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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 3-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893387

RESUMO

Neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury were monitored using a broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system in the neonatal intensive care unit. The aim of this work is to use the NIRS cerebral oxygenation data (HbD = oxygenated-haemoglobin - deoxygenated-haemoglobin) combined with arterial saturation (SaO2) from pulse oximetry to calculate cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on the oxygen swing method, during spontaneous desaturation episodes. The method is based on Fick's principle and uses HbD as a tracer; when a sudden change in SaO2 occurs, the change in HbD represents a change in tracer concentration, and thus it is possible to estimate CBF. CBF was successfully calculated with broadband NIRS in 11 HIE infants (3 with severe injury) for 70 oxygenation events on the day of birth. The average CBF was 18.0 ± 12.7 ml 100 g-1 min-1 with a range of 4 ml 100 g-1 min-1 to 60 ml 100 g-1 min-1. For infants with severe HIE (as determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) CBF was significantly lower (p = 0.038, d = 1.35) than those with moderate HIE on the day of birth.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Encéfalo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Oximetria , Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 19-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893389

RESUMO

The Consensus on Resuscitation Science and Treatment Recommendations indicate the target SpO2 values during the first 10 min of life. There are a few studies of values of brain regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) in newborns, conventional instruments are large and not suitable for measuring in the delivery room. The purpose of this study was to develop reference values for brain rSO2 up to 10 min after birth and to review the changes in cerebral oxygenation in late preterm and term newborn infants immediately after birth. METHOD: We evaluated both brain rSO2 and SpO2 at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after birth in 100 neonates. rSO2, was measured at the forehead using a finger-mounted oximeter. This is 1/100 the size of conventional NIRS and can be carried. To measure SpO2, a Radical-7 was used. This study was approved by the institutional review board at our hospital. RESULTS: The gestational age and birth weight were 37.9 ± 1.2 weeks and 2825 ± 429 g, respectively. Eighty-seven infants and 13 infants were term and late preterm infants, respectively, and there were 21 vaginal deliveries and 79 cesarean sections. In all cases, rSO2 levels were measured at 1, 3, 5, and 10 min after birth. For the SpO2 measurements, nine cases at 1 min, 40 cases at 3 min, 81 cases at 5 min and 93 cases at 10 min were available. The median rSO2 level was 43% at 1 min after birth, 48% at 3 min, 52% at 5 min and 57% at 10 min. CONCLUSION: We used a finger-mounted oximeter to observe changes in brain rSO2 values of 100 normal transition infants. It was easier to detect rSO2 in comparison to the peripheral oxygen saturation monitored by our pulse oximeter. Brain rSO2 values might be useful to evaluate oxygenation immediately after birth.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Oximetria , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/análise , Valores de Referência
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 33-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893391

RESUMO

Monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS oximetry) has great potential to reduce the incidence of hypoxic and hyperoxic events and thus prevent long-term disabilities in preterm neonates. Since the light has to penetrate superficial layers (bone, skin and cerebrospinal fluid) before it reaches the brain, the question arises whether these layers influence cerebral StO2 measurement. We assessed this influence on the accuracy of cerebral StO2 values. For that purpose, we simulated light propagation with 'N-layered medium' software. It was found that with a superficial layer thickness of ≤6 mm, typical for term and preterm neonates, StO2 accurately reflects cerebral tissue oxygenation.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Crânio , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/normas , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 145-153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893405

RESUMO

The aim of the paper is to discuss what currently is feasible clinically to measure the level of oxygen and how that measurement can be clinically useful. Because oxygen in tissues is quite heterogeneous and all methods of measurement can only provide an average across heterogeneities at some spatial and temporal resolution, the values that are obtained may have limitations on their clinical utility. However, even if such limitations are significant, if one utilizes repeated measurements and focuses on changes in the measured levels, rather than 'absolute levels', it may be possible to obtain very useful clinical information. While these considerations are especially pertinent in cancer, they also pertain to most other types of pathology.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 155-168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893406

RESUMO

The success of treatment for malignancies, especially those undergoing radiation therapy or chemotherapy, has long been recognized to depend on the degree of hypoxia in the tumor. In addition to the prognostic value of knowing the tumor's initial level of hypoxia, assessing the tumor oxygenation during standard therapy or oxygen-related treatments (such as breathing oxygen-enriched gas mixtures or taking drugs that can increase oxygen supply to tissues) can provide valuable data to improve the efficacy of treatments. A series of early clinical studies of tumors in humans are ongoing at Dartmouth and Emory using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to assess tumor oxygenation, initially and over time during either natural disease progression or treatment. This approach has the potential for reaching the long-sought goal of enhancing the effectiveness of cancer therapy. In order to effectively reach this goal, we consider the validity of the practical and statistical assumptions when interpreting the measurements made in vivo for patients undergoing treatment for cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Oximetria , Oxigênio , Hipóxia Tumoral , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 177-182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893408

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia may play a fundamental role in determining the radiotherapy outcome for several cancer types. Functional imaging with hypoxia specific radiotracers offers a way to visualize and quantify regions of increased radioresistance, which may benefit from dose escalation strategies. Conversion of the uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) images into oxygenation maps offers a way to quantitatively characterize the microenvironment. However, normalization of the uptake with respect to a well-oxygenated reference volume (WOV), which should be properly selected, is necessary when using conversion functions. This study aims at assessing the sensitivity of quantifying tumor oxygenation based on 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET with respect to the choice of the location and the oxygenation level of the WOV in head and neck cancer patients. WOVs varying not only in shape and location but also with respect to the assigned pO2 level were considered. pO2 values other than the standard 60 mmHg were selected according to the specific tissue type included in the volume. For comparison, the volume which would be considered as hypoxic based on a tissue-to-muscle ratio equal to 1.4 was also delineated, as conventionally done in clinical practice. Hypoxia mapping strategies are found highly sensitive to selection of the location of well-oxygenated region, but also on its assigned oxygenation level, which is crucial for hypoxia-guided adaptive dose escalation strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/normas , Oxigênio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Hipóxia Tumoral , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Misonidazol/análogos & derivados , Misonidazol/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 253-259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tissue oximeters enable non-invasive measurement of muscle oxygenation and perfusion. Several NIRS oximeters are currently available, particularly for muscle measurements. AIM: To evaluate the agreement of oxygenation and perfusion measurements obtained by two devices (Moxy, Fortiori Designs LLC, USA, and Nimo, Nirox, Italy) during an arterial occlusion test on the arm. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Arterial occlusions were conducted at the arm of one individual for 10 min with 200 mmHg. Measurements were made twice a day on five different days. Both NIRS devices were fixed at the arm (covering the muscles extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, and flexor carpi ulnaris). RESULTS: The experiment revealed that i) both devices could detect changes in muscle oxygenation and perfusion during the occlusion, but ii) the magnitudes and dynamic changes differed between the two devices. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Both devices had different performances with regard to the measurement of tissue oxygenation and perfusion. This study shows that it might be worthwhile to compare all NIRS tissue oximeters currently available for muscle measurement in a large systematic study to increase the comparability of measurements obtained with different devices.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Adulto , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/normas , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 285-290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893422

RESUMO

In neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), 87.5% of alarms by the monitoring system are false alarms, often caused by the movements of the neonates. Such false alarms are not only stressful for the neonates as well as for their parents and caregivers, but may also lead to longer response times in real critical situations. The aim of this project was to reduce the rates of false alarms by employing machine learning algorithms (MLA), which intelligently analyze data stemming from standard physiological monitoring in combination with cerebral oximetry data (in-house built, OxyPrem). MATERIALS & METHODS: Four popular MLAs were selected to categorize the alarms as false or real: (i) decision tree (DT), (ii) 5-nearest neighbors (5-NN), (iii) naïve Bayes (NB) and (iv) support vector machine (SVM). We acquired and processed monitoring data (median duration (SD): 54.6 (± 6.9) min) of 14 preterm infants (gestational age: 26 6/7 (± 2 5/7) weeks). A hybrid method of filter and wrapper feature selection generated the candidate subset for training these four MLAs. RESULTS: A high specificity of >99% was achieved by all four approaches. DT showed the highest sensitivity (87%). The cerebral oximetry data improved the classification accuracy. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: Despite a (as yet) low amount of data for training, the four MLAs achieved an excellent specificity and a promising sensitivity. Presently, the current sensitivity is insufficient since, in the NICU, it is crucial that no real alarms are missed. This will most likely be improved by including more subjects and data in the training of the MLAs, which makes pursuing this approach worthwhile.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Aprendizado de Máquina , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oximetria , Teorema de Bayes , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Oximetria/normas
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 323-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893427

RESUMO

Recent guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have stressed the necessity to improve the quality of CPR. Our previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of monitoring cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) during CPR by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The present study evaluates whether the NIRO-CCR1, a new NIRS device, is as useful in the clinical setting as the NIRO-200NX. We monitored CBO in 20 patients with cardiac arrest by NIRS. On the arrival of patients at the emergency department, the attending physician immediately assessed whether the patient was eligible for this study after conventional advanced life support and, if eligible, measured CBO in the frontal lobe by NIRS. We found that in all patients, the cerebral blood flow waveform was in synchrony with the chest compressions. Moreover, the tissue oxygenation index increased following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing CPB, including one patient in whom CBO was monitored using the NIRO-CCR1. In addition, although the NIRO-CCR1 could display the pulse rate (Tempo) in real time, Tempo was not always detected, despite detection of the cerebral blood flow waveform. This suggested that chest compressions may not have been effective, indicating that the NIRO-CCR1 also seems useful to assess the quality of CPR. This study suggests that the NIRO-CCR1 can measure CBO during CPR in patients with cardiac arrest as effectively as the NIRO-200NX; in addition, the new NIRO-CCR1 may be even more useful, especially in prehospital fields (e.g. in an ambulance), since it is easy to carry.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Parada Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oximetria , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/normas , Projetos Piloto , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 339-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893429

RESUMO

We used a miniature broadband NIRS system to monitor concentration changes in brain oxygenation (oxy- and deoxy- haemoglobin [HbO2], [HHb]) and oxidised cytochrome-c-oxidase ([oxCCO]) during a high +Gz acceleration, induced by a human centrifuge, on two healthy experienced volunteers (2 male, 34 and 37 years). We performed a sequence of several +Gz exposures that were terminated at the onset of visual symptoms (loss of peripheral vision). Systemic parameters were recorded (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure and arterial saturation), and brain tissue blood volume changes ([HbT] = [HbO2] + [HHb]) and oxygen delivery ([HbDiff] = [HbO2] - [HHb]) were calculated. Volunteer 1 demonstrated a decrease in [HbT] of -3.49 ± 0.02 µMol and [HbDiff] of -3.23 ± 0.44 µMol, and an increase of [oxCCO] of 0.42 ± 0.01µMol. Volunteer 2 demonstrated a decrease in [HbDiff] of -4.37 ± 0.23 µMol, and no significant change in [HbT] (0.53 ± 0.06 µMol) and [oxCCO] (0.09 ± 0.06 µMol). The variability of the brain metabolic response was related to the level of ischaemia, suggesting that suppression of metabolism was due to lack of glucose substrate delivery rather than oxygen availability.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Hemodinâmica , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 347-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893430

RESUMO

In preterm infants, there is a risk of long-term cognitive, motor and behavioral impairments due to hemorrhagic and/or ischemic lesions. If detected early, lesions can be prevented. A bedside imaging modality, capable of early detection of both disorders, is necessary. We present the state of development of a tomographic imager (named Pioneer), that will be capable of determining the oxygenation of the preterm-infant brain with high spatial resolution. Pioneer is a time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography (TR NIROT) instrument. It employs multiple wavelength laser light in short pulses on 11 distinct locations and measures the re-emerging light in a contactless fashion by means of a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) camera (named Piccolo) covering ~4.9 cm2 with 300 detectors. Timing response of the entire system is 116 ps. An in-house designed biocompatible source ring ensures fixed relative positions of sources and detectors and provides a secure interface between the patient and the probe. At the present state, the NIROT Pioneer system successfully detected a 6x6x50 mm3 inclusion 3 cm deep inside a phantom. These results confirm that the Pioneer imager is working as expected and is on a solid path towards full 3D tissue oxygenation imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Oximetria , Oxigênio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oximetria/normas , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Imagens de Fantasmas
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 369-374, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893433

RESUMO

Multispectral/hyperspectral imaging is one of the imaging modalities to visualize and quantify blood supply in surface tissues such as skin or mucosa. The results of visualization can be potentially affected by various factors, for instance by elevated methemoglobin (MetHb) content (e.g., methemoglobinemia). The scope of the current study is to develop a robust approach for fabrication and validation of tissue-mimicking phantoms, which can be used to assess and improve tissue oximetry. METHODS: The realistic tissue mimicking gelatin-based phantoms with intralipid (4% v/v) and/or hemoglobins (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobins, and MetHb) were molded between two coverslips separated by 2-mm wires. The hemoglobin solutions were prepared by dissolving the lyophilized human hemoglobin powder (H7379, Sigma-Aldrich) in the deionized water. Sodium dithionite (85% purity, 157,953, Sigma-Aldrich) was used to reduce MetHb solution. The phantoms were imaged using a multispectral imaging device (Oxilight, Canada).To demonstrate the utility, the developed approach is applied to emulate elevated systemic MetHb content. RESULTS: Initial results show that elevated systemic MetHb (2.0-6.7% of total blood) does not impact the accuracy of tissue oximetry imaging. DISCUSSION: A robust method for fabrication and optical validation of biocompatible tissue-mimicking phantoms has been developed.The proposed phantom design allows combining different phantoms into multilayer (sandwich) structures, which can be used to emulate a wide range of topical and systemic conditions.


Assuntos
Gelatina , Oximetria , Imagens de Fantasmas , Canadá , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Metemoglobina/análise , Metemoglobinemia/diagnóstico , Oximetria/métodos , Oximetria/normas , Imagens de Fantasmas/normas
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110063, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790891

RESUMO

Diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings has always been a challenging task due to the susceptibility to alterations of the optical state and degradation of blood samples during sampling, transport and storage, which highly affects the analysis with spectrophotometric methods. Methodological improvements are then required urgently because of increased reports of cases with discrepancies between results of the measured biomarker carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and reported symptoms. Total blood CO (TBCO) measured chromatographically was thus proposed in a previous study as alternative biomarker to COHb. This approach was investigated in this study by comparing the two biomarkers and assessing the effects of various storage parameters (temperature, preservative, time, tube headspace (HS) volume, initial saturation level, freeze- and thaw- and reopening-cycles) over a period of one month. Results show that while for TBCO, concentrations are relatively stable over the observation period regardless of parameters such as temperature, time and HS volume, for COHb, concentrations are altered significantly during storage. Therefore, the use of TBCO as alternative biomarker for CO poisonings has been proposed, since it provides more valid results and is more stable even under non-optimal storage conditions. Additionally, it can be used to predict COHb in cases where sample degradation hinders optical measurement. Furthermore, a correction formula for COHb and TBCO is provided to be used in laboratories or circumstances where optimal storage or analysis is not possible, to obtain more accurate results.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Oximetria , Manejo de Espécimes , Espectrofotometria
14.
Br J Nurs ; 28(19): 1256-1259, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680572

RESUMO

Clinical surveillance provides essential data on changes in a patient's condition. The common method for performing this surveillance is the assessment of vital signs. Despite the importance of these signs, research has found that vital signs are not rigorously assessed in clinical practice. Respiratory rate, arguably the most important vital sign, is the most neglected. Poor understanding might contribute to nurses incorrectly valuing oxygen saturation more than respiratory rate. Nurses need to understand the importance of respiratory rate assessment as a vital sign and the benefits and limitations of pulse oximetry as a clinical tool. By better understanding pulse oximetry and respiratory rate assessment, nurses might be more inclined to conduct rigorous vital signs' assessment. Research is needed to understand why many nurses do not appreciate the importance of vital signs' monitoring.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/enfermagem , Avaliação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Oximetria/enfermagem , Taxa Respiratória , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Sinais Vitais
15.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(11): 743-746, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of oral midazolam as premedication to induce anxiolysis before surgical procedures under local anesthesia is widely accepted in plastic surgery. Rhinoplasty performed under local anesthesia is known to generate high levels of perioperative anxiety, thus the use of appropriate premedication is important. Oral midazolam has been shown to be safe in various procedures. However, the safety of oral midazolam before rhinoplasty has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of premedication with oral midazolam prior to rhinoplasty by analyzing the intraoperative blood oxygen saturation levels as predictors of adverse respiratory events. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the anesthesia records of 62 patients who underwent rhinoplasty under local anesthesia and received premedication with oral midazolam for anxiolysis between March 2017 and December 2017. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years, and they were all classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1. The patients received 10 mg midazolam hydrochloride orally 1 hour prior to the procedure. Oxygen blood saturation was monitored using a pulse oximeter and recorded every 15 minutes. RESULTS: All the patients maintained blood oxygen saturation levels above 95% (median peripheral capillary oxygen saturation 99%) on room air, and they did not require supplemental intraoperative oxygen. There were no transient hypoxemic events during and following the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the safety of oral midazolam premedication to reduce perioperative anxiety when performing rhinoplasty under local anesthesia.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Rinoplastia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria , Pré-Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Br J Nurs ; 28(19): 1156-1159, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647734

RESUMO

Clinical surveillance provides essential data on changes in a patient's condition. The common method for performing this surveillance is the assessment of vital signs. Despite the importance of these signs, research has found that vital signs are not rigorously assessed in clinical practice. Respiratory rate, arguably the most important vital sign, is the most neglected. Poor understanding might contribute to nurses incorrectly valuing oxygen saturation more than respiratory rate. Nurses need to understand the importance of respiratory rate assessment as a vital sign and the benefits and limitations of pulse oximetry as a clinical tool. By better understanding pulse oximetry and respiratory rate assessment, nurses might be more inclined to conduct rigorous vital signs' assessment. Research is needed to understand why many nurses do not appreciate the importance of vital signs' monitoring.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/enfermagem , Avaliação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Oximetria/enfermagem , Taxa Respiratória , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Sinais Vitais
17.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(5): 345-347, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625332

RESUMO

This article describes the design of a portable blood oxygen simulation system that can be used to simulate various blood gas saturation states of the human body. The system can be used to simulate various states of blood gas saturation, and can also simulate large blood oxygen saturation dynamic range, pulse rate range and perfusion index range. It can be used for testing, but not for clinical examination instruments. Moreover, the system has the characteristics of small size and low cost compared with the commercial blood oxygen simulator. Although the simulation system is not directly used for the detection of blood gas saturation of patients, it is also an essential equipment in the production and testing process, so it has certain practical value.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oxigênio/análise
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(7): 873-877, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597812

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to report manufacturing a consolidated pulp test system that includes thermometry, flowmetry, and pulse oximetry. BACKGROUND: The ideal method for the evaluation of pulp vitality should be objective, noninvasive, easy to use, reliable, and painless. Currently, the most commonly used tests (such as electricity, heat, and cold tests) depend on patients' sensibility and are highly subjective. They only measure a neural response and do not indicate the actual biologic status of the pulp. It has, therefore, been suggested that vitality tests such as flowmetry, pulse oximetry, thermometry, and photoplethysmography be used. Some research has been done on these systems; however, their high costs and space need to maintain all of them that have been obstacles to their use. TECHNIQUE: This report describes designing and manufacturing a novel system for evaluating pulp vitality involving the use of three methods (flowmetry, pulse oximetry, and thermometry) combined in a single small system using only two probes. CONCLUSION: The consolidated pulp tests system may be accurate in determining the pulp vitality. However, after clinical use, some changes may be necessary for improvement of the system.


Assuntos
Teste da Polpa Dentária , Oximetria , Polpa Dentária , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reologia
19.
Anaesthesia ; 74(12): 1572-1579, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508815

RESUMO

Adenotonsillectomies are commonly performed procedures and sleep-disordered breathing is becoming increasingly important as an indication for surgery. Because of the higher risks in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, the required level of postoperative care for these patients is currently under discussion, and better identification of patients at risk may reduce unnecessary postoperative monitoring. To evaluate the influence of obstructive sleep apnoea, and other risk factors, on peri-operative complications in children requiring adenotonsillectomy, we performed a retrospective case-control study that included 1995 patients treated between January 2009 and June 2017. In our analysis, young age (OR 3.8, 95%CI 2.1-7.1), low body weight (OR 2.6, 95%CI 1.5-4.4), obstructive sleep apnoea (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.5-3.8), pre-existing craniofacial or syndromal disorders (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.4-3.8) and adenotonsillectomy, compared with adenoidectomy alone, (OR 7.9, 95%CI 4.7-13.1) were identified as risk factors for complications during or after surgery, p < 0.001. All 13 patients suffering from complications more than 3 h postoperatively had obstructive sleep apnoea plus at least one more of these risk factors. Patients at risk of postoperative complications can therefore be identified by several criteria pre-operatively, and should be monitored postoperatively using pulse oximetry overnight. For all other patients, postoperative observation on a surgical ward without extra monitoring is sufficient. Admission to paediatric intensive care should be reserved for patients suffering serious intra-operative complications.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Adenoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oximetria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Tonsilectomia/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 43(5): 314-319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560589

RESUMO

Objective: This study evaluated pulse oximetry and dental hemogram in teeth with the clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis (IP) to assess the inflammatory status of the pulp. Study design: The study and control groups (30n each) had teeth with IP and sound teeth respectively. Patients in the study group had night pain with or without pain on mastication (NM, N). Blood oxygen saturation (%SpO2) was recorded with a custom made pulse oximeter (CPO). For dental and peripheral hemogram, smears were made for each patient from the first drop of blood while entering the pulp and finger blood respectively. Results: Control group had mean %SpO2 in finger 91% (86-97); and in teeth 84% (80-91), while the study group had mean %SpO2 in finger 92% (88-98) and in teeth 83% (71-94). Fifty percent of IP cases were vital while no tooth showed necrosis according to CPO which was further confirmed by bleeding status from the pulp. Based on the findings of the clinical diagnosis, %SpO2 and bleeding status of IP and normal cases, the terminology as coronal or total pulpitis seems more appropriate. The statistical difference was significant in fingers while non-significant in teeth of IP and normal pulp cases. Dental hemogram of IP cases showed an overall significant fall of neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil and monocyte counts compared to normal. Conclusion: Pulse oximetry was the most accurate pulp test to diagnose vitality in normal as well as inflamed pulps while hemogram was inconclusive for the same.


Assuntos
Teste da Polpa Dentária , Pulpite , Polpa Dentária , Humanos , Oximetria , Oxigênio
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