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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1397-1404, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917559

RESUMO

Volatiles affect tea (Camellia sinensis) aroma quality and have roles in tea plant defense against stresses. Some volatiles defend against stresses through their toxicity, which might affect tea safety. Benzyl nitrile is a defense-related toxic volatile compound that accumulates in tea under stresses, but its formation mechanism in tea remains unknown. In this study, l-[2H8]phenylalanine feeding experiments and enzyme reactions showed that benzyl nitrile was generated from l-phenylalanine via phenylacetaldoxime in tea. CsCYP79D73 showed activity for converting l-phenylalanine into phenylacetaldoxime, while CsCYP71AT96s showed activity for converting phenylacetaldoxime into benzyl nitrile. Continuous wounding in the oolong tea process significantly enhanced the CsCYP79D73 expression level and phenylacetaldoxime and benzyl nitrile contents. Benzyl nitrile accumulation under continuous wounding stress was attributed to an increase in jasmonic acid, which activated CsCYP79D73 expression. This represents the first elucidation of the formation mechanism of benzyl nitrile in tea.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/química , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Food Chem ; 309: 125737, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780227

RESUMO

Chlorophyll degradation is the main reason for postharvest yellowing of broccoli. To uncover the role of jasmonic acid (JA) on the degradation of chlorophyll, broccoli flowers were treated with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA). We found a surge of endogenous JA content with the yellowing process, and a significant correlation between JA and chlorophyll content. MeJA treatments led to increased endogenous JA, increased allene oxide cyclase (AOC) activity, and enhanced expression of JA synthesis genes. MeJA caused a stronger reduction in the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), fluorescence decline ratio (Rfd), and total chlorophyll content, advanced the peak of pheide a oxygenase (PAO) activity, and up-regulated the expression of chlorophyll degradation genes. The DIECA treatment resulted in lower endogenous levels of JA, and AOC and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase (OPR) activity. This study revealed that the potential role of JA on broccoli yellowing is to promote the chlorophyll degradation.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/química , Ciclopentanos/química , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ditiocarb/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/química , Oxilipinas/farmacologia
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 501, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: White rot is one of the most dangerous fungal diseases and can considerably affect grape berry production and quality. However, few studies have focused on this disease, and thus, finding candidate white rot resistance genes is of great importance for breeding resistant grapevine cultivars. Based on field observations and indoor experiments, the cultivars "Victoria" and "Zhuosexiang" showed significant differences in white rot resistance. For understanding the molecular mechanisms behind it, different phenotypes of grapevine leaves were used for RNA sequencing via Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. RESULTS: A transcript library containing 53,906 reads, including known and novel transcripts, was constructed following the full-length transcriptome sequencing of the two grapevine cultivars. Genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis pathways showed different expression levels. Furthermore, four key transcription factors (TFs), NPR1, TGA4, Pti6, and MYC2, all involved in the SA and JA signal pathways were identified, and the expression profile revealed the different regulation of the pathogenesis related protein1 (PR1) resistance gene, as mediated by the four TFs. CONCLUSIONS: Full-length transcript sequencing can substantially improve the accuracy and integrity of gene prediction and gene function research in grapevine. Our results contribute to identify candidate resistance genes and improve our understanding of the genes and regulatory mechanisms involved in grapevine resistance to white rot.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/imunologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vitis/imunologia , Vitis/microbiologia
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 1004-1018, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755020

RESUMO

Latex occurs in 10% of plant families, has evolved independently many times, and is the most effective defense of milkweeds against its chewing herbivores. Here we report on new experiments on the heritability and inducibility of latex in several milkweed species. In addition, we review what is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of latex exudation, hormonal regulation, evolution within and among species, and the role and frequency of latex in agricultural crops. We first evaluated genotype-by-environment interactions using ~20 full-sibling genetic families in each of seven Asclepias species treated as controls or attacked by monarch butterfly caterpillars. All species showed substantial genetic variation for latex exudation and six of seven species responded to monarch herbivory (two species increased latex, two species decreased, and two showed variation among genetic families). Exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) to three species induced a consistent increase in latex (including species which showed a decline following caterpillar herbivory). We next evaluated three hypotheses for what determines genetic variation for induced latex in A. syriaca: 1) a trade-off with constitutive investment, 2) differential endogenous JA induction, or 3) variation in responsiveness to JA. We only found support for the second hypothesis: genetic families with a stronger JA-burst showed the greatest latex exudation following herbivory. We conclude that most species exhibit a genetic and inducible basis for latex, although genetic variation in inducibility is not pervasive. Finally, we summarized studies across 22 species of Asclepias and found that neither a species' latitude nor its phylogenetic position predicted latex inducibility. Nonetheless, a negative association between constitutive and induced latex across species indicates a macroevolutionary trade-off in allocation to this defense. Our review indicates that jasmonic acid is a key regulator of latex exudation, laticifer morphology, and defensive metabolites within latex. Biotic and abiotic factors strongly modulate latex expression. A survey of latex in food crops revealed that latex and analogous exudates (gums, resins, mucilage) are more common than expected based on their distribution across all plants. In conclusion, despite its widespread occurrence, the literature on latex is currently dominated by rubber trees and milkweeds, and we look forward to the broadening of ecological, agricultural, and mechanistic research into other systems.


Assuntos
Asclepias/química , Látex/química , Látex/metabolismo , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Ciclopentanos/química , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxilipinas/química , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/química , Transdução de Sinais
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 199: 111625, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610430

RESUMO

The cultivated grapevine V. vinifera is a rich source of stilbene compounds such as resveratrol, which are widely believed to provide dietary protection against the development of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. Elicitation is a well-known strategy to increase commercial production of natural products in plant cell suspension culture systems. Callus tissues obtained from berry slices of V. vinifera cv. Shahani grown on an optimized medium were used to develop cell suspension cultures used to study the effects of elicitation on stilbene synthesis. The effect of two light regimes (135.1 µmol. s-1 m-2 radiation, and dark), the concentration of phenylalanine (Phe; 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM) and of methyl jasmonate elicitor (MeJA; 0 and 25 µM), alone or in combination, were tested. The results showed that cultures grown in darkness resulted in significantly higher levels of the accumulation of total stilbenes (resveratrol + piceid) compared with the high light condition. The combined treatments of dark +1 mM Phe and dark +25 µM MeJA induced the synthesis of high levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and total stilbenes. Finally, the combined elicitation of dark +1 mM Phe + 25 µM MeJA gave the highest synergistic coefficient (1.24) and proved to be the most effective treatment for the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total stilbenes with mean contents of 384.80 mg GA/g DW, 527.62 mg catechin/g DW and 188.34 µg/g DW, respectively. The results of our study suggest that the combinations of dark together with MeJA and/or Phe can be used as an efficient method for the future scale-up of V. vinifera cell cultures for the production of high value stilbene compounds in a bioreactor system.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/citologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Catequina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Condutividade Elétrica , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Suspensões/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 437, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiprotein bridging factor 1 s (MBF1s) are members of the transcriptional co-activator family that have involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, little is known about the Solanum lycopersicum MBF1 (SlMBF1) gene family. RESULTS: In total, five SlMBF1 genes were identified based on the tomato reference genome, and these genes were mapped to five chromosomes. All of the SlMBF1 proteins were highly conserved, with a typical MBF1 domain and helix-turn-helix_3 domain. In addition, the promoter regions of the SlMBF1 genes have various stress and hormone responsive cis-regulatory elements. Encouragingly, the SlMBF1 genes were expressed with different expression profiles in different tissues and responded to various stress and hormone treatments. The biological function of SlMBF1c was further identified through its overexpression in tomato, and the transgenic tomato lines showed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea). Additionally, the expression patterns of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)- mediated defense related genes were altered in the transgenic plants. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive analysis provides valuable information for clarifying the evolutionary relationship of the SlMBF1 members and their expression patterns in different tissues and under different stresses. The overexpression of SlMBF1c decreased the resistance of tomato to B. cinerea through enhancing the gene expression of the SA-mediated signaling pathway and depressing JA/ET-mediated signaling pathways. These results will facilitate future functional studies of the transcriptional co-activator family.


Assuntos
Botrytis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Família Multigênica , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505771

RESUMO

Adventitious rooting is a post-embryonic developmental program governed by a multitude of endogenous and environmental cues. Auxin, along with other phytohormones, integrates and translates these cues into precise molecular signatures to provide a coherent developmental output. Auxin signaling guides every step of adventitious root (AR) development from the early event of cell reprogramming and identity transitions until emergence. We have previously shown that auxin signaling controls the early events of AR initiation (ARI) by modulating the homeostasis of the negative regulator jasmonate (JA). Although considerable knowledge has been acquired about the role of auxin and JA in ARI, the genetic components acting downstream of JA signaling and the mechanistic basis controlling the interaction between these two hormones are not well understood. Here we provide evidence that COI1-dependent JA signaling controls the expression of DAO1 and its closely related paralog DAO2. In addition, we show that the dao1-1 loss of function mutant produces more ARs than the wild type, probably due to its deficiency in accumulating JA and its bioactive metabolite JA-Ile. Together, our data indicate that DAO1 controls a sensitive feedback circuit that stabilizes the auxin and JA crosstalk during ARI.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10891-10903, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505929

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) play an important role in plant developmental processes and regulate the biosynthesis of various specialized metabolites, and transcription factors are crucial in mediating JA signaling to regulate these processes. Capsaicinoids (Caps) are intriguing specialized metabolites produced uniquely by Capsicum species that give their fruits a pungent flavor to defend against herbivory and pathogens. In this study, we identify a R2R3-MYB transcription factor CaMYB108 and demonstrate its roles in regulating the biosynthesis of Caps and stamen development. Transcriptional analysis indicated that CaMYB108 was preferentially expressed in the flower and fruit, while the subcellular localization of CaMYB108 was shown to be the nucleus. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaMYB108 led to the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes (CBGs), and the contents of Caps dramatically reduce. Moreover, the CaMYB108-silenced plants showed delayed anther dehiscence and reduced pollen viability. Transient overexpression of CaMYB108 caused the expression of CBGs to be upregulated, and the Caps content significantly increased. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that CaMYB108 targeted CBG promoters. In addition, the expression of CaMYB108 and CBGs was inducible by methyl jasmonate and was consistent with the increased content of Caps. Overall, our results indicate that CaMYB108 is involved in the regulation of Caps biosynthesis and stamen development.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124711, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549668

RESUMO

In recent years, pharmaceuticals have received increasing attentions because of their potential risks to the environment, but researches focusing on their impacts on defense system of living plants are still lacking. As an important class of phytohormones, jasmonates play crucial roles in plant defense system against environmental stress. In order to investigate the effect of pharmaceuticals uptake on endogenous jasmonates, an in vivo solid phase microextraction (SPME) method was established to simultaneously detect and monitor both pharmaceuticals and jasmonates in living plants. The proposed method exhibited wide linear ranges, high sensitivity (limits of detection ranging 0.0043-0.035 ng g-1 for pharmaceuticals and 0.091-0.22 ng g-1 for jasmonates, respectively), and satisfactory reproducibility (relative standard deviation of intrafiber ranging 4.2%-8.6% and interfiber ranging 5.2%-8.2%, respectively). Subsequently, this method was successfully applied to track the concentrations of each pharmaceutical and corresponding jasmonates in living Malabar spinach plants (Basella alba. L) exposed to three common pharmaceuticals (i.e. gemfibrozil, mefenamic acid and tolfenamic acid) over 15 days. In result, all pharmaceuticals appeared to trigger intensive biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) (3.1-9.4 times of control) while reduced the concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (18.3%-38.1% of control). We inferred that uptake of pharmaceuticals acted as an abiotic stress and stimulated the plant defense response because of the variation of jasmonates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study applying SPME to detect and track both pharmaceuticals and phytohormones in living plants, which not only provided a glimpse to the adverse effect of pharmaceuticals on plants as well as the regulation of endogenous jasmonates, but also set a promising template for future in vivo analysis of xenobiotics and plant endogenous substances.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/imunologia , Oxilipinas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacocinética , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Genfibrozila/farmacologia , Ácido Mefenâmico/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Farmacocinética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida/normas , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia
10.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110192, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481228

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) play vital roles in regulating a range of plant growth and development processes including seed germination, seedling development, reproduction, formation and development of storage organs, and senescence. JAs are also involved in the regulation of plant responses to environmental stimuli. The biosynthesis of JAs takes place in three different subcellular compartments, namely, the chloroplast, peroxisome, and cytoplasm. JAs activate the expression of JA-responsive genes by degrading jasmonate zinc-finger-inflorescence meristem (Zim) domain (JAZ) repressors via the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skp/Cullin/F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) complex (SCFCOI1) by using 26S proteasome. Calcium, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis and signaling of JAs in plants. Among these signaling molecules, calcium is one of the most important within plant cells. In plants, intracellular calcium levels change in response to JAs, resulting in calcium signatures with temporal and spatial features. Calcium channels are involved in the generation of calcium signatures. Calcium sensors, including calmodulins (CaMs), CaM-like proteins (CMLs), calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs), and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), can act to regulate the biosynthesis and signaling of JAs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 644, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) of Brassica napus facilitates reproductive researches and hybrid seed production. Considering the complexity and little information about the molecular mechanism involved in B. napus TGMS, comparative transcriptomic analyses were peroformed for the sterile (160S-MS) and fertile (160S-MF) flowers to identify potential crucial genes and pathways associated with TGMS. RESULTS: In total, RNA-seq analysis showed that 2202 genes (561 up-regulated and 1641 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile flowers of 160S-MF at 25 °C when compared the sterile flower of 160S-MS at 15 °C. Detailed analysis revealed that expression changes in genes encoding heat shock proteins, antioxidant, skeleton protein, GTPase and calmodulin might be involved in TGMS of B. napus. Moreover, gene expression of some key members in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as auxin, gibberellins, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid signalings, were significantly surppressed in the flowers of 160S, suggesting that these genes might be involved in the regulation in B. napus TGMS. Here, we also found that transcription factor MADS, NFY, HSF, MYB/C and WRKY might play a crucial role in male fertility under the high temperature condition. CONCLUSION: High temperature can significant affect gene expression in the flowers. The findings in the current study improve our understanding of B. napus TGMS at the molecular level and also provide an effective foundation for male fertility researches in other important economic crops.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416297

RESUMO

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has been recognized as an important promoter of leaf senescence in plants. However, upstream transcription factors (TFs) that control JA biosynthesis during JA-promoted leaf senescence remain unknown. In this study, we report the possible involvement of a TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) TF BrTCP7 in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-promoted leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage. Exogenous MeJA treatment reduced maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and total chlorophyll content, accompanied by the increased expression of senescence marker and chlorophyll catabolic genes, and accelerated leaf senescence. To further understand the transcriptional regulation of MeJA-promoted leaf senescence, a class I member of TCP TFs BrTCP7 was examined. BrTCP7 is a nuclear protein and possesses trans-activation ability through subcellular localization and transcriptional activity assays. A higher level of BrTCP7 transcript was detected in senescing leaves, and its expression was up-regulated by MeJA. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient expression assay showed that BrTCP7 binds to the promoter regions of a JA biosynthetic gene BrOPR3 encoding OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) and a chlorophyll catabolic gene BrRCCR encoding red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR), activating their transcriptions. Taken together, these findings reveal that BrTCP7 is associated with MeJA-promoted leaf senescence at least partly by activating JA biosynthesis and chlorophyll catabolism, thus expanding our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanism of JA-mediated leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica/classificação , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9958-9966, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419123

RESUMO

Chilling injury (CI) is a physiological disorder induced by cold, which heavily limit crop production and postharvest preservation worldwide. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can alleviate CI in various fruit species, including peach; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, changes in contents of phenolics, lipids, and jasmonic acid (JA) and gene expressions are compared between MeJA and control fruit. Exogenous MeJA inhibited expressions of PpPAL1, PpPPO1, and PpPOD1/2 but did not affect the phenolic content. Furthermore, MeJA fruit showed lower relative electrolyte leakage, indicating less membrane damage. Meanwhile, the enrichment of linoleic acid in the potential lipid biomarkers, especially phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol, coincided with lower expressions of PpFAD8.1 but higher PpLOX3.1 and JA content. In the JA signaling pathway, MeJA significantly upregulated expressions of PpMYC2.2 and PpCBF3 but downregulated PpMYC2.1. In conclusion, adjustments of fatty acids in phospholipids contribute to MeJA-induced alleviation of CI in peach fruit via induction of the JA-mediated C-repeat-binding factor pathway.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 379, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic pathways are interconnected and yet relatively independent. Genes involved in metabolic modules are required for the modules to run. Study of the relationships between genes and metabolic modules improves the understanding of metabolic pathways in plants. The WIN transcription factor activates the cuticle biosynthesis pathway and promotes cuticle biosynthesis. The relationship between the WIN transcription factor and other metabolic pathways is unknown. Our aim was to determine the relationships between the main genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis and those involved in other metabolic pathways. We did this by cloning a cotton WIN gene, GhWIN2, and studying its influence on other pathways. RESULTS: As with other WIN genes, GhWIN2 regulated expression of cuticle biosynthesis-related genes, and promoted cuticle formation. Silencing of GhWIN2 resulted in enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae, caused by increased content of salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, silencing of GhWIN2 suppressed expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis-related genes and content. GhWIN2 positively regulated the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway upstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. Silencing of GhWIN2 reduced the content of stearic acid, a JA biosynthesis precursor. CONCLUSIONS: GhWIN2 not only regulated the cuticle biosynthesis pathway, but also positively influenced JA biosynthesis and negatively influenced SA biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Verticillium/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 673, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbivorous insects can have a profound impact on plant growth performance. In some years, canopy damage in poplar plantations exceeds 50% of the total leaf surface, thereby possibly compromising carbon fixation and biomass yield. To assess the transcriptional response of elite poplar clones to insect feeding and to test whether this response varies between different genotypes, we performed an RNA-sequencing experiment. We deeply sequenced the transcriptomes of eight elite clones belonging to three poplar species (Populus trichocarpa, P. nigra and P. maximowiczii), under Phratora vitellinae feeding and control conditions. This allowed us to precisely quantify transcript levels of about 24,000 expressed genes. RESULTS: Our data reveal a striking overall up-regulation of gene expression under insect attack in all eight poplar clones studied. The up-regulated genes were markedly enriched for the biological process 'regulation of transcription' indicating a highly concerted restructuring of the transcriptome. A search for potential cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that may be involved in this process identified the G-box (CACGTG) as the most significant motif in the promoters of the induced genes. In line with the role of the G-box in jasmonate (JA)-mediated activation of gene expression by MYC2, several genes involved in JA biosynthesis and signaling were up-regulated in our dataset. A co-expression network analysis additionally highlighted WRKY transcription factors. Within the most prominent expression module, WRKYs were strongly overrepresented and occupied several network hubs. Finally, the insect-induced genes comprised several protein families known to be involved in plant defenses, e.g. cytochrome P450s, chitinases and protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the transcriptional response of selected elite poplar clones to insect herbivory. Our results suggest that the concerted up-regulation of gene expression is controlled by JA signaling and WRKY transcription factors, and activates several defense mechanisms. Our data highlight potential targets of selection and may thus contribute to breeding insect-resistant poplar clones.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria , Populus/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Insetos/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3810, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444327

RESUMO

Many domesticated crop plants have been bred for increased apical dominance, displaying greatly reduced axillary branching compared to their wild ancestors. In maize, this was achieved through selection for a gain-of-function allele of the TCP transcription factor teosinte branched1 (tb1). The mechanism for how a dominant Tb1 allele increased apical dominance, is unknown. Through ChIP seq, RNA seq, hormone and sugar measurements on 1 mm axillary bud tissue, we identify the genetic pathways putatively regulated by TB1. These include pathways regulating phytohormones such as gibberellins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, but surprisingly, not auxin. In addition, metabolites involved in sugar sensing such as trehalose 6-phosphate were increased. This suggests that TB1 induces bud suppression through the production of inhibitory phytohormones and by reducing sugar levels and energy balance. Interestingly, TB1 also putatively targets several other domestication loci, including teosinte glume architecture1, prol1.1/grassy tillers1, as well as itself. This places tb1 on top of the domestication hierarchy, demonstrating its critical importance during the domestication of maize from teosinte.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Alelos , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Genes de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Seleção Genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374948

RESUMO

Autophagy is a well-defined catabolic mechanism whereby cytoplasmic materials are engulfed into a structure termed the autophagosome. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone, mediates diverse developmental process and defense responses which induce a variety of metabolites. In plants, little is known about autophagy-mediated responses against MeJA. In this study, we used high-throughput comparative proteomics to identify proteins of latex in the laticifers. The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS proteomics were performed, and 298 proteins among MeJA treated groups and the control group of Euphorbia kansui were identified. It is interesting to note that 29 significant differentially expressed proteins were identified and their associations with autophagy and ROS pathway were verified for several selected proteins as follows: α-L-fucosidase, ß-galactosidase, cysteine proteinase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the selected genes confirmed the fact that MeJA might enhance the expression of some genes related to autophagy. The western blotting and immunofluorescence results of ATG8 and ATG18a which are two important proteins for the formation of autophagosomes also demonstrated that MeJA could promote autophagy at the protein level. Using the electron microscope, we observed an increase in autophagosomes after MeJA treatment. These results indicated that MeJA might promote autophagy in E. kansui laticifers; and it was speculated that MeJA mediated autophagy through two possible ways: the increase of ROS induces ATG8 accumulation and then aotophagosome formation, and MeJA promotes ATG18 accumulation and then autophagosome formation. Taken together, our results provide several novel insights for understanding the mechanism between autophagy and MeJA treatment. However, the specific mechanism remains to be further studied in the future.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Euphorbia/citologia , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Euphorbia/genética , Euphorbia/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 337, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cymbidium goeringii belongs to the Orchidaceae, which is one of the most abundant angiosperm families. Cymbidium goeringii consist with high economic value and characteristics include fragrance and multiple flower colors. Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization. However, limited genetic data is available in this non-model plant, and little known about the molecular mechanism responsible for floral scent in this orchid. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and better understand the biological mechanisms of floral scents in this species. Present transcriptomic data provides basic information on the genes and enzymes related to and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism in this plant. RESULTS: In this study, RNA sequencing analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and biological pathways related scent metabolism. Three cDNA libraries were obtained from three developmental floral stages: closed bud, half flowering stage and full flowering stage. Using Illumina technique 159,616,374 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 85,868 final unigenes (average length 1194 nt), 33.85% of which were annotated in the NCBI non redundant protein database. Among this unigenes 36,082 were assigned to gene ontology and 23,164 were combined with COG groups. Total 33,417 unigenes were assigned in 127 pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. According these transcriptomic data we identified number of candidates genes which differentially expressed in different developmental stages of flower related to fragrance biosynthesis. In q-RT-PCR most of the fragrance related genes highly expressed in half flowering stage. CONCLUSIONS: RNA-seq and DEG data provided comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could be facilitate the molecular mechanisms of floral biosynthesis pathways in three developmental phase's flowers in Cymbidium goeringii, moreover providing useful information for further analysis on C. goeringii, and other plants of genus Cymbidium.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Odorantes , Orchidaceae/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(3): 297-313, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368003

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: An enzyme is crucial for the formation of Hedychium coronarium scent and defense responses, which may be responsible for the biosynthesis of allo-ocimene in H. coronarium. Hedychium coronarium can emit a strong scent as its main scent constituents are monoterpenes and their derivatives. Among these derivatives, allo-ocimene is not only a very important volatile substance in flower aroma, but is also crucial to plant defense. However, the molecular mechanism of allo-ocimene biosynthesis has not been characterized in plants. In this study, a new alcohol dehydrogenase gene, HcADH, was cloned. The amino acid sequences encoded by HcADH contained the most conserved motifs of short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs), which included NAD+ binding domain, TGxxx[AG]xG and active site YxxxK. Real-time PCR analyses showed that the HcADH was highly expressed in the outer labellum but was almost undetectable in vegetative organs. The change in its expression level in petals was positively correlated with the emission pattern of allo-ocimene during flower development. HcADH expression coincides also the release level of allo-ocimene among different Hedychium species. Although HcADH is not expressed in the leaves, HcADH expression and allo-ocimene release in leaves can be induced by mechanical wounding or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. In addition, the expression of HcADH induced by mechanical wounding can be prevented by acetylsalicylic acid, a jasmonic acid biosynthesis inhibitor, suggesting that jasmonic acid might participate in the transmission of wounding signals. Using the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-VIGS method, it was found that BSMV:HcADH335 inoculation was able to down-regulate HcADH expression, decreasing only the release of allo-ocimene in flowers while the content of other volatile substances did not decrese. In vitro characterization showed that recombinant HcADH can catalyze geraniol into citral, and citral is an intermediate of allo-ocimene biosynthesis. HcADH may be responsible for the biosynthesis of allo-ocimene in H. coronarium, which is crucial for the formation of H. coronarium scent and defense function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polienos/metabolismo , Redutases-Desidrogenases de Cadeia Curta/metabolismo , Zingiberaceae/enzimologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Flores/enzimologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Redutases-Desidrogenases de Cadeia Curta/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos/metabolismo , Zingiberaceae/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382426

RESUMO

Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse plant growth and defense processes by coupling to 7TM AtRGS1 proteins. Although G protein mutants display alterations in response to multiple plant hormones, the underlying mechanism by which G proteins participate in the regulation of hormone responses remains elusive. Here, we show that genetic disruption of Gα and Gß subunits results in reduced sensitivity to JA treatment. Furthermore, using confocal microscopy, VA-TIRFM, and FRET-FLIM, we provide evidence that stimulation by JA induces phosphorylation- and C-terminus-dependent endocytosis of AtRGS1, which then promotes dissociation of AtRGS1 from AtGPA1. In addition, SPT analysis reveals that JA treatment affects the diffusion dynamics of AtRGS1 and AtRGS1-ΔCt. Taken together, these findings suggest that the JA signal activates heterotrimeric G proteins through the endocytosis of AtRGS1 and dissociation of AtRGS1 from AtGPA1, thus providing valuable insight into the mechanisms of how the G protein system perceives and transduces phytohormone signals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Proteínas Heterotriméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Endocitose , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
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