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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 808-812, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524535

RESUMO

To understand mechanisms underlying Galinsoga parviflora invasion and its responses to simulated insect herbivory, individuals of Galinsoga parviflora were treated with different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) before blooming. We measued plant height, abundance of leaves and inflorescences, biomass, specific leaf area, trichome density, condensed tannins, total polyphenols, and flavonoids in leaves and inflorescences. The growth and reproduction parameters of G. parviflora treated with 5 mmol·L-1 MeJA were not significantly different from those of control, higher than those of control when treated with 10 mmol·L-1 MeJA, with significant difference except plant height, and declined when treated with 20 mmol·L-1 MeJA. The trichome density of leaf upper epidermis increased and specific leaf area decreased with increasing MeJA concentration, with both being significantly different from that of control. The contents of flavonoids, total polyphenols, and condensed tannins in leaves treated with 5 mmol·L-1MeJA were not significantly different from those of control. These defensive substances in leaves and inflorescences were highest under 10 mmol·L-1MeJA treatment. The contents of flavonoids and total polyphenols in inflorescences being higher than those of leaves, while condensed tannins was opposite. The defensive substances in leaves declined under 20 mmol·L-1MeJA treatment. The results suggested that G. parviflora could use tolerance and resistance strategies comprehensively, and adopted a variety of defense strategies such as compensatory growth, physical defense, and chemical defense, which was conducive to its success in invasion.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Proantocianidinas , Acetatos/análise , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclopentanos/análise , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Humanos , Insetos , Oxilipinas/análise , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409197

RESUMO

White spruce (Picea glauca) emits monoterpenes that function as defensive signals and weapons after herbivore attack. We assessed the effects of drought and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, used as a proxy for herbivory, on monoterpenes and other isoprenoids in P. glauca. The emission of monoterpenes was significantly increased after MeJA treatment compared to the control, but drought suppressed the MeJA-induced increase. The composition of the emitted blend was altered strongly by stress, with drought increasing the proportion of oxygenated compounds and MeJA increasing the proportion of induced compounds such as linalool and (E)-ß-ocimene. In contrast, no treatment had any significant effect on the levels of stored monoterpenes and diterpenes. Among other MEP pathway-derived isoprenoids, MeJA treatment decreased chlorophyll levels by 40%, but had no effect on carotenoids, while drought stress had no impact on either of these pigment classes. Of the three described spruce genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) catalyzing the first step of the MEP pathway, the expression of only one, DXS2B, was affected by our treatments, being increased by MeJA and decreased by drought. These findings show the sensitivity of monoterpene emission to biotic and abiotic stress regimes, and the mediation of the response by DXS genes.


Assuntos
Picea , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Picea/genética , Terpenos/farmacologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409063

RESUMO

Our aim in the experiment was to study the effects of methyl jasmonates (MeJA) on the active compounds of rosemary suspension cells, the metabolites' change of contents under different concentrations of MeJA, including 0 (CK), 10 (M10), 50 (M50) and 100 µM MeJA (M100). The results demonstrated that MeJA treatments promoted the accumulation of rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosic acid (CA), flavonoids, jasmonate (JA), gibberellin (GA), and auxin (IAA); but reduced the accumulations of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and aspartate (Asp). In addition, 50 and 100 µM MeJA promoted the accumulation of alanine (Ala) and glutamate (Glu), and 50 µM MeJA promoted the accumulation of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in rosemary suspension cells. Comparative RNA-sequencing analysis of different concentrations of MeJA showed that a total of 30, 61, and 39 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the comparisons of CKvsM10, CKvsM50, CKvsM100, respectively. The analysis of the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed that plant hormone signal transduction, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism-related genes were significantly enriched. In addition, we found that miR160a-5p target ARF, miR171d_1 and miR171f_3 target DELLA, miR171b-3p target ETR, and miR156a target BRI1, which played a key role in rosemary suspension cells under MeJA treatments. qRT-PCR of 12 differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes showed a high correlation between the RNA-seq and the qRT-PCR result. Amplification culture of rosemary suspension cells in a 5 L stirred bioreactor showed that cell biomass accumulation in the bioreactor was less than that in the shake flask under the same conditions, and the whole cultivation period was extended to 14 d. Taken together, MeJA promoted the synthesis of the active compounds in rosemary suspension cells in a wide concentration range via concentration-dependent differential expression patterns. This study provided an overall view of the miRNAs responding to MeJA in rosemary.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Rosmarinus , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Linoleico , MicroRNAs/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido alfa-Linoleico
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324685

RESUMO

Fungal contamination presents several problems: in humans, health issues arise from infections with opportunistic filamentous fungi and yeast, while in food, fungi cause spoilage and, in particular, in the case of mycotoxigenic fungi, can cause serious health issues. Several types of fatty acids and their derivatives, oxylipins, have been found to have inhibitory effect towards fungal growth and the production of mycotoxins. The use of fatty acids as antifungals could fulfil consumer's requests of more natural and environmentally friendly compounds, while being less likely to promote fungal resistance. In addition, due to their nature, fatty acids are easily used as food additives. In this work, we review the most relevant and recent studies on the antifungal ability of fatty acids. We focused on saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and oxylipins, their different impact on fungal inhibition, their proposed modes of action, and their ability to impair mycotoxin production. Applications of fatty acids as antifungals and their limitations are also addressed.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Micotoxinas , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Fungos , Humanos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia
5.
Physiol Plant ; 174(2): e13666, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285962

RESUMO

Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment induces glandular trichome development in Nicotiana benthamiana, but the function of JAZ proteins, acting as core repressors, and their downstream genes have not been clearly shown in plants. Here, a bioinformatics analysis of 71 JAZ genes from tobacco, Arabidopsis thaliana, and tomato was carried out and shown to share highly conserved domains. Then, the expression profile of 17 NbJAZs in different tissues was analyzed, and NbJAZ3 was highly expressed in trichome. Through transgenic technology, we demonstrated that the glandular trichome density of NbJAZ3-overexpression lines significantly decreased with lower expression levels of NbWo, NbCycB2, and NbMIXTA. In contrast, the trichome density of NbJAZ3 RNAi lines slightly increased with higher expression level of NbWo. Given the negative protein feedback regulation relationship between NbCycB2 and NbWo, we verified that MeJA induced NbWo expression. NbWo was a direct target gene of NbJAZ3 and further demonstrated that NbJAZ3 inhibited the transcriptional activation of NbCycB2 by NbWo. Together, our findings outline a novel JA-meditated glandular trichome development model consisting of the NbJAZ3-NbWo-NbCycB2 axis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Tabaco , Arabidopsis/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335134

RESUMO

The present study characterizes the 5' regulatory region of the SmMEC gene. The isolated fragment is 1559 bp long and consists of a promoter, 5'UTR and 31 nucleotide 5' fragments of the CDS region. In silico bioinformatic analysis found that the promoter region contains repetitions of many potential cis-active elements. Cis-active elements associated with the response to methyl jasmonate (MeJa) were identified in the SmMEC gene promoter. Co-expression studies combined with earlier transcriptomic research suggest the significant role of MeJa in SmMEC gene regulation. These findings were in line with the results of the RT-PCR test showing SmMEC gene expression induction after 72 h of MeJa treatment. Biphasic total tanshinone accumulation was observed following treatment of S. miltiorrhiza solid callus cultures with 50-500 µM methyl jasmonate, with peaks observed after 10-20 and 50-60 days. An early peak of total tanshinone concentration (0.08%) occurred after 20 days of 100 µM MeJa induction, and a second, much lower one, was observed after 50 days of 50 µM MeJa stimulation (0.04%). The dominant tanshinones were cryptotanshinone (CT) and dihydrotanshinone (DHT). To better understand the inducing effect of MeJa treatment on tanshinone biosynthesis, a search was performed for methyl jasmonate-responsive cis-active motifs in the available sequences of gene proximal promoters associated with terpenoid precursor biosynthesis. The results indicate that MeJa has the potential to induce a significant proportion of the presented genes, which is in line with available transcriptomic and RT-PCR data.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Abietanos , Acetatos , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia
7.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(5): 1554-1572, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147228

RESUMO

The role of jasmonates (JAs) in primary root growth and development and in plant response to external stimuli is already known. However, its role in lateral root (LR) development remains to be explored. Our work identified methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as a key phytohormone in determining the branching angle of Arabidopsis LRs. MeJA inclines the LRs to a more vertical orientation, which was dependent on the canonical JAR1-COI1-MYC2,3,4 signalling. Our work also highlights the dual roles of light in governing LR angle. Light signalling enhances JA biosynthesis, leading to erect root architecture; whereas, glucose (Glc) induces wider branching angles. Combining physiological and molecular assays, we revealed that Glc antagonises the MeJA response via TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) signalling. Moreover, physiological assays using auxin mutants, MYC2-mediated transcriptional activation of LAZY2, LAZY4 and auxin biosynthetic gene CYP79B2, and asymmetric distribution of DR5::GFP and PIN2::GFP pinpointed the role of an intact auxin machinery required by MeJA for vertical growth of LRs. We also demonstrated that light perception and signalling are indispensable for inducing vertical angles by MeJA. Thus, our investigation highlights antagonism between light and Glc signalling and how they interact with JA-auxin signals to optimise the branching angle of LRs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucose , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3238, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217668

RESUMO

Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins are the key repressors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signal transduction pathway and play a crucial role in stress-related defense, phytohormone crosstalk and modulation of the growth-defense tradeoff. In this study, the sorghum genome was analyzed through genome-wide comparison and domain scan analysis, which led to the identification of 18 sorghum JAZ (SbJAZ) genes. All SbJAZ proteins possess the conserved TIFY and Jas domains and they formed a phylogenetic tree with five clusters related to the orthologs of other plant species. Similarly, evolutionary analysis indicated the duplication events as a major force of expansion of the SbJAZ genes and there was strong neutral and purifying selection going on. In silico analysis of the promoter region of the SbJAZ genes indicates that SbJAZ5, SbJAZ6, SbJAZ13, SbJAZ16 and SbJAZ17 are rich in stress-related cis-elements. In addition, expression profiling of the SbJAZ genes in response to phytohormones treatment (JA, ET, ABA, GA) and sugarcane aphid (SCA) was performed in two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sorghum, resistant (RIL 521) and susceptible (RIL 609) to SCA. Taken together, data generated from phytohormone expression and in silico analysis suggests the putative role of SbJAZ9 in JA-ABA crosstalk and SbJAZ16 in JA-ABA and JA-GA crosstalk to regulate certain physiological processes. Notably, upregulation of SbJAZ1, SbJAZ5, SbJAZ13 and SbJAZ16 in resistant RIL during JA treatment and SCA infestation suggests putative functions in stress-related defense and to balance the plant defense to promote growth. Overall, this report provides valuable insight into the organization and functional characterization of the sorghum JAZ gene family.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Sorghum , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 86, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicteres angustifolia has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. It has multiple pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. Its main active chemicals include betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, helicteric acid, helicterilic acid, and other triterpenoid saponins. It is worth noting that some acylated triterpenoids, such as helicteric acid and helicterilic acid, are characteristic components of Helicteres and are relatively rare among other plants. However, reliance on natural plants as the only sources of these is not enough to meet the market requirement. Therefore, the engineering of its metabolic pathway is of high research value for enhancing the production of secondary metabolites. Unfortunately, there are few studies on the biosynthetic pathways of triterpenoids in H. angustifolia, hindering its further investigation. RESULTS: Here, the RNAs of different groups treated by metabolic stimulation were sequenced with an Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform, resulting in 121 gigabases of data. A total of 424,824 unigenes were obtained after the trimming and assembly of the raw data, and 22,430 unigenes were determined to be differentially expressed. In addition, three oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) and four Cytochrome P450 (CYP450s) were screened, of which one OSC (HaOSC1) and one CYP450 (HaCYPi3) achieved functional verification, suggesting that they could catalyze the production of lupeol and oleanolic acid, respectively. CONCLUSION: In general, the transcriptomic data of H. angustifolia was first reported and analyzed to study functional genes. Three OSCs, four CYP450s and three acyltransferases were screened out as candidate genes to perform further functional verification, which demonstrated that HaOSC1 and HaCYPi3 encode for lupeol synthase and ß-amyrin oxidase, which produce corresponding products of lupeol and oleanolic acid, respectively. Their successful identification revealed pivotal steps in the biosynthesis of acylated triterpenoids precursors, which laid a foundation for further study on acylated triterpenoids. Overall, these results shed light on the regulation of acylated triterpenoids biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Malvaceae/genética , Malvaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acilação , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Transferases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Malvaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 68, 2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151272

RESUMO

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays a role in improving plant stress tolerance. The molecular mechanisms associated with heat tolerance mediated by MeJA are not fully understood in perennial grass species. The study was designed to explore transcriptomic mechanisms underlying heat tolerance by exogenous MeJA in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) using RNA-seq. Transcriptomic profiling was performed on plants under normal temperature (CK), high temperature for 12 h (H), MeJA pretreatment (T), MeJA pretreatment + H (T-H), respectively. The analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that H resulted in the most DEGs and T had the least, compared with CK. Among them, the DEGs related to the response to oxygen-containing compound was higher in CKvsH, while many genes related to photosynthetic system were down-regulated. The DEGs related to plastid components was higher in CKvsT. GO and KEGG analysis showed that exogenous application of MeJA enriched photosynthesis related pathways under heat stress. Exogenous MeJA significantly increased the expression of genes involved in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism, and decreased the expression of Chl degradation genes, as well as the expression of heat shock transcription factor - heat shock protein (HSF-HSP) network under heat stress. The results indicated that exogenous application of MeJA improved the heat tolerance of perennial ryegrass by mediating expression of genes in different pathways, such as Chl biosynthesis and degradation, antioxidant enzyme system, HSF-HSP network and JAs biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Lolium/genética , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163041

RESUMO

DEAD-box proteins are a large family of RNA helicases that play important roles in almost all cellular RNA processes in model plants. However, little is known about this family of proteins in crops such as soybean. Here, we identified 80 DEAD-box family genes in the Glycine max (soybean) genome. These DEAD-box genes were distributed on 19 chromosomes, and some genes were clustered together. The majority of DEAD-box family proteins were highly conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean, but Glyma.08G231300 and Glyma.14G115100 were specific to soybean. The promoters of these DEAD-box genes share cis-acting elements involved in plant responses to MeJA, salicylic acid (SA), low temperature and biotic as well as abiotic stresses; interestingly, half of the genes contain nodulation-related cis elements in their promoters. Microarray data analysis revealed that the DEAD-box genes were differentially expressed in the root and nodule. Notably, 31 genes were induced by rhizobia and/or were highly expressed in the nodule. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis validated the expression patterns of some DEAD-box genes, and among them, Glyma.08G231300 and Glyma.14G115100 were induced by rhizobia in root hair. Thus, we provide a comprehensive view of the DEAD-box family genes in soybean and highlight the crucial role of these genes in symbiotic nodulation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acetatos/farmacologia , Sequência Conservada , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Família Multigênica , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 231: 114157, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131536

RESUMO

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in plants, exerts neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects in chronic and acute CNS disease models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. Since ALA is not incorporated into the brain, the observed health benefits may result from some of its metabolites. The putative formation of dihydroxylated ALA derivatives (called linotrins) was recently shown in vitro in the presence of lipoxygenases. However, the in vitro biosynthesis of linotrins was neither stereoselective nor quantitatively efficient for studying their physiological roles as enantiomeric pure forms. Herein, we report the first stereo-controlled synthesis that features regio- and stereoselective hydrometalations of alkynes for assembling the sensitive E,Z,E-conjugated trienes, as well as LC-MS investigations that provide evidence of linotrins occurrence in plants. Moreover, strong anti-inflammatory effects on microglia highlight the potential physiological importance of linotrins and open new perspectives in search of CNS therapeutics.


Assuntos
Microglia , Oxilipinas , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 78, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates (GSLs) play important roles in defending against exogenous damage and regulating physiological activities in plants. However, GSL accumulation patterns and molecular regulation mechanisms are largely unknown in Isatis indigotica Fort. RESULTS: Ten GSLs were identified in I. indigotica, and the dominant GSLs were epiprogoitrin (EPI) and indole-3-methyl GSL (I3M), followed by progoitrin (PRO) and gluconapin (GNA). The total GSL content was highest (over 20 µmol/g) in reproductive organs, lowest (less than 1.0 µmol/g) in mature organs, and medium in fresh leaves (2.6 µmol/g) and stems (1.5 µmol/g). In the seed germination process, the total GSL content decreased from 27.2 µmol/g (of seeds) to 2.7 µmol/g (on the 120th day) and then increased to 4.0 µmol/g (180th day). However, the content of indole GSL increased rapidly in the first week after germination and fluctuated between 1.13 µmol/g (28th day) and 2.82 µmol/g (150th day). Under the different elicitor treatments, the total GSL content increased significantly, ranging from 2.9-fold (mechanical damage, 3 h) to 10.7-fold (MeJA, 6 h). Moreover, 132 genes were involved in GSL metabolic pathways. Among them, no homologs of AtCYP79F2 and AtMAM3 were identified, leading to a distinctive GSL profile in I. indigotica. Furthermore, most genes involved in the GSL metabolic pathway were derived from tandem duplication, followed by dispersed duplication and segmental duplication. Purifying selection was observed, although some genes underwent relaxed selection. In addition, three tandem-arrayed GSL-OH genes showed different expression patterns, suggesting possible subfunctionalization during evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Ten different GSLs with their accumulation patterns and 132 genes involved in the GSL metabolic pathway were explored, which laid a foundation for the study of GSL metabolism and regulatory mechanisms in I. indigotica.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Isatis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isatis/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/análise , Isatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
J Biosci ; 472022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092410

RESUMO

Plant hormones regulate growth, development, and defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonate (JA) are major phytohormones that control the defense against pathogens. SA and JA primarily regulate resistance against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, respectively. NPR1 is the key regulator of SA signaling in plants. AtOZF1 function has recently been ascribed to promote both NPR1- dependent and -independent SA signaling. However, the role of AtOZF1 in JA signaling was not known. Here we report AtOZF1 as a positive regulator of JA signaling in Arabidopsis. The atozf1 mutants are more susceptible to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea than wildtype (WT) plants. AtOZF1 positively regulates the expression of JA inducible genes like PDF1.2, VSP2, THI2.1, and ORA59. AtOZF1 takes part in SA-JA cross-talk to an extent similar to that of NPR1. AtOZF1 is essential for the activation of PDF1.2 expression upon exogenous methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) application. Intriguingly, SA can significantly promote MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression in the absence of AtOZF1. Altogether our results reveal a novel SA-JA interaction pathway in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 171: 157-168, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999507

RESUMO

Induced resistance is a promising strategy to manage plant disease, while adequate energy supply is crucial to plant defense. Our previous study has revealed that PpWRKY45 and PpWRKY70 are involved in MeJA-primed disease resistance by regulating jasmonate acid biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Herein, the possible role of WRKYs in MeJA-primed disease resistance and energy metabolism was investigated. PpWRKY46 and PpWRKY53 were up- and down-regulated, respectively, by MeJA treatment. The activities and gene expression of energy metabolism-related enzymes and energy status were promoted by MeJA treatment and R. stolonifer inoculation during 60 h storage at 20 °C. Energy metabolism-related genes, including PpSDH and PpCOX15 were transactivated by PpWRKY46, but repressed by PpWRKY53. Furthermore, PpWRKY46 interacted with PpWRKY53 to attenuate the transcriptional repression of PpWRKY53 to PpSDH and PpCOX15. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the counteraction of PpWRKY46 and PpWRKY53 contributes to MeJA-primed defense by regulating energy metabolism in peaches.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
16.
Fitoterapia ; 157: 105134, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085725

RESUMO

Bioactive lipids widely found in daily consumed plants and animals are essential or beneficial to health and some of them are important physiological regulators in the human body. In our current investigation, 18 bioactive lipids (1-18), including 8 sphingolipids (1-8), 7 oxylipins (9-15), 3 phenolic lipids (16-18) were isolated from the fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum. And compounds 1, 9, 15, 16, and 18 were new lipids. In this study, homologues (4-8, 16, and 17) and configuration isomers (2 and 3) of bioactive lipids were separated, and NMR combined with MS/MS2 was an effective method to identify these compounds. These findings provided the reference for the separation and structural identification of bioactive lipids. The anti-inflammatory activities of all isolated lipids were evaluated by their inhibition of the NO release of LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Aglycone components of sphingolipids, oxylipids with free carboxylic acid groups, phenylpropionic acid-fatty acid glyceride polymer exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities. Further analysis by molecular docking revealed the interactions of bioactive compounds with the iNOS protein.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Solanum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrólise , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lipídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oxilipinas/química , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Esfingolipídeos/química , Esfingolipídeos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Chem Ecol ; 48(2): 179-195, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982368

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives, collectively known as jasmonates (JAs), are important signaling hormones for plant responses against chewing herbivores. In JA signaling networks, jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate JA-modulated downstream herbivore defenses. JAZ repressors are widely presented in land plants, however, there is only limited information about the regulation/function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this study, we performed a comprehensive expression analysis of ZmJAZ genes with other selected genes in the jasmonate pathway in response to feeding by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, FAW), mechanical wounding, and exogenous hormone treatments in two maize genotypes differing in FAW resistance. Results showed that transcript levels of JAZ genes and several key genes in JA-signaling and biosynthesis pathways were rapidly and abundantly expressed in both genotypes in response to these various treatments. However, there were key differences between the two genotypes in the expression of ZmJAZ1 and ZmCOI1a, these two genes were expressed significantly rapidly and abundantly in the resistant line which was tightly regulated by endogenous JA level upon feeding. For instance, transcript levels of ZmJAZ1 increase dramatically within 30 min of FAW-fed Mp708 but not Tx601, correlating with the JA accumulation. The results also demonstrated that wounding or JA treatment alone was not as effective as FAW feeding; this suggests that insect-derived factors are required for optimal defense responses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays , Animais , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
Plant Cell Rep ; 41(1): 195-208, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647139

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Methyl jasmonate treatment and aphid resistance assays reveal different roles in herbivore defensive responses between tobacco glandular and non-glandular trichomes. These roles correlate with trichome gene expression patterns. In plants, trichomes greatly contribute to biotic stress resistance. To better understand the different defensive functions between glandular and non-glandular trichomes, we used Nicotiana tabacum as a model. This species bears three types of trichomes: long and short stalk glandular trichomes (LGT and SGT, respectively), and non-glandular trichomes (NGT). Tobacco accession T.I.1068 (lacking NGT) and T.I.1112 (lacking LGT) were used for the experiment. After methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, LGT formation was promoted not only in T.I.1068, but also in T.I.1112, whereas NGT remained absent in T.I.1068, and was slightly reduced in T.I.1112. Diterpenoids, which play important roles in herbivore resistance, accumulated abundantly in T.I.1068 and were elevated by MeJA; however, they were not found in T.I.1112 but became detectable after MeJA treatment. The aphid resistance of T.I.1068 was higher than that of T.I.1112, and both were enhanced by MeJA, which was closely correlated with LGT density. Trichomes detached from T.I.1068 and T.I.1112 were used for RNA-Seq analysis, the results showed that pentose phosphate, photosynthesis, and diterpenoid biosynthesis genes were much more expressed in T.I.1068 than in T.I.1112, which was consistent with the vigorous diterpenoid biosynthesis in T.I.1068. In T.I.1112, citrate cycle, propanoate, and glyoxylate metabolism processes were enriched, and some defensive protein genes were expressed at higher levels than those in T.I.1068.These results suggested that LGT plays a predominant role in aphid resistance, whereas NGT could strengthen herbivore resistance by accumulating defensive proteins, and the roles of LGT and NGT are associated with their gene expression patterns.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Afídeos/fisiologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Tricomas/fisiologia
19.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(1): 262-272, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661303

RESUMO

The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) plays a core role in plant defence against herbivores. When attacked by herbivores, JA and its bioactive derivatives are accumulated at the damage site, and subsequently perceived by the jasmonate co-receptors COI1 and JAZ proteins. The (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is known to be the main active JA derivative controlling vascular plant responses to herbivores as well as other JA-regulated processes. However, whether other endogenous JA-amino acid conjugates (JA-AAs) are involved in herbivore-induced defence responses remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of herbivore-elicited JA-AAs in the crop plant rice. The levels of five JA-AAs were significantly increased under the armyworm, leaf folder and brown planthopper attack. Of the elicited JA derivatives, JA-Ile, JA-Val and JA-Leu could serve as ligands to promote the interaction between rice COI1 and JAZs, inducing OsJAZ4 degradation in vivo. JA-Val or JA-Leu treatment increased the expression of JA- and defence-related pathway genes but not JA-Ile levels, suggesting that these JA-AAs may directly function in JA signalling. Furthermore, the application of JA-Val or JA-Leu resulted in JA-mediated plant growth inhibition, while enhancing plant resistance to herbivore attack. This study uncovers that JA-Val and JA-Leu also play a role in rice defence against herbivores.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Oryza/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclopentanos/química , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucina/química , Mariposas , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/química , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Valina/química
20.
Plant Cell ; 34(2): 867-888, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865154

RESUMO

Plants respond to wounding stress by changing gene expression patterns and inducing the production of hormones including jasmonic acid. This wounding transcriptional response activates specialized metabolism pathways such as the glucosinolate pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. While the regulatory factors and sequences controlling a subset of wound-response genes are known, it remains unclear how wound response is regulated globally. Here, we how these responses are regulated by incorporating putative cis-regulatory elements, known transcription factor binding sites, in vitro DNA affinity purification sequencing, and DNase I hypersensitive sites to predict genes with different wound-response patterns using machine learning. We observed that regulatory sites and regions of open chromatin differed between genes upregulated at early and late wounding time-points as well as between genes induced by jasmonic acid and those not induced. Expanding on what we currently know, we identified cis-elements that improved model predictions of expression clusters over known binding sites. Using a combination of genome editing, in vitro DNA-binding assays, and transient expression assays using native and mutated cis-regulatory elements, we experimentally validated four of the predicted elements, three of which were not previously known to function in wound-response regulation. Our study provides a global model predictive of wound response and identifies new regulatory sequences important for wounding without requiring prior knowledge of the transcriptional regulators.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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