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2.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(3): 358-372, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib reduced the risk of relapse versus placebo in patients with resected, BRAFV600-mutant, stage III melanoma in the phase 3 COMBI-AD trial. This prespecified exploratory biomarker analysis aimed to evaluate potential prognostic or predictive factors and mechanisms of resistance to adjuvant targeted therapy. METHODS: COMBI-AD is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial comparing dabrafenib 150 mg orally twice daily plus trametinib 2 mg orally once daily versus two matched placebos. Study participants were at least 18 years of age and underwent complete resection of stage IIIA (lymph node metastases >1 mm), IIIB, or IIIC cutaneous melanoma, per American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition criteria, with a BRAFV600E or BRAFV600K mutation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to the two treatment groups by an interactive voice response system, stratified by mutation type and disease stage. Patients, physicians, and the investigators who analysed data were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was relapse-free survival, defined as the time from randomisation to disease recurrence or death from any cause. Biomarker assessment was a prespecified exploratory outcome of the trial. We assessed intrinsic tumour genomic features by use of next-generation DNA sequencing and characteristics of the tumour microenvironment by use of a NanoString RNA assay, which might provide prognostic and predictive information. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01682083, and is ongoing but no longer recruiting participants. FINDINGS: Between Jan 31, 2013, and Dec 11, 2014, 870 patients were enrolled in the trial. Median follow-up at data cutoff (April 30, 2018) was 44 months (IQR 38-49) in the dabrafenib plus trametinib group and 42 months (21-49) in the placebo group. Intrinsic tumour genomic features were assessed in 368 patients (DNA sequencing set) and tumour microenvironment characteristics were assessed in 507 patients (NanoString biomarker set). MAPK pathway genomic alterations at baseline did not affect treatment benefit or clinical outcome. An IFNγ gene expression signature higher than the median was prognostic for prolonged relapse-free survival in both treatment groups. Tumour mutational burden was independently prognostic for relapse-free survival in the placebo group (high TMB, top third; hazard ratio [HR] 0·56, 95% CI 0·37-0·85, p=0·0056), but not in the dabrafenib plus trametinib group (0·83, 95% CI 0·53-1·32, p=0·44). Patients with tumour mutational burden in the lower two terciles seem to derive a substantial long-term relapse-free survival benefit from targeted therapy (HR [versus placebo] 0·49, 95% CI 0·35-0·68, p<0·0001). However, patients with high tumour mutational burden seem to have a less pronounced benefit with targeted therapy (HR [versus placebo] 0·75, 95% CI 0·44-1·26, p=0·27), especially if they had an IFNγ signature lower than the median (HR 0·88 [95% CI 0·40-1·93], p=0·74). INTERPRETATION: Tumour mutational burden alone or in combination with IFNγ gene expression signature or other markers for an adaptive immune response might be of relevance for identifying patients with stage III melanoma who might derive clinical benefit from targeted therapy. Further validation in prospective clinical trials is warranted. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Salvação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 324: 86-94, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954867

RESUMO

Organophosphorus nerve agents (NA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which results in the over-stimulation of both the central and peripheral nervous systems, creating a toxic syndrome that can be lethal if left untreated (Cannard, 2006). It is standard practice to treat Sarin (GB) intoxication with an oxime, an antimuscarinic such as atropine and an anticonvulsant. Three common oximes are available: HI-6, Pralidoxime (2-PAM) and Obidoxime (Obi), all possess a nucleophile that can break the NA-AChE covalent bond. However, each oxime's efficacy profile against various agents is different (Thiermann and Worek, 2018). In an effort to broaden therapeutic efficacy against a range of possible NA's, consideration should be given to the use of two oximes in combination. Using a guinea pig model, the first arm of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of HI-6 DMS, 2-PAM chloride and Obi chloride (at autoinjector equivalent doses) following intramuscular (i.m.) co-administration along with atropine to replicate either a single isometrically scaled dose (referred to in this study as a single autoinjector equivalent) of 2-PAM (and equimolar doses of Obi and HI-6) or double doses (referred to in this study as two autoinjector equivalents). The second arm of the study evaluated the efficacy of Obi and 2-PAM individually at a single or double autoinjector dose and also in combination against GB exposure. Pharmacokinetic profiles of each oxime were evaluated for both arms of the study and no significant change in parameters were reported. Improved cholinesterase reactivation was observed in a dose dependent manner with combined therapy showing similar reactivation to individual oximes alone at a two autoinjector equivalent dose. Seizure activity was reduced when combined oxime therapy was administered. This improvement was also reflected in the Racine seizure index score assigned at the end of the experimental period. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of three oximes and the combination of two oximes (2-PAM and Obi) administered in naïve animals or those exposed to GB. Combined oxime therapy (Obi and 2-PAM) resulted in improved seizure control, increased cholinesterase reactivation peripherally and centrally and improved behavioral signs (Racine score). This study provides evidence that combination of oximes is effective, does not result in adverse events and that the pharmacokinetics of each oxime are not affected when administered in combination.


Assuntos
Agentes Neurotóxicos/envenenamento , Oximas/farmacocinética , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Sarina/envenenamento , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobaias , Masculino , Oximas/administração & dosagem
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 64-72, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794810

RESUMO

Oxime-based acetylcholinesterase reactivators (briefly oximes) regenerate organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase and restore its function. Poor blood-brain-barrier passage and fast elimination from blood limit their actual use in treatment of patients exposed to organophosphates. Previous in vitro results implicated further testing of cucurbit[7]uril as a delivery vehicle for bisquaternary oximes. The present paper focuses on cell toxicity, in vivo safety and influence of cucurbit[7]uril on oxime pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Neither the K027 nor the complex caused any cell toxicity, changes in blood biochemistry or hepato- or nephrotoxicity in tested concentrations. The encapsulation of K027 increased and accelerated the blood-brain-barrier penetration. The peripheral oxime exposure also increased, supporting the suggestion that cucurbit[7]uril protects the circulating oxime from rapid renal clearance. Contrary to the comparable in vitro reactivation power of K027 and the encapsulated K027, we failed to confirm this in vivo. In theory, this might result from the non-specific binding of molecules to the cucurbit[7]uril or the interaction of K027 with cucurbit[7]uril being too strong for acetylcholinesterase reactivation. Precise explanation requires additional in silico, in vitro and also in vivo experiments.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/farmacocinética , Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacocinética , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Oximas/farmacocinética , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacocinética , Células A549 , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reativadores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Reativadores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Oximas/toxicidade , Compostos de Piridínio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Piridínio/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 125: 114-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of BREAK-2 and BREAK-3 showed that durable outcomes lasting ≥3 years are achievable with dabrafenib in some patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma (MM); however, additional follow-up is needed to fully characterise the long-term impact of dabrafenib in these patients. METHODS: BREAK-2 was a single-arm phase 2 study evaluating dabrafenib in treatment-naive or previously treated BRAF V600E/K-mutant MM. BREAK-3, a randomised (3:1) phase 3 study, assessed dabrafenib versus dacarbazine in previously untreated unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma. Five-year analyses were performed. RESULTS: All BREAK-2 patients (N = 92 [V600E, n = 76; V600K, n = 16]) discontinued treatment by the data cutoff. Median follow-up was 13.0 months. In BRAF V600E patients, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 11% and 20%, respectively. Subsequent immunotherapy was received by 22% of patients. In BREAK-3, median follow-up was 17.0 and 12.0 months in the dabrafenib (n = 187) and dacarbazine (n = 63) arms, respectively. Thirty-seven patients (59%) receiving dacarbazine crossed over to dabrafenib following disease progression as per protocol. Five-year PFS was 12% in the dabrafenib arm; all dacarbazine-arm patients progressed or were censored by 5 years. Dabrafenib improved PFS versus dacarbazine, regardless of baseline lactate dehydrogenase levels. Five-year OS rates were 24% and 22% in the dabrafenib and dacarbazine arms, respectively. Subsequent therapy in each arm included anti-CTLA-4 (dabrafenib [24%] and dacarbazine [24%]) and/or anti-PD-1 (8% and 2%) treatment. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data, representing extended follow-up for dabrafenib monotherapy, demonstrate that durable benefit lasting ≥5 years is achievable in a subset of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (BREAK-2, NCT01153763; BREAK-3, NCT01227889).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dacarbazina/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Seleção de Pacientes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(1): 111-118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757294

RESUMO

Due to significant risks of cancer recurrence and progression, and limited options after intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) therapy, there is a critical unmet need to identify novel treatments for those patients with BCG-unresponsive bladder cancer. There is active investigation of immunotherapies which provide both biologic and clinical rationales for indoleamine-2,3- dioxygenase inhibitors in salvage therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/administração & dosagem , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Triptofano/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Administração Intravesical , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Resultado do Tratamento , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Triptofano Oxigenase , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
10.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1422-1427, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406350

RESUMO

TRK fusions are found in a variety of cancer types, lead to oncogenic addiction, and strongly predict tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibition1-8. With the recent approval of the first selective TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, for patients with any TRK-fusion-positive adult or pediatric solid tumor, to identify mechanisms of treatment failure after initial response has become of immediate therapeutic relevance. So far, the only known resistance mechanism is the acquisition of on-target TRK kinase domain mutations, which interfere with drug binding and can potentially be addressable through second-generation TRK inhibitors9-11. Here, we report off-target resistance in patients treated with TRK inhibitors and in patient-derived models, mediated by genomic alterations that converge to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK pathway-directed targeted therapy, administered alone or in combination with TRK inhibition, re-established disease control. Experimental modeling further suggests that upfront dual inhibition of TRK and MEK may delay time to progression in cancer types prone to the genomic acquisition of MAPK pathway-activating alterations. Collectively, these data suggest that a subset of patients will develop off-target mechanisms of resistance to TRK inhibition with potential implications for clinical management and future clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Drug Investig ; 39(10): 1003-1007, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250402

RESUMO

Dabrafenib plus trametinib is US Food and Drug Administration approved combination therapy for use in patients with BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer, but information on use outside of clinical trials is limited. We report the case of a 70-year-old Asian woman (never smoker) who was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma in May 2014. Testing at diagnosis was negative for programmed death ligand 1 or EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 alterations. She was started on carboplatin-pemetrexed-bevacizumab and maintenance bevacizumab but progressed in September 2015. Subsequently, she progressed on second-line nivolumab and third-line docetaxel. In March 2016, pleural fluid obtained at diagnosis tested positive for the BRAF V600E mutation and she received dabrafenib plus trametinib. She experienced rapid tumor shrinkage and symptom improvement and became able to participate in regular daily activities with no notable adverse events. In December 2016, she died from a hemorrhagic stroke considered unrelated to treatment. In this heavily pretreated patient with non-small cell lung cancer, dabrafenib plus trametinib elicited an excellent response.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação/genética
13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(7): 626-636, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who have unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E or V600K mutation have prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival when receiving treatment with BRAF inhibitors plus MEK inhibitors. However, long-term clinical outcomes in these patients remain undefined. To determine 5-year survival rates and clinical characteristics of the patients with durable benefit, we sought to review long-term data from randomized trials of combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors. METHODS: We analyzed pooled extended-survival data from two trials involving previously untreated patients who had received BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib (at a dose of 150 mg twice daily) plus MEK inhibitor trametinib (2 mg once daily) in the COMBI-d and COMBI-v trials. The median duration of follow-up was 22 months (range, 0 to 76). The primary end points in the COMBI-d and COMBI-v trials were progression-free survival and overall survival, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 563 patients were randomly assigned to receive dabrafenib plus trametinib (211 in the COMBI-d trial and 352 in the COMBI-v trial). The progression-free survival rates were 21% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17 to 24) at 4 years and 19% (95% CI, 15 to 22) at 5 years. The overall survival rates were 37% (95% CI, 33 to 42) at 4 years and 34% (95% CI, 30 to 38) at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, several baseline factors (e.g., performance status, age, sex, number of organ sites with metastasis, and lactate dehydrogenase level) were significantly associated with both progression-free survival and overall survival. A complete response occurred in 109 patients (19%) and was associated with an improved long-term outcome, with an overall survival rate of 71% (95% CI, 62 to 79) at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: First-line treatment with dabrafenib plus trametinib led to long-term benefit in approximately one third of the patients who had unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E or V600K mutation. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis; COMBI-d ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01584648; COMBI-v ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01597908.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinonas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 941-946, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171878

RESUMO

Blocking programmed death 1 (PD-1) may enhance the durability of anti-tumor responses that are induced by the combined inhibition of BRAF and MEK1. Here we performed a randomized phase 2 trial ( NCT02130466 ), in which patients with treatment-naive BRAFV600E/K-mutant, advanced melanoma received the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK inhibitor trametinib together with the PD-1-blocking antibody pembrolizumab (triplet; n = 60) or placebo (doublet; n = 60). The primary end point of progression-free survival was numerically improved in the triplet group-16.0 months-compared with 10.3 months in the doublet group (hazard ratio, 0.66; P = 0.043); however, the trial did not reach the planned benefit for a statistically significant improvement. Median duration of response was 18.7 months (95% confidence interval, 10.1-22.1) and 12.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-14.1); 59.8 and 27.8% of responses were estimated to have lasted for more than 18 months for triplet and doublet treatment, respectively. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 58.3 and 26.7% of patients treated with triplet and doublet therapies, respectively, which were most commonly fever, increased transaminase levels and rash. One patient who received triplet therapy died of pneumonitis. In summary, triplet therapy with dabrafenib, trametinib and pembrolizumab conferred numerically longer progression-free survival and duration of response with a higher rate of grade 3/4 adverse events compared with the doublet therapy of dabrafenib, trametinib and placebo.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 936-940, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171879

RESUMO

Oncogene-targeted therapy with B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces a high initial response rate in patients with BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, with a median duration of response of approximately 1 year1-3. Immunotherapy with antibodies to programmed death 1 (PD-1) produces lower response rates but with long response duration. Preclinical models suggest that combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors with PD-1 blockade therapy improves antitumor activity4-6, which may provide additional treatment options for patients unlikely to have long-lasting responses to either mode of therapy alone. We enrolled 15 patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma in a first-in-human clinical trial of dabrafenib, trametinib and pembrolizumab ( NCT02130466 ). Eleven patients (73%) experienced grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events, the most common being elevation of liver function tests and pyrexia, most of which resolved with drug interruption or discontinuation of either the anti-PD-1 antibody or the targeted therapy combination. Eleven patients (73%; 95% confidence interval = 45-92%) had an objective response, and six (40%; 95% confidence interval = 16-68%) continued with a response at a median follow-up of 27 months (range = 10.3-38.4+ months) for all patients. This study suggests that this triple-combined therapy may benefit a subset of patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma by increasing the frequency of long-lasting antitumor responses.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058815

RESUMO

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated by various brain insults and is implicated in neuronal injury triggered by reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Some JNK inhibitors demonstrated neuroprotective potential in various models, including cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of the present work was to study the neuroprotective activity of a new specific JNK inhibitor, IQ-1S (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime sodium salt), in the model of global cerebral ischemia (GCI) in rats compared with citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine), a drug approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and to search for pleiotropic mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of IQ-1S. The experiments were performed in a rat model of ischemic stroke with three-vessel occlusion (model of 3VO) affecting the brachiocephalic artery, the left subclavian artery, and the left common carotid artery. After 7-min episode of GCI in rats, 25% of animals died, whereas survived animals had severe neurological deficit at days 1, 3, and 5 after GCI. At day 5 after GCI, we observing massive loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area, increase in lipid peroxidation products in the brain tissue, and decrease in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) in the parietal cortex. Moreover, blood hyperviscosity syndrome and endothelial dysfunction were found after GCI. Administration of IQ-1S (intragastrically at a dose 50 mg/kg daily for 5 days) was associated with neuroprotective effect comparable with the effect of citicoline (intraperitoneal at a dose of 500 mg/kg, daily for 5 days).The neuroprotective effect was accompanied by a decrease in the number of animals with severe neurological deficit, an increase in the number of animals with moderate degree of neurological deficit compared with control GCI group, and an increase in the number of unaltered neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area along with a significant decrease in the number of neurons with irreversible morphological damage. In rats with IQ-1S administration, the LCBF was significantly higher (by 60%) compared with that in the GCI control. Treatment with IQ-1S also decreases blood viscosity and endothelial dysfunction. A concentration-dependent decrease (IC50 = 0.8 ± 0.3 µM) of tone in isolated carotid arterial rings constricted with phenylephrine was observed after IQ-1S application in vitro. We also found that IQ-1S decreased the intensity of the lipid peroxidation in the brain tissue in rats with GCI. 2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging for IQ-1S in acetonitrile and acetone exceeded the corresponding values for ionol, a known antioxidant. Overall, these results suggest that the neuroprotective properties of IQ-1S may be mediated by improvement of cerebral microcirculation due to the enhanced vasorelaxation, beneficial effects on blood viscosity, attenuation of the endothelial dysfunction, and antioxidant/antiradical IQ-1S activity.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Citidina Difosfato Colina/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Quinoxalinas/administração & dosagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Citidina Difosfato Colina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112568

RESUMO

Cancer cells harness immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) to evade immune control. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated durable anti-tumor efficacy in human and preclinical models. Liver toxicity is one of the common immune-related adverse events associated with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) and its frequency and severity often increase significantly during CPI combination therapies. We aim to develop a mouse model to elucidate the immune mechanisms of CPI-associated liver toxicity. Co-administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody, 9D9, and/or an IDO1 inhibitor, epacadostat in wild-type and PD-1-/- mice (to simulate the effect of PD1 blockade) synergistically induced liver injury and immune cell infiltration. Infiltrated cells were primarily composed of CD8+ T cells and positively associated with hepatocyte necrosis. Strikingly, sites of hepatocyte necrosis were frequently surrounded by clusters of mononuclear immune cells. CPI treatments resulted in increased expression of genes associated with hepatocyte cell death, leukocyte migration and T cell activation in the liver. In conclusion, blockade of immune checkpoints PD-1, CTLA-4, and IDO1 act synergistically to enhance T cell infiltration and activity in the liver, leading to hepatocyte death.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/lesões , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/deficiência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem
19.
Toxicology ; 423: 75-83, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112674

RESUMO

The misuse of organophosphate compounds still represents a current threat worldwide. Treatment of poisoning with organophosphates (OPs) remains unsatisfactorily resolved despite the extensive investment in research in academia. There are no universal, effective and centrally-active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators to countermeasure OP intoxication. One major obstacle is to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The central compartment is readily accessible by the OPs which are lipophilic bullets that can easily cross the BBB, whereas first-line therapeutics, namely oxime-based AChE reactivators and atropine, do not cross or do so rather slowly. The limitation of oxime-based AChE reactivators can be ascribed to their chemical nature, bearing a positive charge which is essential either for their AChE affinity or their reactivating potency. The aim of this article is to review the methods for targeting the brain by oxime reactivators that have been developed so far. Approaches using prodrugs, lipophilicity enhancement, or sugar-based oximes have been rather unsuccessful. However, other strategies have been more promising, such as the use of nanoparticles or co-administration of the reactivator with efflux transporter inhibitors. Encouraging results have also been associated with intranasal delivery, but research in this field is still at the beginning. Further research of auspicious approaches is inevitable.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacocinética , Oximas/farmacocinética , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/envenenamento , Reativadores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Reativadores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Oximas/uso terapêutico
20.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 110: 104260, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082388

RESUMO

Although the treatment of metastatic melanoma has been significantly improved by both anti-BRAF/MEK and checkpoint immunotherapies, resistance to these treatment modalities remains a substantial clinical problem. Multiple clinical studies are addressing the optimal sequencing of these agents in larger patient cohorts, but successful long-term individualized treatment will likely require the elucidation of resistance mechanisms from post-progression samples. Here, we describe a patient with BRAF-V600E-positive metastatic melanoma who was sequentially treated with BRAF/MEK inhibitors (dabrafenib/trametinib) and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (nivolumab, followed by pembrolizumab). After the emergence of resistance, whole exome sequencing was performed, implicating MAP2K2 and B2M mutations in loss of response to anti-BRAF/MEK and anti-PD1 therapies, respectively.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Microglobulina beta-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Falha de Tratamento , Microglobulina beta-2/genética
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