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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 597, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (awake-PP) in non-intubated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients could avoid endotracheal intubation, reduce the use of critical care resources, and improve survival. We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, adjusted observational cohort study in consecutive COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) receiving respiratory support with HFNO from 12 March to 9 June 2020. Patients were classified as HFNO with or without awake-PP. Logistic models were fitted to predict treatment at baseline using the following variables: age, sex, obesity, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, APACHE-II, C-reactive protein, days from symptoms onset to HFNO initiation, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation. We compared data on demographics, vital signs, laboratory markers, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, days to intubation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality between HFNO patients with and without awake-PP. RESULTS: A total of 1076 patients with COVID-19 ARF were admitted, of which 199 patients received HFNO and were analyzed. Fifty-five (27.6%) were pronated during HFNO; 60 (41%) and 22 (40%) patients from the HFNO and HFNO + awake-PP groups were intubated. The use of awake-PP as an adjunctive therapy to HFNO did not reduce the risk of intubation [RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.53-1.43), p = 0.60]. Patients treated with HFNO + awake-PP showed a trend for delay in intubation compared to HFNO alone [median 1 (interquartile range, IQR 1.0-2.5) vs 2 IQR 1.0-3.0] days (p = 0.055), but awake-PP did not affect 28-day mortality [RR 1.04 (95% CI 0.40-2.72), p = 0.92]. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with HFNO, the use of awake-PP did not reduce the need for intubation or affect mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Vigília , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Medição de Risco
2.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 301, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum unrelated to mechanical ventilation is a newly described complication of COVID-19 pneumonia. The objective of this case presentation is to highlight an important complication and to explore potential predisposing risk factors and possible underlying pathophysiology of this phenomenon. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema without positive pressure ventilation. Both patients had multiple comorbidities, received a combination of antibiotics, steroids and supportive oxygen therapy, and underwent routine laboratory workup. Both patients then developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum and ultimately required intubation and mechanical ventilation, which proved to be challenging to manage. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a serious complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, of which clinicians should be aware. Further studies are needed to determine risk factors and laboratory data predictive of development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumopericárdio/etiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico , Enfisema Mediastínico/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumopericárdio/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Radiografia Torácica , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928787

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 can lead to severe illness with COVID-19. Outcomes of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are poor. Awake proning in COVID-19 improves oxygenation, but on data clinical outcomes is limited. This single-centre retrospective study aimed to assess whether successful awake proning of patients with COVID-19, requiring respiratory support (continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)) on a respiratory high-dependency unit (HDU), is associated with improved outcomes. HDU care included awake proning by respiratory physiotherapists. Of 565 patients admitted with COVID-19, 71 (12.6%) were managed on the respiratory HDU, with 48 of these (67.6%) requiring respiratory support. Patients managed with CPAP alone 22/48 (45.8%) were significantly less likely to die than patients who required transfer onto HFNO 26/48 (54.2%): CPAP mortality 36.4%; HFNO mortality 69.2%, (p=0.023); however, multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing age and the inability to awake prone were the only independent predictors of COVID-19 mortality. The mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support is considerable. Data from our cohort managed on HDU show that CPAP and awake proning are possible in a selected population of COVID-19, and may be useful. Further prospective studies are required.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Vigília
5.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520951040, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865072

RESUMO

Spontaneous epistaxis in patients with COVID-19 can represent a clinical challenge with respect to both the risk of contamination and the treatment options. We herein present the data of 30 patients with COVID-19 who developed spontaneous epistaxis while hospitalized at Eastern Piedmont Hospital during March and April 2020. All patients received low-molecular-weight heparin during their hospital stay and required supplementary oxygen therapy either by a nasal cannula or continuous positive airway pressure. Both conditions can represent risk factors for developing epistaxis. Prevention of crust formation in patients with rhinitis using a nasal lubricant should be recommended. If any treatment is required, appropriate self-protection is mandatory.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Epistaxe/patologia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Cânula , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Epistaxe/virologia , Feminino , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/lesões , Pandemias
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1009-1017, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When patients with a tracheostomy tube reach a stage in their care at which decannulation appears to be possible, it is common practice to cap the tracheostomy tube for 24 hours to see whether they can breathe on their own. Whether this approach to establishing patient readiness for decannulation leads to better outcomes than one based on the frequency of airway suctioning is unclear. METHODS: In five intensive care units (ICUs), we enrolled conscious, critically ill adults who had a tracheostomy tube; patients were eligible after weaning from mechanical ventilation. In this unblinded trial, patients were randomly assigned either to undergo a 24-hour capping trial plus intermittent high-flow oxygen therapy (control group) or to receive continuous high-flow oxygen therapy with frequency of suctioning being the indicator of readiness for decannulation (intervention group). The primary outcome was the time to decannulation, compared by means of the log-rank test. Secondary outcomes included decannulation failure, weaning failure, respiratory infections, sepsis, multiorgan failure, durations of stay in the ICU and hospital, and deaths in the ICU and hospital. RESULTS: The trial included 330 patients; the mean (±SD) age of the patients was 58.3±15.1 years, and 68.2% of the patients were men. A total of 161 patients were assigned to the control group and 169 to the intervention group. The time to decannulation was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (median, 6 days [interquartile range, 5 to 7] vs. 13 days [interquartile range, 11 to 14]; absolute difference, 7 days [95% confidence interval, 5 to 9]). The incidence of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis was lower, and the duration of stay in the hospital shorter, in the intervention group than in the control group. Other secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Basing the decision to decannulate on suctioning frequency plus continuous high-flow oxygen therapy rather than on 24-hour capping trials plus intermittent high-flow oxygen therapy reduced the time to decannulation, with no evidence of a between-group difference in the incidence of decannulation failure. (REDECAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02512744.).


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo , Oxigenoterapia , Sucção , Traqueostomia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame do Respirador
7.
Emerg Med J ; 37(9): 565-566, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748797

RESUMO

We report the experience of prone ventilation in selected patients treated with helmet non-invasive ventilation (NIV) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute respiratory failure in COVID-19 pneumonia. Preliminary results showed an improvement in the PaO2 value and PaO2/FiO2 ratio after 1 hour of prone ventilation. No variation of the lung ultrasound pattern before and after prone ventilation has been detected. At the time of writing, we attempted proning with helmet NIV CPAP in 10 patients. In 4 out of 10 patients, the attempt failed due to lack of compliance of the patient, scarce pain control even with ongoing treatment and refusal by the patient to prone positioning.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Decúbito Ventral , Insuficiência Respiratória , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747596
9.
Am J Ther ; 27(5): e485-e490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 4.4 million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths partly through acute respiratory distress syndrome with propensity to affect African American and Hispanic communities disproportionately. Patients with worse outcomes have exhibited higher blood plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Activation of the vitamin D receptor expressed on immune cells has been shown to directly reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6, and indirectly affect C-reactive protein. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: The significance of the vitamin D pathway in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. THERAPEUTIC INNOVATION: Vitamin D supplementation in patients after diagnosis of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS: We report 4 vitamin D deficient patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in April 2020 who were provided with either cholecalciferol of 1000 IU daily (standard dose) or ergocalciferol 50,000 IU daily for 5 days (high dose) as part of supplementation. CLINICAL OUTCOMES: Patients that received a high dose of vitamin D supplementation achieved normalization of vitamin D levels and improved clinical recovery evidenced by shorter lengths of stay, lower oxygen requirements, and a reduction in inflammatory marker status. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation may serve as a viable alternative for curtailing acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients in underserved communities where resources to expensive and sought-after medications may be scarce. Randomized clinical trials will serve as an appropriate vessel to validate the efficacy of the therapeutic regimen and dissection of the pathway.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21537, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756204

RESUMO

In head and neck surgery where the oropharyngeal area is the operative field, postoperative respiratory depression and upper airway obstruction are common. Therefore, supplemental oxygen is administered to prevent severe postoperative early hypoxemia. However, a high concentration of oxygen increases the likelihood of secondary complications, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis. Nasal high-flow (NHF) therapy generates high flows (≤60 L/min) of heated and humidified gas delivered via nasal cannula and provides respiratory support by generating positive airway pressure, clearance of dead space and reduction of work of breathing. This study aims to determine whether the postoperative hypoxemia and hypercapnia can be prevented by NHF without the requirement of supplemental oxygen. The study will recruit adult patients undergoing planned oral surgery under general anesthesia at Nagasaki University Hospital. It is a randomized parallel group comparative study with 3 groups: NHF with room air only and no supplemental oxygen, no respiratory support, and face mask oxygen administration. The study protocol will begin at the time that the patient is returned to the general ward and will finish 3 hours later. The primary endpoint is the time-weighted average of transcutaneous O2 over the 180 minutes and secondary endpoints are the time-weighted average of transcutaneous CO2 (tcpCO2), SpO2, and respiratory rate, incidence rate of marked hypercapnia (tcpCO2 ≥60 mm Hg for 5 minutes or longer), incidence rate of moderate hypercapnia (tcpCO2 ≥50 mm Hg for 5 minutes or longer) and the percentage of time that SpO2 is <90%. Included also is a group in which the postoperative management is performed only by spontaneous breathing without performing respiratory support such as oxygen administration, to investigate the efficacy and necessity of conventional oxygen administration. This exploratory study will investigate the use of NHF without supplemental oxygen as an effective respiratory support during the acute postoperative period. TRIAL REGISTRATION:: The study was registered the jRCTs072200018. URL https://jrct.niph.go.jp/latest-detail/jRCTs072200018.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Hipercapnia/prevenção & controle , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Cânula , Humanos , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Operatório , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21597, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan in late 2019, controversy on the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 has obtained increasing attention. We present 1 critically ill patient who had a rapid therapeutic response to moderate-dose corticosteroids. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old critically ill woman from Wuhan suffered with COVID-19. DIAGNOSIS: The chest computed tomography scan was suggestive of COVID-19. The diagnosis was confirmed by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. The critically ill status was characterized by worsening dyspnea, progressing bilateral lung consolidation, and poor oxygenation (SiO2/FiO2:110 mm Hg). INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with a moderate dose of intravenous corticosteroids and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. OUTCOMES: After the initiation of corticosteroids, the patient rapidly improved over the following 6 days. Serial chest computed tomography scans showed good absorption of the consolidations. The patient was discharged on Day 17 of hospitalization without obvious adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Early use of moderate-dose corticosteroids over a short period may enhance recovery from COVID-19 in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 489, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is being increasingly used to prevent post-extubation hypoxemic respiratory failure and reintubation. However, evidence to support the use of HFNC in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure after extubation is limited. This study was conducted to test if HFNC is non-inferior to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in preventing post-extubation treatment failure in COPD patients previously intubated for hypercapnic respiratory failure. METHODS: COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were already receiving invasive ventilation were randomized to HFNC or NIV at extubation at two large tertiary academic teaching hospitals. The primary endpoint was treatment failure, defined as either resumption of invasive ventilation or switching to the other study treatment modality (NIV for patients in the NFNC group or vice versa). RESULTS: Ninety-six patients were randomly assigned to the HFNC group or NIV group. After secondary exclusion, 44 patients in the HFNC group and 42 patients in the NIV group were included in the analysis. The treatment failure rate in the HFNC group was 22.7% and 28.6% in the NIV group-risk difference of - 5.8% (95% CI, - 23.8-12.4%, p = 0.535), which was significantly lower than the non-inferior margin of 9%. Analysis of the causes of treatment failure showed that treatment intolerance in the HFNC group was significantly lower than that in the NIV group, with a risk difference of - 50.0% (95% CI, - 74.6 to - 12.9%, p = 0.015). One hour after extubation, the mean respiratory rates of both groups were faster than their baseline levels before extubation (p < 0.050). Twenty-four hours after extubation, the respiratory rate of the HFNC group had returned to baseline, but the NIV group was still higher than the baseline. Forty-eight hours after extubation, the respiratory rates of both groups were not significantly different from the baseline. The average number of daily airway care interventions in the NIV group was 7 (5-9.3), which was significantly higher than 6 (4-7) times in the HFNC group (p = 0.006). The comfort score and incidence of nasal and facial skin breakdown of the HFNC group was also significantly better than that of the NIV group [7 (6-8) vs 5 (4-7), P < 0.001] and [0 vs 9.6%, p = 0.027], respectively. CONCLUSION: Among COPD patients with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure who received invasive ventilation, the use of HFNC after extubation did not result in increased rates of treatment failure compared with NIV. HFNC also had better tolerance and comfort than NIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: chictr.org ( ChiCTR1800018530 ). Registered on 22 September 2018, http://www.chictr.org.cn/usercenter.aspx.


Assuntos
Extubação , Cânula , Ventilação de Alta Frequência/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Falha de Tratamento
13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847947

RESUMO

Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission.This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 10 March 2020 to 24 April 2020 with moderate-to-severe respiratory failure treated with HFNT. Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female, 53 (50.96%) were African-American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. Saturation to fraction ratio and chest X-ray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital-associated/ventilator-associated pneumonia was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of pneumonia was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group. CONCLUSION: HFNT use is associated with a reduction in the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation and overall mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cânula , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pulsoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): e1045-e1053, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing time to mechanical ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula use may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019. We examined the impact of time to intubation and use of high-flow nasal cannula on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Six coronavirus disease 2019-specific ICUs across four university-affiliated hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia. PATIENTS: Adults with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who received high-flow nasal cannula or mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 231 patients admitted to the ICU, 109 (47.2%) were treated with high-flow nasal cannula and 97 (42.0%) were intubated without preceding high-flow nasal cannula use. Of those managed with high-flow nasal cannula, 78 (71.6%) ultimately received mechanical ventilation. In total, 175 patients received mechanical ventilation; 44.6% were female, 66.3% were Black, and the median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 56-75 yr). Seventy-six patients (43.4%) were intubated within 8 hours of ICU admission, 57 (32.6%) between 8 and 24 hours of admission, and 42 (24.0%) greater than or equal to 24 hours after admission. Patients intubated within 8 hours were more likely to have diabetes, chronic comorbidities, and higher admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Mortality did not differ by time to intubation (≤ 8 hr: 38.2%; 8-24 hr: 31.6%; ≥ 24 hr: 38.1%; p = 0.7), and there was no association between time to intubation and mortality in adjusted analysis. Similarly, there was no difference in initial static compliance, duration of mechanical ventilation, or ICU length of stay by timing of intubation. High-flow nasal cannula use prior to intubation was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019, neither time from ICU admission to intubation nor high-flow nasal cannula use were associated with increased mortality. This study provides evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure can be managed similarly to hypoxic respiratory failure of other etiologies.


Assuntos
Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Cânula/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 823-826, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769659

RESUMO

Recent evidence supports the use of an early, short course of glucocorticoids in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation or oxygen support. As the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases continues to increase, the number of pregnant women with the disease is very likely to increase as well. Because pregnant women are at increased risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation support, obstetricians will be facing the dilemma of initiating maternal corticosteroid therapy while weighing its potential adverse effects on the fetus (or neonate if the patient is postpartum and breastfeeding). Our objective is to summarize the current evidence supporting steroid therapy in the management of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19 and to elaborate on key modifications for the pregnant patient.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Glucocorticoides , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/classificação , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Medição de Risco
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 15946-15953, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic. Despite the extensive studies aiming to understand the pathology of COVID-19, the clinicopathological characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 remain mostly unclear. In this study, we assessed the clinical course and features of COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: There were 59 patients (54.1%) that had no fever. One-hundred(91.7%) patients required oxygen therapy, which improved percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2). Seventy-two (66.1%) patients aged over 60; these patients were more likely to develop respiratory symptoms. Only 13(11.9%) patients were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, and computed tomography (CT) findings. We found significant differences in age, respiratory symptoms, and heart rates between patients with and without underlying conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that oxygen plays an important role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and that age and underlying diseases are significant risk factors for COVID-19. Most COVID-19 patients have no fever, and CT provides higher detection rates than antibody- and nucleic acid-based detection methods. METHODS: We analyzed data from 109 confirmed COVID-19 cases. We compared the clinicopathological characteristic of patients stratified according to age and underlying diseases, as well as assessed the detection rates of different diagnostic methods.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
18.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(2): 168-174, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755117

RESUMO

In recent years, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a respiratory support system that has become prominent in the treatment of respiratory failure. HFNC provides higher concentration and flow of oxygen, resulting in decreasing anatomic dead space by preventing rebreathing and ensure positive end-expiratory. However, in COVID-19, the usage of HFNC is much controversial due to concerns about the benefits and risk of aerosol-dispersion. Considering the debates about the use of HFNC, we reviewed the literature related to the usage of HFNC in COVID-19. The available reports suggest that HFNC provides high concentrations of oxygen to the patients, who can not reach with conventional devices. HFNC can reduce the requiring of intubation in patients with COVID-19, and it can decrease the length of intensive care unit stay, and complications related to mechanical ventilation. Also HFNC can in achieving apneic oxygenation in patients during airway management. Besides that, the use of high-flow oxygen cannulas can produce aerosols. So, HFNC treatment should be carried out in a negative pressure room; when it is not possible, devices should be undertaken in a single room.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Cânula , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 46-47, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723449

RESUMO

Hypoxemia is the most common cause for hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common complication in COVID-19 patients. Close monitoring of respiratory decompensation is essential. Supplemental oxygen, high flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation and endotracheal intubation are the most commonly suggested methods to improve oxygenation. Early intubation with pre-oxygenation, modified rapid sequence intubation and intubation using a video laryngoscope has been advised as a strategy including lung protective ventilation, prone position ventilation, adequate sedation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Strict personal precautions and challenges related to airway management has been currently studied. The authors summarize here the issues of mechanical ventilation and some strategies to resolve them. Key Words: Mechanical ventilation, COVID-19, Hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Hipóxia/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641442

RESUMO

We report on a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and decompensated cirrhosis who experienced a favourable outcome of severe immune thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP) after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose dexamethasone. The present case suggests that it is reasonable to evoke ITP in case of profound thrombocytopaenia in a patient with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica , Obesidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Hipóxia/etiologia , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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