). Transfer of day 7 fresh IVP embryos was performed between D6 and D8 after G1. Data collected from each heifer included: embryo stage and quality, body condition score, technician performing ET, interval from G1 to ET, and number of previous transfers. All heifers were evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography on D5, D33, and D60 and a subset of heifers was scanned on D12 (n = 718; to determine ovulation to treatment) and another subset on D33 (n = 295; 16 s video to determine embryo and amniotic vesicle size). Serum P4 was determined from a subset of heifers on D12 (n = 467) and on D21 (n = 837) and pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) on D28 (n = 843). Pregnancies per ET (P/ET) were analyzed by logistic regression and continuous outcomes by ANOVA. Ovulation to D5 GnRH, defined by the presence of an accessory CL on D12, was 83.9% (302/360) in GnRH-treated heifers vs. 3.3% (12/358) in Controls (P < 0.001). On D12, P4 was greater (P < 0.001) in GnRH-treated heifers (7.2 ±â€¯0.1 ng/ml) vs Controls (6.0 ±â€¯0.1 ng/ml). There was greater P/ET at D33 and D60 of pregnancy for Stage 7 than Stage 6 embryos. Treatment with GnRH did not alter P/ET with either embryo stage but decreased pregnancy loss between D33 and D60 in heifers receiving Stage 7 embryos. Presence of an accessory CL at the D33 pregnancy diagnosis was associated with a larger reduction in pregnancy loss from D33 to D60 in recipients of Stage 7 embryos (11.6 vs 27.6%). Although there was no GnRH effect on embryo size, the presence of an accessory CL was associated (P < 0.05) with larger amniotic vesicle volume in recipients of Stage 7 embryos. In addition, greater PSPB was linked to greater amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.01) and to reduced pregnancy loss (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH on D5 caused ovulation and formation of an accessory CL, increased circulating P4, and reduced pregnancy loss in heifers receiving a Stage 7 but not a Stage 6 IVP embryo.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Bovinos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Progesterona/sangue
9.
Theriogenology ; 142: 276-283, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708195

RESUMO

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, also called NR1C3) is a nuclear receptor of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family (PPAR). PPARs are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, estradiol and progesterone synthesis, and metabolism. However, the role of PPARs and their regulation during follicular development and ovulation in monovular species remain poorly understood. In this study, a well-established intrafollicular injection model was used to investigate if the PPARG participates in the regulation of dominant follicle development and ovulation in cattle. Findings from this study revealed that the relative mRNA abundance of PPARG was similar between dominant and subordinate follicles around follicle deviation, decreased after the LH surge, and increased before ovulation. In addition, a quadratic correlation was found between PPARG mRNA levels in granulosa cells and progesterone concentration in the follicular fluid. Intrafollicular injection of 50 µM Troglitazone (TGZ; a PPARG agonist) inhibited follicular growth and decreased CYP19A1 mRNA abundance in granulosa cells. These findings indicate that PPARG is involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis, follicle growth and ovulation in cattle.


Assuntos
Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Troglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/genética , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/genética , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 211: 106209, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785631

RESUMO

In seasonally anestrous goat does, ovulations can be induced by combining a treatment regimen including progestagen, eCG and prostaglandins. Nonetheless, ovulations occur only once and then does return to a seasonally anestrous state. This study was performed to determine whether the presence of a sexually active buck can stimulate a second ovulation after induced luteolysis using prostaglandins following the first ovulation. Three groups of seasonally anestrous does were treated to induce ovulations using an intra-vaginally inserted sponge containing a progestin combined with eCG and prostaglandin administrations. Goats that had ovulations were treated with a prostaglandin 11 days after progestin sponge removal. After the prostaglandin injection, does continued to be isolated from bucks (n = 8), were penned with a control buck (n = 9), or were penned with a sexually active buck (n = 10). The proportion of goats having ovulations after imposing the ovulation-induction protocol was greater than 80% and did not differ among treatment groups (P >  0.05). The proportion of does having ovulations after injecting prostaglandins was greater when does were penned with a sexually active buck (8/10) than does penned with a control buck (0/9) or that were isolated from bucks (0/8; P < 0.05). It is concluded that in seasonally anestrous goat does induced to have ovulations using a hormonal treatment regimen, the presence of a sexually active buck can induce a second ovulation when there is an induced luteolysis.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Acetato de Fluorogestona/farmacologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Prostaglandinas/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Acetato de Fluorogestona/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Fotoperíodo , Prostaglandinas/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Sexual Animal
11.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 211: 106226, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785634

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intra-follicular (i.f.) treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on follicular and luteal development in cows. There were 18 non-lactating cows assigned to two groups to address this aim: control group (n = 9), which received an i.f. injection of saline; and LPS group (n = 9), which received an i.f. injection of 1 µg of LPS per mL of follicular fluid. Cows were treated with an intravaginal P4 releasing device (IVD) and estradiol benzoate on D0. On D4 and D5 cows were treated with cloprostenol sodium and on D7 the IVD was removed. At 12 h after IVD removal, cows were administered the i.f. injection of LPS or saline. After administration of these treatments, follicular development was evaluated every 12 h until ovulation. The LPS treatment increased blood flow in pre-ovulatory follicles (P = 0.05). Follicle growth was reduced by LPS injection (P < 0.02) resulting a longer period to the time of ovulation for cows in the LPS than control group (P = 0.03). The percentage of cows having ovulations was less for the LPS than control group (P = 0.03). The diameter of the CL, CL blood flow and P4 concentrations 5 and 12 days after ovulation did not differ between groups (P> 0.05). In conclusion, intra-follicular treatment with LPS resulted in a decreased rate of follicle growth, delayed timing of ovulations and a lesser number of cows having ovulations.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Injeções , Progesterona/sangue
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887207

RESUMO

We hypothesized that heat-induced perturbations in cumulus cells surrounding the maturing oocyte may extend to the mural granulosa of the periovulatory follicle in the heat-stressed cow to subsequently the follicular fluid proteome. Lactating Holsteins were pharmacologically stimulated to have a dominant follicle that was capable of responding to a gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone surge. Following gonadotropin releasing hormone administration, cows were maintained at ~67 temperature humidity index (THI; thermoneutral conditions) or exposed to conditions simulating an acute heat stress event (71 to 86 THI; heat stress for ~12 h). Dominant follicle collection was conducted in the periovulatory period ~16 h after gonadotropin releasing hormone. Follicular fluid proteome from thermoneutral (n = 5) and hyperthermic (n = 5) cows was evaluated by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS). We identified 35 differentially-abundant proteins. Functional annotation revealed numerous immune-related proteins. Subsequent efforts revealed an increase in levels of the proinflammatory mediator bradykinin in follicular fluid (P = 0.0456) but not in serum (P = 0.9319) of hyperthermic cows. Intrafollicular increases in transferrin (negative acute phase protein) in hyperthermic cows (P = 0.0181) coincided with a tendency for levels to be increased in the circulation (P = 0.0683). Nine out of 15 cytokines evaluated were detected in follicular fluid. Heat stress increased intrafollicular interleukin 6 levels (P = 0.0160). Whether hyperthermia-induced changes in the heat-stressed cow's follicular fluid milieu reflect changes in mural granulosa, cumulus, other cell types secretions, and/or transudative changes from circulation remains unclear. Regardless of origin, heat stress/hyperthermia related changes in the follicular fluid milieu may have an impact on components important for ovulation and competence of the cumulus-oocyte complex contained within the periovulatory follicle.


Assuntos
Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Proteoma/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bradicinina/análise , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Lactação/fisiologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tennessee , Transferrina/análise , Transferrina/metabolismo
13.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 95, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by hyperactivity of the ovarian sympathetic nervous system, increases in the content and release of norepinephrine, as well as decreases in the number of ß-adrenoreceptors. In the present study, ß-adrenoreceptors in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome were blocked and analyzed the resultant effects on ovulation, hormone secretion and the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of catecholamines. METHODS: At 60 days of age, vehicle or estradiol valerate-treated rats were injected with propranolol [10- 4 M] into the ovarian bursas on oestrus day. The animals were sacrificed on the next day of oestrus, and the ovulation response, the steroid hormone levels in the serum and the immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine ß-hydroxylase in the ovaries were measured. RESULTS: In animals with the induction of polycystic ovary syndrome and ß-adrenoreceptor blocking, ovulation was restored in more than half of the animals and resulted in decreased hyperandrogenism with respect to the levels observed in the estradiol valerate-treated group. Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine ß-hydroxylase were present in the theca cells of the growing follicles and the interstitial gland. Injection of propranolol restored the tyrosine hydroxylase and ovarian dopamine ß-hydroxylase levels in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome induction. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a single injection into the ovarian bursas of propranolol, a nonselective antagonist of ß-adrenoreceptor receptors, decreases the serum testosterone concentration and the formation of ovarian cysts, improving the ovulation rate that accompanies lower levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine ß-hydroxylase in the ovary.


Assuntos
Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Propranolol/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Estradiol , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Testosterona/sangue , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20267-20273, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570579

RESUMO

The ovulatory homolog model of female orgasm posits that the neuro-endocrine mechanisms underlying female orgasm evolved from and are homologous to the mechanisms mediating copulation-induced ovulation in some mammals. This model predicts that pharmacological agents that affect human orgasm, such as fluoxetine, should also affect ovulation in animals with copulation-induced ovulation, such as rabbits. We tested this prediction by treating rabbits with daily doses of fluoxetine for 2 wk and found that fluoxetine treatment reduces the number of ovulations postcopulation by 30%. In a second experiment we tested whether this result was mediated by an effect on the brain or via peripheral serotonin functions. We treated animals with fluoxetine and induced ovulation with a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. In this experiment ovulation rate was nominally reduced by only 8%, which is statistically not significant. We conclude that the effect of fluoxetine on copulation-induced ovulation rate supports the ovulatory homolog model of female orgasm, suggesting that female orgasm has very deep evolutionary roots among the early eutherian mammals.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Copulação/fisiologia , Feminino , Fluoxetina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ovulação/fisiologia , Coelhos , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia
15.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106137, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514927

RESUMO

To evaluate follicular dynamics, there was assessment of superovulatory response and in vivo embryo production in ewes treated with relatively smaller doses of exogenous pFSH than typically used in combination with a dose of eCG at the beginning of the gonadotropin treatment period. Santa Inês ewes (n = 24) were randomly divided into three groups, based on mg dose of pFSH administered: G200 (n = 8), G133 (n = 8) and G100 (n = 8) in eight decreasing doses at 12 -h intervals. All ewes were treated with 300 IU of eCG concomitantly starting with first pFSH administration. Ovulatory follicular dynamics and follicular wall vascularization (FWV) were evaluated using a B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonic machine, respectively. Superovulatory response and embryo production were evaluated 6 days after estrous detection. In the G200 group, the preovulatory follicle size (PFS) were less (P <  0.05), ovulation time later (P <  0.05), and PFS rate greater (P <  0.05); while in the G100 group ovulation rate, and number and percentage of unfertilized eggs were greater (P <  0.05) than in the G133 group (P <  0.05). Number and percentage of viable embryos were greater in the G200 and G100 compared to G133 group (P <  0.05). The dose of 100 mg of FSH was as efficacious as the traditional dose of 200 mg, in combination with a dose of eCG, for superovulatory response and viable embryo production but there was a greater percentage of unfertilized eggs with this treatment.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Indução da Ovulação , Ovinos , Animais , Brasil , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/irrigação sanguínea , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez , Ovinos/embriologia , Superovulação/fisiologia , Clima Tropical
16.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106172, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514929

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of two administrations of d-cloprostenol at different intervals to synchronize the time of estrus and ovulation among estrous cyclic goats. In Experiment 1, 32 does were treated with 30 µg d-cloprostenol at 7.5 (T7.5, n = 16) or 11.5-day (T11.5, n = 16) intervals. In Experiment 2, the same treatments were administered and there was AI of the does (T7.5, n = 40 and T11.5, n = 38). In Experiment 1, ultrasonic assessments of ovaries were conducted at the time of the second administration of d-cloprostenol, every 12 h until detection of ovulation, and 7 days after estrous onset to detect the corpora lutea, as well as for pregnancy diagnosis 40 days after AI. In Experiment 1, the estrous response (90.6%, 29/32) was similar (P > 0.05) in both groups. Diameter of the largest follicle at the time of administration of the second dose was larger (P = 0.01) in the T7.5 than T11.5 group (7.0 compared with 5.7 mm), while the values for ovarian variables were similar (P > 0.05). In Experiment 2, the greatest (P < 0.001) synchrony in timing of initiation of estrus in does (T7.5 = 83.3% and T11.5 = 50.0%) occurred after the second day (36-48 h). The pregnancy rate tended (P = 0.0836) to be greater for does in the T7.5 (71.4%, 40/56) than T11.5 (55.6%, 30/54) group. With use of both protocols, there were acceptable estrous synchronization and pregnancy rates in estrous cyclic dairy goats.


Assuntos
Cloprostenol/administração & dosagem , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Cabras , Inseminação Artificial , Taxa de Gravidez , Prenhez , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Esquema de Medicação/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Prenhez/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106141, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514931

RESUMO

This study aimed to minimize the number of times cattle need to be confined during protocols for TAI in beef cows treated for induction of ovulation with EB at the time of P4 device removal (P4r). In Experiment 1, cows were treated with P4 plus EB (Day 0; AM) and were allocated to one of three groups at P4r: EB8.5, EB at P4r on Day 8.5 (PM; three confinements); EB9, EB 24 h after P4r on Day 8 (AM; four confinements) and EC8, EC at P4r on Day 8 (AM; positive control; three confinements). At P4r, cows were treated with PGF2a plus eCG. Ultrasonography was performed from D8 to D12. The interval from P4r to ovulation was less in the EB8.5 compared to EB9 and EC8 group. There was no difference in the ovulation rate between groups. The variability of ovulation was greater in the EB8.5 and EC8 compared to EB9 group. In Experiment 2, cows of EC8 and EB9 groups were submitted to TAI 48 to 52 h (AM) or 54 to 58 h (PM) after P4r (D10). Cows of the EB8.5 group were submitted to TAI 38 to 42 h (AM) or 44 to 48 h (PM) after P4r (D10). There was no interaction between treatments and timing of AI and no treatment effect and timing of AI on P/AI. In conclusion, the delay compared to what typically occurs by 10 h of P4r concomitant with EB administration (Day 8.5) reduced the frequency of animal confinement for the TAI protocol without affecting the reproductive efficiency and the flexibility to perform the TAI in suckled beef cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Inseminação Artificial , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Indução da Ovulação , Animais , Remoção de Dispositivo/veterinária , Estradiol/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514932

RESUMO

Haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) are the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare. To enhance understanding of the physiopathology of HAFs, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of an induced-follicular wave on LH concentrations and follicular fluid factors relevant to the ovulatory process. Mares were allocated to treatment or control groups (n = 7/group) in a crossed over design during 14 oestrous cycles with a period of one cycle occurring when there were no treatments between the times when treatments were administered. In the treatment group, all antral follicles ≥8 mm were ablated on Day 10 after ovulation followed by administration of a luteolytic dose of PGF2α. All mares of both groups were treated with 1500 IU of hCG when a follicle ≥32 mm was detected (Hour 0), and follicular fluid was aspirated 35 h later. Blood samples were collected every 48 h from Day 10 until Hour 0 from all mares. Follicular fluid was assayed for PGE2, estradiol and progesterone. Plasma was assayed for LH concentrations. A follicular wave followed follicle ablation in the treated mares. Concentrations of LH were greater (P = 0.05) in mares ot the treatment compared with control group. Concentrations of PGE2, estradiol and progesterone in follicular fluid did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Treatment resulted in an earlier increase in circulating LH, however, there was no effect on concentrations of intra-follicular PGE2, estradiol or progesterone in hCG-stimulated preovulatory follicles.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Anovulação/cirurgia , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Cavalos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/veterinária , Animais , Anovulação/complicações , Anovulação/metabolismo , Anovulação/veterinária , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/química , Líquido Folicular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Punções/métodos , Punções/veterinária , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(11): 1567-1574, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527339

RESUMO

Follicle development in post-weaning sows is influenced by various factors. To control ovulation time using hormone, factors that influence ovulation should be investigated. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of GnRH (buserelin) administration in relation to season and sow parameters on ovulation time in weaned sows. Seventy-seven weaned sows were divided into the following groups: control (hot season, n=21; cool season, n=16) and treatment (hot season, n=22; cool season, n=18). Sows were kept in a close house equipped with an evaporative cooling system. Ovulation time was determined every 6 hr using transrectal ultrasonography. Administration of 10 µg buserelin at 72 hr after weaning affected estrus-to-ovulation interval (EOI) and weaning-to-ovulation interval (WOI) in sows (P<0.05). The percentage of sows that ovulated between 44-56 hr after injection was higher in the cool season than in hot season (P<0.05). Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) and injection-to-estrus interval (IEI) were affected by season (P<0.05). Body condition score (BCS) of sows influenced EOI (P<0.01). Sows with low backfat thickness, lactation length <20 days, or litter weight ≥67 kg, had delayed injection-to-ovulation interval (P<0.05). In conclusions, buserelin administration (10 µg, at 72 hr after weaning) advanced ovulation. Hot season prolonged ovulation time. Sows that were weaned with lactation length of at least 20 days, litter weight less than 67 kg, or BCS of at least 3, had better responses to buserelin injection. High backfat reserve after weaning is important for ovulation induction response by buserelin injection.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Ovulação/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561408

RESUMO

Progesterone is widely used to induce maturation of isolated fully grown oocytes of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. However, the hormone fails to release oocytes from the layer of surrounding follicle cells. Here, we report that maturation and follicle rupture can be recapitulated in vitro by treating isolated follicular oocytes with progesterone and low doses of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), collagenase, which are ineffective in the absence of the steroid. Using this in vitro ovulation model, we demonstrate that germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte liberation from ovarian follicles occur synchronously during ovulation. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway in these experimental settings suppresses both GVBD and follicular rupture, whereas inhibition of MMP activity delays follicular rupture without affecting GVBD. These results highlight importance of MAPK and MMP activities in the ovulation process and provide the first evidence for their involvement in the release of oocytes from ovarian follicles in frogs. The in vitro ovulation model developed in our study can be employed for further dissection of ovulation.


Assuntos
Oócitos/fisiologia , Ovulação , Xenopus laevis/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual
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