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1.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 256, 2022 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants are continuously challenged with biotic stress from environmental pathogens, and precise regulation of defense responses is critical for plant survival. Defense systems require considerable amounts of energy and resources, impairing plant growth, and plant hormones controlling transcriptional regulation play essential roles in establishing the appropriate balance between defense response to pathogens and growth. Chromatin regulators modulating gene transcription are broadly involved in regulating stress-responsive genes. However, which chromatin factors are involved in coordinating hormone signaling and immune responses in plants, and their functional mechanisms, remains unclear. Here, we identified a role of bromodomain-containing protein GTE4 in negatively regulating defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. RESULTS: GTE4 mainly functions as activator of gene expression upon infection with Pseudomonas syringe. Genome-wide profiling of GTE4 occupancy shows that GTE4 tends to bind to active genes, including ribosome biogenesis related genes and maintains their high expression levels during pathogen infection. However, GTE4 is also able to repress gene expression. GTE4 binds to and represses jasmonate biosynthesis gene OPR3. Disruption of GTE4 results in overaccumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and enhanced JA-responsive gene expression. Unexpectedly, over-accumulated JA content in gte4 mutant is coupled with downregulation of JA-mediated immune defense genes and upregulation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated immune defense genes, and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas, likely through a noncanonical pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we identified a new role of the chromatin factor GTE4 as negative regulator of plant immune response through inhibition of JA biosynthesis, which in turn noncanonically activates the defense system against Pseudomonas. These findings provide new knowledge of chromatic regulation of plant hormone signaling during defense responses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Etilenos/metabolismo , Etilenos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Imunidade , Cromatina/metabolismo
2.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104313, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acid-derived lipid mediators including oxylipins, endocannabinoids (eCBs), and their analogues, have emerged as key metabolites in the inflammatory and immune response to physiological stressors. METHODS: This report was based on a sub-study and secondary analyses the ACTIBATE single-center unblinded randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02365129). The study was performed in the Sport and Health University Research Institute and the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital of the University of Granada. Eligible participants were young, sedentary adults with no chronic diseases. Here, we performed both an acute endurance and resistance exercise sub-studies (n.ß=.ß14 and 17 respectively), and a 24-week supervised exercise intervention, combining endurance and resistance exercise training at moderate-intensity (MOD-EX) or vigorous-intensity (VIG-EX) exercise groups, in young sedentary adults. Randomization was performed by unrestricted randomization. Plasma levels of oxylipins, eCBs, and their analogues were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Both endurance and resistance exercise increased by.ß+50% the plasma levels of dihomo-..-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid (AA) omega-6 derived oxylipins, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid omega-3 derived after 3 and 120.ßmin of the bout of exercise (all ..2.ß....ß0.219 and P.ß..±.ß0.039). These exercise modalities also increased the levels of anandamide and eCBs analogues (+25%). 145 young sedentary adults were assigned to a control (CON, n.ß=.ß54), a MOD-EX (n.ß=.ß48) or a VIG-EX (n.ß=.ß43). 102 participants were included in the final long-term analyses (CON, n.ß=.ß36; MOD-EX, n.ß=.ß33; and VIG-EX, n.ß=.ß33) of the trial. After 24-week of supervised exercise, MOD-EX decreased plasma levels of omega-6 oxylipins, concretely linoleic acid (LA) and adrenic acid derived oxylipins, and the eCBs analogues OEA and LEA in comparison to the CON (all P.ß..±.ß0.021). VIG-EX decreased LA-derived oxylipins and LEA compared to CON. No relevant adverse events were recorded. INTERPRETATION: Endurance and resistance exercises acutely increased plasma levels of oxylipins, eCBs, and their analogues, whereas 24 weeks of exercise training decreased fasting plasma levels of omega-6 oxylipins, and eCBs analogues in young, sedentary adults. FUNDING: See Acknowledgments section.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides , Oxilipinas , Humanos , Adulto , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Exercício Físico
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361982

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) are the most effective inducers for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites. Currently, jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) and its interactors, such as MYC2, constitute the main JA signal transduction cascade, and such a cascade fails to directly regulate all the taxol biosynthesis genes, especially the rate-limit gene, DBAT. Another JA signaling branch, JAV and WRKY, would probably fill the gap. Here, TcJAV3 was the closest VQ-motif-containing protein in Taxus chinensis to AtJAV1. Although TcJAV3 was overexpressed in AtJAV1 knockdown mutant, JAVRi17, the enhanced disease resistance to Botrytis cinerea caused by silencing AtJAV1 was completely recovered. The results indicated that TcJAV3 indeed transduced JA signal as AtJAV1. Subsequently, TcWRKY26 was screened out to physically interact with TcJAV3 by using a yeast two-hybrid system. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and luciferase complementary imaging also confirmed that TcJAV3 and TcWRKY26 could form a protein complex in vivo. Our previous reports showed that transient TcWRKY26 overexpression could remarkably increase DBAT expression. Yeast one-hybrid and luciferase activity assays revealed that TcWRKY26 could directly bind with the wa-box of the DBAT promoter to activate downstream reporter genes. All of these results indicated that TcWRKY26 acts as a direct regulator of DBAT, and the TcJAV3-TcWRKY26 complex is actually another JA signal transduction mode that effectively regulates taxol biosynthesis in Taxus. Our results revealed that JAV-WRKY complexes directly regulated DBAT gene in response to JA stimuli, providing a novel model for JA-regulated secondary metabolism. Moreover, JAV could also transduce JA signal and function non-redundantly with JAZ during the regulation of secondary metabolisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Taxus , Taxus/genética , Taxus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362295

RESUMO

12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) is a biosynthetic precursor of jasmonic acid and triggers multiple biological processes from plant development to stress responses. However, the OPDA signaling and relevant regulatory networks were largely unknown in basal land plants. Using an integrated multi-omics technique, we investigated the global features in metabolites and transcriptional profiles of an Antarctic moss (Pohlia nutans) in response to OPDA treatment. We detected 676 metabolites based on the widely targeted metabolomics approach. A total of 82 significantly changed metabolites were observed, including fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and alkaloids. In addition, the transcriptome sequencing was conducted to uncover the global transcriptional profiles. The representative differentially expressed genes were summarized into functions including Ca2+ signaling, abscisic acid signaling, jasmonate signaling, lipid and fatty acid biosynthesis, transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes, and detoxification proteins. The integrated multi-omics analysis revealed that the pathways of jasmonate and ABA signaling, lipid and fatty acid biosynthesis, and flavonoid biosynthesis might dominate the molecular responses to OPDA. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the molecular evolution of jasmonate signaling and the adaptation mechanisms of Antarctic moss to terrestrial habitats.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Bryopsida , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Bryopsida/genética , Briófitas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362365

RESUMO

Pecan leaf-variegated plant, which was infected with a novel badnavirus named pecan mosaic virus (PMV) detected by small RNA deep sequencing, is a vital model plant for studying the molecular mechanism of retaining green or chlorosis of virus-infected leaves. In this report, PMV infection in pecan leaves induced PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PMV infection suppressed the expressions of key genes of fatty acid, oleic acid (C18:1), and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) biosynthesis, indicating that fatty acids-derived signaling was one of the important defense pathways in response to PMV infection in pecan. PMV infection in pecans enhanced the expressions of pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1). However, the transcripts of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and isochorismate synthase (ICS) were downregulated, indicating that salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis was blocked in pecan infected with PMV. Meanwhile, disruption of auxin signaling affected the activation of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Thus, C18:1 and JA signals are involved in response to PMV infection in pecan. In PMV-infected yellow leaves, damaged chloroplast structure and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) inhibited photosynthesis. Cytokinin and SA biosynthesis was blocked, leading to plants losing immune responses and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The repression of photosynthesis and the induction of sink metabolism in the infected tissue led to dramatic changes in carbohydrate partitioning. On the contrary, the green leaves of PMV infection in pecan plants had whole cell tissue structure and chloroplast clustering, establishing a strong antiviral immunity system. Cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling transductions were remarkably strengthened, activating plant immune responses. Meanwhile, cytokinin accumulation in green leaves induced partial SA biosynthesis and gained comparatively higher SAR compared to that of yellow leaves. Disturbance of the ribosome biogenesis might enhance the resistance to PMV infection in pecan and lead to leaves staying green.


Assuntos
Badnavirus , Carya , Vírus do Mosaico , Carya/genética , Badnavirus/genética , Badnavirus/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Vírus do Mosaico/genética , Citocininas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 791: 136921, 2022 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270451

RESUMO

Despite known pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) including neuronal loss, gliosis (inflammation), beta-amyloid plaque deposition and neurofibrillary tangle accumulation in the brain, little is known about inflammation resolution in early AD pathogenesis. In the brain, inflammation and resolution pathways are mediated by free oxylipins which are mostly bound (i.e. esterified), and therefore must be released (i.e. become free) to exert bioactivity. Recently, we showed reductions in brain esterified pro-resolving oxylipins in a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD rat) at 15 months of age, suggesting deficits in the source and availability of free pro-resolving oxylipins. In the present study, we tested whether these changes are discernable earlier in the disease process, i.e., at age of 10 months. We observed significant reductions in esterified pro-resolving 8(9)-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (8(9)-EpETrE), 13-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid (13-HOTrE) and 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-HEPE) oxylipins, and in pro-inflammatory 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), 20-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), 15-deoxy-prostaglandin J2 (15-deoxy-PGJ2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) oxylipins in male and/or female transgenic AD rats compared to wildtype controls. These findings point to a deficit in esterified pro-resolving lipid mediators in the early stages of AD, concident with. changes in esterified lipid mediators involved in promoting inflammation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Ratos Transgênicos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233100

RESUMO

The metabolism of bioactive oxylipins by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays an important role in inflammation, and sEH may be a risk modifier in various human diseases and disorders. The relationships that sEH has with the risk factors of these diseases remain elusive. Herein, sEH protein expression and activity in white blood cells were characterized before and after a high-fat meal in healthy women (HW) and women with anorexia nervosa (AN). sEH expression and sEH activity were significantly correlated and increased in both groups two hours after consumption of the study meal. Fasting sEH expression and activity were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in both groups, while an inverse association with age was found in AN only (p value < 0.05). sEH was not associated with anxiety or depression in either group at the fasting timepoint. While the anxiety score decreased after eating in both groups, a higher fasting sEH was associated with a lower postprandial anxiety decrease in HW (p value < 0.05). sEH characterization using direct measurements verified the relationship between the protein expression and in vivo activity of this important oxylipin modulator, while a well-controlled food challenge study design using HW and a clinical control group of women with disordered eating elucidated sEH's role in the health of adult women.


Assuntos
Epóxido Hidrolases , Oxilipinas , Adulto , Ansiedade , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Refeições , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(42): 13486-13498, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254833

RESUMO

The novel plant elicitors, 3-benzyl-5-[1-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-3-yl)ethylidene]-2-aminoimidazolin-4-one derivatives, were designed based on the diversity-oriented synthesis strategy and synthesized in four steps via the Knoevenagel condensation reaction as the key step. They were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and X-ray diffraction. The position of the C═N bond of Z- and E-configuration compounds was determined by X-ray diffraction. The in vivo fungicidal activity evaluation revealed that most of these compounds exhibited remarkable activities (100%) against Pseudoperonospora cubensis at 400 µg/mL, among which compound 8e still exhibited excellent protective activity with a 50% inhibition rate at 0.1 µg/mL. Because the in vitro effect on tested phytopathogens was poor, the mechanism to induce the immune responses and reinforce the resistance of cucumber against Botrytis cinerea was studied. The results indicated that the compound 8e-mediated defense response against B. cinerea was based on the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and cell wall reinforcement by callose deposition. Quantitative analysis of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the increased expression of induced resistance-related genes and the defense-associated phenylalanine ammonia lyase revealed that the immune response triggered by compound 8e was highly associated with the SA signaling pathway. Significant upregulation of JA-related genes Cs-AOS2 indicated that the JA signaling pathway was also influenced. It was also shown that the plants treated with compound 8e promoted primary root elongation, which resulted in enhanced plant growth. Most importantly, these compounds have completely new structures compared with the traditional plant elicitors. Further research of 8e-mediated plant disease resistance might have a great influence on the development of plant elicitors.


Assuntos
Oxilipinas , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Botrytis , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235158

RESUMO

The control of the duration of the dormancy phase is a significant challenge in the potato industry and for seed producers. However, the proteome landscape involved in the regulation of the length of the dormancy period over potato cultivars remains largely unexplored. In this study, we performed for the first time a comparative proteome profiling of potato cultivars with differential duration of tuber dormancy. More specifically, the proteome profiling of Agata, Kennebec and Agria commercial potato varieties with short, medium and medium-long dormancy, respectively, was assessed at the endodormancy stage using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TripleTOF MS/MS). A total of 11 proteins/isoforms with statistically significant differential abundance among cultivars were detected on 2-DE gels and confidently identified by LC-TripleTOF MS/MS. Identified proteins have known functions related to tuber development, sprouting and the oxylipins biosynthesis pathway. Fructokinase, a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, catalase isozyme 2 and heat shock 70 kDa were the proteins with the strongest response to dormancy variations. To the best of our knowledge, this study reports the first candidate proteins underlying variable dormancy length in potato cultivars.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Frutoquinases/análise , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(40): 12723-12732, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165611

RESUMO

Plants have evolved a series of defensive mechanisms against pathogens and herbivores, but the defense response always leads to decreases in growth or reproduction, which has serious implications for agricultural production. Growth and defense are negatively regulated not only through metabolic consumption but also through the antagonism of different phytohormones, such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Meanwhile, plants can limit the expression of defensive metabolites to reduce the costs of defense by producing constitutive defenses such as glandular trichomes or latex and accumulating specific metabolites, determining the activation of plant defense or the maintenance of plant growth. Interestingly, plant defense pathways might be prepared in advance which may be transmitted to descendants. Plants can also use external organisms to protect themselves, thus minimizing the costs of defense. In addition, plant relatives exhibit cooperation to deal with pathogens and herbivores, which is also a way to regulate growth and defense.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Látex , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
11.
Eur J Pain ; 26(10): 2213-2226, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synovial inflammation has known contributions to chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain, but the potential role in transitions from early to late stages of OA pain is unclear. METHODS: The slowly progressing surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) murine OA model and sham control, was used in male C57BL/6J mice to investigate the interplay between knee inflammation, plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory oxylipins and pain responses during OA progression. Changes in joint histology, macrophage infiltration, chemokine receptor CX3CR1 expression, weight bearing asymmetry, and paw withdrawal thresholds were quantified 4, 8 and 16 weeks after surgery. Plasma levels of multiple bioactive lipid mediators were quantified using liquid chromatography with tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: Structural joint damage was evident at 8 weeks post-DMM surgery onwards. At 16 weeks post-DMM surgery, synovial scores, numbers of CD68 and CD206 positive macrophages and pain responses were significantly increased. Plasma levels of oxylipins were negatively correlated with joint damage and synovitis scores at 4 and 8 weeks post-DMM surgery. Higher circulating levels of the pro-resolving oxylipin pre-cursor 17-HDHA were associated with lower weight bearing asymmetry at week 16. CONCLUSIONS: The transition to chronic OA pathology and pain is likely influenced by both joint inflammation and plasma oxylipin mediators of inflammation and levels of pro-resolution molecules. SIGNIFICANCE: Using a slow progressing surgical model of osteoarthritis we show how the changing balance between local and systemic inflammation may be of importance in the progression of pain behaviours during the transition to chronic osteoarthritis pain.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Oxilipinas , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Cromatografia Líquida , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Mol Plant ; 15(11): 1710-1724, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153646

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis, photoperiodic flowering is controlled by the regulatory hub gene CONSTANS (CO), whereas floral organ senescence is regulated by the jasmonates (JAs). Because these processes are chronologically ordered, it remains unknown whether there are common regulators of both processes. In this study, we discovered that CO protein accumulates in Arabidopsis flowers after floral induction, and it displays a diurnal pattern in floral organs different from that in the leaves. We observed that altered CO expression could affect flower senescence and abscission by interfering with JA response, as shown by petal-specific transcriptomic analysis as well as CO overexpression in JA synthesis and signaling mutants. We found that CO has a ZIM (ZINC-FINGER INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM) like domain that mediates its interaction with the JA response repressor JAZ3 (jasmonate ZIM-domain 3). Their interaction inhibits the repressor activity of JAZ3, resulting in activation of downstream transcription factors involved in promoting flower senescence. Furthermore, we showed that CO, JAZ3, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 (Coronatine Insensitive 1) could form a protein complex in planta, which promotes the degradation of both CO and JAZ3 in the presence of JAs. Taken together, our results indicate that CO, a key regulator of photoperiodic flowering, is also involved in promoting flower senescence and abscission by augmenting JA signaling and response. We propose that coordinated recruitment of photoperiodic and JA signaling pathways could be an efficient way for plants to chronologically order floral processes and ensure the success of offspring production.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142802

RESUMO

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, is an invasive pest that damages agricultural and horticultural crops. The induction of plant defenses and RNA interference (RNAi) technology are potent pest control strategies. This study investigated whether the anti-adaptive ability of F. occidentalis to jasmonic acid (JA)- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced defenses in kidney bean plants was attenuated after glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene knockdown. The expression of four GSTs in thrips fed JA- and MeJA-induced leaves was analyzed, and FoGSTd1 and FoGSTs1 were upregulated. Exogenous JA- and MeJA-induced defenses led to increases in defensive secondary metabolites (tannins, alkaloids, total phenols, flavonoids, and lignin) in leaves. Metabolome analysis indicated that the JA-induced treatment of leaves led to significant upregulation of defensive metabolites. The activity of GSTs increased in second-instar thrips larvae fed JA- and MeJA-induced leaves. Co-silencing with RNAi simultaneously knocked down FoGSTd1 and FoGSTs1 transcripts and GST activity, and the area damaged by second-instar larvae feeding on JA- and MeJA-induced leaves decreased by 62.22% and 55.24%, respectively. The pupation rate of second-instar larvae also decreased by 39.68% and 39.89%, respectively. Thus, RNAi downregulation of FoGSTd1 and FoGSTs1 reduced the anti-adaptive ability of F. occidentalis to JA- or MeJA-induced defenses in kidney bean plants.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Tisanópteros , Acetatos , Animais , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Taninos/metabolismo , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142806

RESUMO

Mycotoxin contamination of maize kernels by fungal pathogens like Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus is a chronic global challenge impacting food and feed security, health, and trade. Maize lipoxygenase genes (ZmLOXs) synthetize oxylipins that play defense roles and govern host-fungal interactions. The current study investigated the involvement of ZmLOXs in maize resistance against these two fungi. A considerable intraspecific genetic and transcript variability of the ZmLOX family was highlighted by in silico analysis comparing publicly available maize pan-genomes and pan-transcriptomes, respectively. Then, phenotyping and expression analysis of ZmLOX genes along with key genes involved in oxylipin biosynthesis were carried out in a maize mutant carrying a Mu transposon insertion in the ZmLOX4 gene (named UFMulox4) together with Tzi18, Mo17, and W22 inbred lines at 3- and 7-days post-inoculation with F. verticillioides and A. flavus. Tzi18 showed the highest resistance to the pathogens coupled with the lowest mycotoxin accumulation, while UFMulox4 was highly susceptible to both pathogens with the most elevated mycotoxin content. F. verticillioides inoculation determined a stronger induction of ZmLOXs and maize allene oxide synthase genes as compared to A. flavus. Additionally, oxylipin analysis revealed prevalent linoleic (18:2) peroxidation by 9-LOXs, the accumulation of 10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid (10-OPEA), and triglyceride peroxidation only in F. verticillioides inoculated kernels of resistant genotypes.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/genética , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
New Phytol ; 236(5): 1796-1808, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052744

RESUMO

Herbivory severely affects plant growth, posing a threat to crop production. Calcium ion (Ca2+ ) signaling and accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) are activated in plant response to herbivore attack, leading to the expression of defense pathways. However, little is known about how the Ca2+ signal modulates JA biosynthesis. We used diverse techniques, including CRISPR/Cas9, UPLC-MS/MS and molecular biology methods to explore the role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 16 in Ca2+ signal-triggered JA burst during herbivore defense in tomato. Here we show that simulated herbivory induces GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR LIKE3.3/3.5 (GLR3.3/3.5)-dependent increases in electrical activity, Ca2+ influx and increases the abundance of CALMODULIN2 (CaM2) and ERF16 transcripts in tomato. The interaction between CaM2 and ERF16 promotes JA biosynthesis by enhancing the transcriptional activity of ERF16, which increases the activation of ERF16 expression and causes expression of LIPOXYGENASE D (LOXD), AOC and 12-OXO-PHYTODIENOIC ACID REDUCTASE 3 (OPR3), the key genes in JA biosynthesis. Mutation of CaM2 results in decreased JA accumulation, together with the expression of JA biosynthesis-related genes, leading to reduced resistance to the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism underpinning the Ca2+ signal-initiated systemic JA burst and emphasize the pivotal role of Ca2+ signal/ERF16 crosstalk in herbivore defense.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Mariposas , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(5): 1389-1400, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169784

RESUMO

Changes in the metabolic profile within the intestine of lenok (Brachymystax lenok) when challenged to acute and lethal heat stress (HS) are studied using no-target HPLC-MS/MS metabonomic analysis. A total of 51 differentially expressed metabolites (VIP > 1, P < 0.05) were identified in response to HS, and 34 occurred in the positive ion mode and 17 in negative ion mode, respectively. After heat stress, changes in metabolites related to glycolysis (i.e., alpha-D-glucose, stachyose, and L-lactate) were identified. The metabolites (acetyl carnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, carnitine, and erucic acid) related to fatty acid ß-oxidation accumulated significantly, and many amino acids (L-tryptophan, D-proline, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartate, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-histidine, and L-glutamine) were significantly decreased in HS-treated lenok. The mitochondrial ß-oxidation pathway might be inhibited, while severe heat stress might activate the anaerobic glycolysis and catabolism of amino acid for energy expenditure. Oxidative damage in HS-treated lenok was indicated by the decreased glycerophospholipid metabolites (i.e., glycerophosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine) and the increased oxylipin production (12-HETE and 9R, 10S-EpOME). The minor oxidative pathways (omega-oxidation and peroxisomal beta-oxidation) were likely to be induced in HS-treated lenok.


Assuntos
Ácidos Erúcicos , Salmonidae , Animais , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Palmitoilcarnitina/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Acetilcarnitina/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Leucina , Triptofano , Histidina/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ácido 12-Hidroxi-5,8,10,14-Eicosatetraenoico/metabolismo , Fosforilcolina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Salmonidae/fisiologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Intestinos , Metionina , Prolina/metabolismo , Tirosina , Fenilalanina , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo
17.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 204: 115210, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973581

RESUMO

In this review it is attempted to summarize current studies about formation of eicosanoids and other oxylipins in different human macrophages. There are several reports on M1 and M2 cells, also other phenotypes have been described. The eicosanoids formed in the largest amounts are the COX products TxB2 and PGE2. Thus shortlived bioactive TxA2 is a dominating product both in M1- and in M2-lineages, one exception seems to be MGM-CSF, TGFß cells. 5-LOX products are produced in both M1 and M2 macrophages, as well as in not fully polarized cells of both lineages. MM-CSF as well as M2 macrophages produced LTC4 more readily compared to M1 lineage cells. In MGM-CSF, TGFß cells LTB4 is a major eicosanoid, in line with high expression of LTA4 hydrolase. Recent reports described increased formation of leukotrienes in macrophages subjected to trained immunity with inflammatory transcriptional reprogramming. Also in macrophages derived from monocytes collected from post-COVID-19 patients. 15-LOX-1 is strongly upregulated in CD206+ M2 cells (M2a), differentiated in presence of IL-4. These macrophages also express 15-LOX-2. In incubations with pathogenic E. coli as well as other stimuli 15(S)-HETE and 17(S)-HDHA were major oxylipins formed. Also, the SPM precursor 5,15-diHETE and the SPM RvD5 were produced in considerable amounts, while other SPMs were less abundant. In M2 macrophages incubated with E. coli or S. aureus the cytosolic 15-LOX-1 enzyme accumulated to punctuate structures in a Ca2+ dependent manner with a relatively slow time course, leading to formation of mediators from endogenous substrate. Chalcones, flavone-like anti-inflammatory natural products, induced translocation of 15-LOX-1 in M2 cells, with high formation of 15-LOX derived oxylipins.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Eicosanoides , Macrófagos , Oxilipinas , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Chalconas , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Flavonas , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Leucotrienos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas E/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
J Lipid Res ; 63(10): 100267, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028048

RESUMO

Obesity exacerbates inflammation upon lung injury; however, the mechanisms by which obesity primes pulmonary dysregulation prior to external injury are not well studied. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that obesity dysregulates pulmonary PUFA metabolism that is central to inflammation initiation and resolution. We first show that a high-fat diet (HFD) administered to C57BL/6J mice increased the relative abundance of pulmonary PUFA-containing triglycerides and the concentration of PUFA-derived oxylipins (particularly prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), independent of an increase in total pulmonary PUFAs, prior to onset of pulmonary inflammation. Experiments with a genetic model of obesity (ob/ob) generally recapitulated the effects of the HFD on the pulmonary oxylipin signature. Subsequent pulmonary next-generation RNA sequencing identified complex and unique transcriptional regulation with the HFD. We found the HFD increased pathways related to glycerophospholipid metabolism and immunity, including a unique elevation in B cell differentiation and signaling. Furthermore, we conducted computational integration of lipidomic with transcriptomic data. These analyses identified novel HFD-driven networks between glycerophospholipid metabolism and B cell receptor signaling with specific PUFA-derived pulmonary oxylipins. Finally, we confirmed the hypothesis by demonstrating that the concentration of pulmonary oxylipins, in addition to inflammatory markers, were generally increased in mice consuming a HFD upon ozone-induced acute lung injury. Collectively, these data show that a HFD dysregulates pulmonary PUFA metabolism prior to external lung injury, which may be a mechanism by which obesity primes the lungs to respond poorly to infectious and/or inflammatory challenges.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Lesão Pulmonar , Ozônio , Animais , Camundongos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012649

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a vital plant hormone that performs a variety of critical functions for plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza), also known as Danshen, is a renowned traditional Chinese medicinal herb. However, no thorough and systematic analysis of JA biosynthesis genes in S. miltiorrhiza exists. Through genome-wide prediction and molecular cloning, 23 candidate genes related to JA biosynthesis were identified in S. miltiorrhiza. These genes belong to four families that encode lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), and 12-OPDA reductase3 (OPR3). It was discovered that the candidate genes for JA synthesis of S. miltiorrhiza were distinct and conserved, in contrast to related genes in other plants, by evaluating their genetic structures, protein characteristics, and phylogenetic trees. These genes displayed tissue-specific expression patterns concerning to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and wound tests. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable information for elucidating the JA biosynthesis pathway in S. miltiorrhiza by comprehensive and methodical examination.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Clonagem Molecular , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2202930119, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037336

RESUMO

In plants, jasmonate signaling regulates a wide range of processes from growth and development to defense responses and thermotolerance. Jasmonates, such as jasmonic acid (JA), (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), 12-oxo-10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), and dinor-12-oxo-10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid (dn-OPDA), are derived from C18 (18 Carbon atoms) and C16 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found ubiquitously in the plant kingdom. Bryophytes are also rich in C20 and C22 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are found only at low levels in some vascular plants but are abundant in organisms of other kingdoms, including animals. The existence of bioactive jasmonates derived from LCPUFAs is currently unknown. Here, we describe the identification of an OPDA-like molecule derived from a C20 fatty acid (FA) in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha (Mp), which we term (5Z,8Z)-10-(4-oxo-5-((Z)-pent-2-en-1-yl)cyclopent-2-en-1-yl)deca-5,8-dienoic acid (C20-OPDA). This molecule accumulates upon wounding and, when applied exogenously, can activate known Coronatine Insensitive 1 (COI1) -dependent and -independent jasmonate responses. Furthermore, we identify a dn-OPDA-like molecule (Δ4-dn-OPDA) deriving from C20-OPDA and demonstrate it to be a ligand of the jasmonate coreceptor (MpCOI1-Mp Jasmonate-Zinc finger inflorescence meristem domain [MpJAZ]) in Marchantia. By analyzing mutants impaired in the production of LCPUFAs, we elucidate the major biosynthetic pathway of C20-OPDA and Δ4-dn-OPDA. Moreover, using a double mutant compromised in the production of both Δ4-dn-OPDA and dn-OPDA, we demonstrate the additive nature of these molecules in the activation of jasmonate responses. Taken together, our data identify a ligand of MpCOI1 and demonstrate LCPUFAs as a source of bioactive jasmonates that are essential to the immune response of M. polymorpha.


Assuntos
Marchantia , Oxilipinas , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Ligantes , Marchantia/química , Marchantia/genética , Mutação , Oxilipinas/metabolismo
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