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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111590, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396113

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess possible effect of air quality improvements, we investigated the temporal change in hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) associated with pollutant concentrations. METHODS: We collected daily concentrations of particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5, PM10 and PMcoarse), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and admissions for AECOPD for 21 cities in Guangdong from 2013 to 2017. We examined the association of air pollution with AECOPD admissions using two-stage time-series analysis, and estimated the annual attributable fractions, numbers, and direct hospitalization costs of AECOPD admissions with principal component analysis. RESULTS: From 2013-2017, mean daily concentrations of SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 declined by nearly 40%, 30%, and 26% respectively. As the average daily 8 h O3 concentration increased considerably, the number of days exceeding WHO target (i.e.,100 µg/m³) increased from 103 in 2015-152 in 2017. For each interquartile range increase in pollutant concentration, the relative risks of AECOPD admission at lag 0-3 were 1.093 (95% CI 1.06-1.13) for PM2.5, 1.092 (95% CI 1.08-1.11) for O3, and 1.092 (95% CI 1.05-1.14) for SO2. Attributable fractions of AECOPD admission advanced by air pollution declined from 9.5% in 2013 to 4.9% in 2016, then increased to 6.0% in 2017. A similar declining trend was observed for direct AECOPD hospitalization costs. CONCLUSION: Declined attributable hospital admissions for AECOPD may be associated with the reduction in concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 in Guangdong, while O3 has emerged as an important risk factor. Summarizes the main finding of the work: Reduction in PM may result in declined attributable hospitalizations for AECOPD, while O3 has emerged as an important risk factor following an intervention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Hospitais , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 700-710, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820435

RESUMO

The present work is a preliminary study on the potential of low-frequency ultrasound irradiation coupled with O3 process for the disinfection of a primary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant preserving nutrient levels (in particular nitrogen and phosphorous), for its possible reuse in civil, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The treated water could be reused, after appropriate dilution, contributing to the circular economy perspective and reducing the need for both chemical fertilizer addition and freshwater supply. The effect of different specific ultrasonic energies and ozone doses was assessed on a bench-top system, composed of an ultrasonic reactor and a semi-batch ozonation vessel. The results showed that the combined US-O3 process produces a good removal efficiency regarding soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand, sCOD (ca. 60%), anionic surfactants (ca. 50%), and formaldehyde (ca. 50%), and an optimal abatement for Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS, > 90%). The process also reached high disinfection performances, obtaining 4 logs for E. coli and 5 log abatement for Total Coliforms. The high removal efficiency is matched by an outstanding retention of nutrients (total nitrogen and orthophosphate) highlighting a high potential value for agricultural reuse of the treated primary effluent, with possible significant saving of chemical fertilizers. It was concluded that low-frequency ultrasound pre-treatment, combined with ozonation, could be a useful process for primary effluent recovery for several purposes. Further studies are expected to be planned and executed to evaluate system scale-up feasibility.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Escherichia coli , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 143950, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321367

RESUMO

Pesticides have been used extensively in agriculture to control pests and soil-borne diseases. Most of these pesticides can persist in soil in harmful concentrations due to their intrinsic characteristics and their interactions with soil. Soil solarization has been demonstrated to enhance pesticide degradation under field conditions. Recently, ozonation has been suggested as a feasible method for reducing the pesticide load in agricultural fields. However, the effects of ozonation in the soil microbial community have not been studied so far. Here, we evaluate the combined effects of solarization and ozonation on the microbial community of a Mediterranean soil. For this purpose, soil physico-chemical characteristics and enzyme activities and the biomass (through analysis of microbial fatty acids) and diversity (through 16S rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing) of soil microbial communities were analyzed in a 50-day greenhouse experiment. The degradation of the pesticides was increased by 20%, 28%, and 33% in solarized soil (S), solarized soil with surface ozonation (SOS), and solarized soil with deep ozonation (SOD), respectively, in comparison to control (untreated) soil. Solarization and its combination with ozonation (SOS and SOD) increased the ammonium content as well as the electrical conductivity, while enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass were negatively affected. Despite the biocidal character of ozone, several microbial populations with demonstrated pesticide-degradation capacity showed increases in their relative abundance. Overall, the combination of solarization plus ozone did not exacerbate the effects of solarization on the soil chemistry and microbial communities, but did improve pesticide degradation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Ozônio , Praguicidas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143989, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321442

RESUMO

Advanced treatment technologies for the removal of pharmaceuticals and other organic micropollutants in WWTPs primarily target the removal of parent compounds. Nevertheless, the removal of metabolites originating from human- or microbial metabolism during biological treatment needs comparable consideration, as some of them might be present in high concentrations and contribute to toxicity. This study was conducted to elucidate the removal of human and microbial metabolites of pharmaceuticals as a function of the specific ozone dose. Ozonation was performed on four sites with two pilot- and two full-scale plants operated downstream of conventional activated sludge plants. The ozone reactivity of all metabolites (expressed as the ozone dose to remove 90% of the compound/decadic ozone dose) was lower than those of their parent compounds. The decadic ozone dose was 1.0, 1.3 and 1.1 mg O3/mg DOC for Epoxy-carbamazepine, Di-OH-carbamazepine and N-Desmethyl tramadol, respectively. 20-40% of the remaining metabolites were removed in a polishing sand/BAC-filter (biological activated carbon). Similar removal was observed for Epoxy-carbamazepine, Di-OH-carbamazepine and Hydroxy-diclofenac in a constructed wetland. However, the sand/anthracite filter had no effect. All four metabolites were removed in a GAC (granulated activated carbon) filter.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 410: 115351, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249117

RESUMO

A critical part of community based human health risk assessment following chemical exposure is identifying sources of susceptibility. Life stage is one such susceptibility. A prototypic air pollutant, ozone (O3) induces dysfunction of the pulmonary, cardiac, and nervous systems. Long-term exposure may cause oxidative stress (OS). The current study explored age-related and subchronic O3-induced changes in OS in brain regions of rats. To build a comprehensive assessment of OS-related effects of O3, a tripartite approach was implemented focusing on 1) the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1, NADH Ubiquinone reductase] 2) antioxidant homeostasis [total antioxidant substances, superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase] and 3) an assessment of oxidative damage [total aconitase and protein carbonyls]. Additionally, a neurobehavioral evaluation of motor activity was compared to these OS measures. Male Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months of age) were exposed to air or O3 (0.25 or 1 ppm) via inhalation for 6 h/day, 2 days per week for 13 weeks. A significant decrease in horizontal motor activity was noted only in 4-month old rats. Results on OS measures in frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CB), striatum (STR), and hippocampus (HIP) indicated life stage-related increases in ROS production, small decreases in antioxidant homeostatic mechanisms, a decrease in aconitase activity, and an increase in protein carbonyls. The effects of O3 exposure were brain area-specific, with the STR being more sensitive. Regarding life stage, the effects of O3 were greater in 4-month-old rats, which correlated with horizontal motor activity. These results indicate that OS may be increased in specific brain regions after subchronic O3 exposure, but the interactions between age and exposure along with their consequences on the brain require further investigation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142238, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207485

RESUMO

A top-down approach was employed to estimate the influence of lockdown measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic on NOx emissions and subsequent influence on surface PM2.5 and ozone in China. The nation-wide NOx emission reduction of 53.4% due to the lockdown in 2020 quarter one in China may represent the current upper limit of China's NOx emission control. During the Chinese New Year Holiday (P2), NOx emission intensity in China declined by 44.7% compared to the preceding 3 weeks (P1). NOx emission intensity increased by 20.3% during the 4 weeks after P2 (P3), despite the unchanged NO2 column. It recovered to 2019 level at the end of March (P4). The East China (22°N - 42°N, 102°E - 122°E) received greater influence from COVID-19. Overall NOx emission from East China for 2020 first quarter is 40.5% lower than 2019, and in P4 it is still 22.9% below the same period in 2019. The 40.5% decrease of NOx emission in 2020 first quarter in East China lead to 36.5% increase of surface O3 and 12.5% decrease of surface PM2.5. The elevated O3 promotes the secondary aerosol formation through heterogeneous pathways. We recommend that the complicated interaction between PM2.5 and O3 should be considered in the emission control strategy making process in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ozônio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143823, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261875

RESUMO

A lot of restrictive measures were implemented in China during January-February 2020 to control rapid spread of COVID-19. Many studies reported impact of COVID-19 lockdown on air quality, but little research focused on ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) till now, which play important roles in production of ozone and secondary organic aerosol. In this study, impact of COVID-19 lockdown on VOCs mixing ratios and sources were assessed based on online measurements of VOCs in Nanjing during December 20, 2019-Feburary 15, 2020 (P1-P2) and April 15-May 13, 2020 (P3). Average VOCs levels during COVID-19 lockdown period (P2) was 26.9 ppb, about half of value for pre-lockdown period (P1). Chemical composition of VOCs also showed significant changes. Aromatics contribution during decreased from 13% during P1 to 9% during P2, whereas alkanes contribution increased from 64% to 68%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was then applied for non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) sources apportionment. Five sources were identified, including a source related to transport and background air masses, three sources related to petrochemical industry or chemical industry (petrochemical industry#1-propene/ethene, petrochemical industry#2-C7-C9 aromatics, and chemical industry-benzene), and a source attributed to gasoline evaporation and vehicular emission. During P2, NMHCs levels from petrochemical industry#2-C7-C9 aromatics showed the largest relative decline of 94%, followed by petrochemical industry#1-propene/ethene (67%), and gasoline evaporation and vehicular emission (67%). Furthermore, ratios of OH reactivity of NMHCs versus NO2 level (ROH,NMHCs/NO2) and total oxidant production rate (P (OX)) were calculated to assess potential influences of COVID-19 lockdown on O3 formation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143948, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321340

RESUMO

Various regions of California have experienced a large number of wildfires this year, at the same time the state has been experiencing a large number of cases of and deaths from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of wildfire allied pollutants, including particulate matter (PM-2.5 µm), carbon monoxide (CO), and Ozone (O3) with the dynamics of new daily cases and deaths due to SARS-COV 2 infection in 10 counties, which were affected by wildfire in California. The data on COVID-19 pertaining to daily new cases and deaths was recorded from Worldometer Web. The daily PM-2.5 µm, CO, and O3 concentrations were recorded from three metrological websites: BAAQMD- Air Quality Data; California Air Quality Index-AQI; and Environmental Protection Agency- EPA. The data recorded from the date of the appearance of first case of (SARS-CoV-2) in California region to the onset of wildfire, and from the onset of wildfire to September 22, 2020. After the wildfire, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 220.71%; O3 by 19.56%; and the CO concentration increased by 151.05%. After the wildfire, the numbers of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 both increased respectively by 56.9% and 148.2%. The California wildfire caused an increase in ambient concentrations of toxic pollutants which were temporally associated with an increase in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Humanos , Incidência , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
9.
Virus Res ; 291: 198207, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115670

RESUMO

The main objective of this narrative review is to describe the available evidence on the possible antiviral activity of ozone in patients with COVID-19 and its therapeutic applicability through hospital protocols. Amongst different possible therapies for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, ozone therapy seems to have an immunological role because of the modulation of cytokines and interferons, including the induction of gamma interferon. Some data suggest the possible role of ozone therapy in SARS, either as a monotherapy or, more realistically, as an adjunct to standard treatment regimens; therefore, there is increasing interest in the role of ozone therapy in COVID-19 treatment The PubMed and Scopus databases and the Italian Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy website were used to identify articles focused on ozone therapy. The search was limited to articles published from January 2011 to July 2020. Of 280 articles found on ozone therapy, 13 were selected and narratively reviewed. Ozone exerts antiviral activity through the inhibition of viral replication and direct inactivation of viruses. Ozone is an antiviral drug enhancer and is not an alternative to antiviral drugs. Combined treatment with involving ozone and antivirals demonstrated a reduction in inflammation and lung damage. The routes of ozone administration are direct intravenous, major autohaemotherapy and extravascular blood oxygenation-ozonation. Systemic ozone therapy seems useful in controlling inflammation, stimulating immunity and as antiviral activity and providing protection from acute coronary syndromes and ischaemia reperfusion damage, thus suggesting a new methodology of immune therapy. Systemic ozone therapy in combination with antivirals in COVID-19-positive patients may be justified, helpful and synergic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Humanos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116122, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248834

RESUMO

Four phenylurea herbicides (PUHs) were assessed for degradation and transformation into N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) under three oxidation conditions (chlorine (Cl2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and ozone (O3)) from an aqueous solution. Removal ratios correlated with the numbers of halogen elements contained in PUHs (isoproturon (0) > chlorotoluron (1 Cl) > diuron (2 Cl) > fluometuron (3 F)), and the degradation efficiencies of oxidants from fastest to slowest were: O3, ClO2, and Cl2. NDMA can be generated directly from the ozonation of PUHs. Further, compared with chloramination alone, ozonation prominently promoted NDMA formation potential (NDMA-FP) during post-chloramination, and NDMA-FPs increased approximately 23-68 times than those during ozonation only at 2.5 mg/L O3 over 10 min; molar yields of NDMA from highest to lowest were 11.1% (isoproturon), 1.17% (chlorotoluron), 1.0% (diuron), and 0.73% (fluometuron). The PUH degradation kinetics data during ozonation agreed with the pseudo-first-order model. The rate constant kobs were 0.31 × 10-3-19.8 × 10-3 s-1. The kobs and removal ratios of PUHs during ozonation partially scaled with the mass, LogKow, and Henry's constants of PUHs. Comparisons of measured NDMA-FPs with calculated NDMA-FPs from residual PUH after oxidation showed that the intermediates produced during ozonation facilitated NDMA-FPs; this contribution was also observed for chlorotoluron and isoproturon during ClO2 oxidation. Examination of reaction mechanisms revealed that tertiary amine ozonation, N-dealkylation, hydroxylation, the cleavage of N-C bonds, ammonification, and nitrification occurred during the ozonation of PUHs, and the dimethylamine (DMA) functional groups could be decomposed directly and transformed into NDMA via the formation of the intermediate unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. NDMA is also formed from the reaction between DMA and phenylamino-compounds. Clarifying primary degradation products of PUHs and transformation pathways of NDMA during oxidation processes is useful to optimize treatment processes for water supplies.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Dimetilnitrosamina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116117, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272799

RESUMO

Driven by human activities, air pollution and soil degradation are threatening food production systems. Rising ozone in the troposphere can affect several physiological processes in plants and their interaction with symbiotic microorganisms. Plant responses to ozone may depend on both soil fertility and the ontogenetic stage in which they are exposed. In this work, we studied the effects of ozone episodes and soil fertility on soybean plants. We analysed soybean plant responses in the production of aboveground and belowground biomass, structural and functional attributes of rhizobia, and seed production and quality. The experiment was performed with plants grown in two substrates with different fertility (commercial soil, and soil diluted (50%, v/v) with sand). Plants were exposed to acute episodes of ozone during vegetative and reproductive stages. We observed that ozone significantly reduced belowground biomass (≈25%), nodule biomass (≈30%), and biological nitrogen fixation (≈21%). Plants exposed to ozone during reproductive stage growing in soil with reduced fertility had lower seed production (≈10% lower) and seed protein (≈12% lower). These responses on yield and quality can be explained by the observed changes in belowground biomass and nitrogen fixation. The negative impact of ozone on the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, seed production and quality in soybean plants were greater in soils with reduced fertility. Our results indicate that food security could be at risk in the future if trends in ozone concentration and soil degradation processes continue to increase.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Soja , Humanos , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Ozônio/toxicidade , Sementes , Solo
12.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116137, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272800

RESUMO

Ozone-induced changes in the relationship between photosynthesis (An) and stomatal conductance (gs) vary among species, leading to inconsistent water use efficiency (WUE) responses to elevated ozone (O3). Thus, few vegetation models can accurately simulate the effects of O3 on WUE. Here, we conducted an experiment exposing two differently O3-sensitive species (Cotinus coggygria and Magnolia denudata) to five O3 concentrations and investigated the impact of O3 exposure on predicted WUE using a coupled An-gs model. We found that increases in stomatal O3 uptake caused linear reductions in the maximum rates of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax) in both species. In addition, a negative linear correlation between O3-induced changes in the minimal gs of the stomatal model (g0) derived from the theory of optimal stomatal behavior and light-saturated photosynthesis was found in the O3-sensitive M. denudata. When the O3 dose-based responses of Vcmax and Jmax were included in a coupled An-gs model, simulated An under elevated O3 were in good agreement with observations in both species. For M. denudata, incorporating the O3 response of g0 into the coupled model further improved the accuracy of the simulated gs and WUE. In conclusion, the modified Vcmax, Jmax and g0 method presented here provides a foundation for improving the prediction for O3-induced changes in An, gs and WUE.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Ozônio/toxicidade , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Especificidade da Espécie , Água
13.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116183, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288298

RESUMO

Ambient ozone (O3) pollution has become a big issue in China. Recent studies have linked long- and short-term O3 exposure to several public health risks. In this study, we (1) characterize the long-term and short-term O3-attributed health metric in China from 2015 to 2019; (2) estimate the surface O3 trends; and (3) quantify the long-term and short-term health impacts (i.e. all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) in 350 urban Chinese cities. In these 5-years, the national annual average of daily maximum 8 h average (AVGDMA8) O3 concentrations and warm-season (April-September) 4th highest daily maximum 8 h average (4DMA8) O3 concentrations increased from 74.0 ± 15.5 µg/m3 (mean ± standard deviation) to 82.3 ± 12.0 µg/m3 and 167 ± 37.0 µg/m3 to 174 ± 30.0 µg/m3 respectively. During this period, the DMA8 O3 concentration increased by 1.9 ± 3.3 µg/m3/yr across China, with over 70% of the monitoring sites showing a positive upward trend and 19.4% with trends >5 µg/m3/yr. The estimated long-term all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory premature mortalities attributable to AVGDMA8 O3 exposure in 350 Chinese cities were 181,000 (95% CI: 91,500-352,000), 112,000 (95% CI: 38,100-214,000) and 33,800 (95% CI: 0-71,400) in 2019, showing increases of 52.5%, 52.9% and 54.6% respectively compared to 2015 levels. Similarly, short-term all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory premature mortalities attributed to ambient 4DMA8 O3 exposure were 156,000 (95% CI: 85,300-227,000), 73,500 (95% CI: 27,500-119,000) and 28,600 (95% CI: 14,500-42,800) in 2019, increases of 19.6%, 19.8% and 21.2% respectively compared to 2015. The results of this study are important in ascertaining the effectiveness of recent emission control measures and to identify the areas that require urgent attention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116111, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290953

RESUMO

Polymer flooding is one of the most important enhanced oil recovery techniques. However, a large amount of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM)-containing wastewater is produced in the process of polymer flooding, and this poses a potential threat to the environment. In this study, the treatment of HPAM-containing wastewater was analyzed in an ozonic-anaerobic-aerobic multistage treatment process involving an ozone reactor (OR), an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR), and an aerobic biofilm reactor (ABR). At an HPAM concentration of 500 mg L-1 and an ozone dose of 25 g O3/g TOC, the HPAM removal rate reached 85.06%. With fracturing of the carbon chain, high-molecular-weight HPAM was degraded into low-molecular-weight compounds. Microbial communities in bioreactors were investigated via high-throughput sequencing, which revealed that norank_c_Bacteroidetes_vadinHA17, norank_f_Cytophagaceae, and Meiothermus were the dominant bacterial groups, and that Methanobacterium, norank_c_WCHA1-57, and Methanosaeta were the key archaeal genera. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which HPAM-containing wastewater is treated using an ozonic-anaerobic-aerobic multistage treatment system. The ideal degradation performance and the presence of keystone microorganisms confirmed that the multistage treatment process is feasible for treatment of HPAM-containing wastewater.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Purificação da Água , Resinas Acrílicas , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143960, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321334

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested an increased risk of depression related to air pollutants. This study investigated the relationship of air pollutant exposure and meteorological factors with depression. The Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort from 2002 to 2013 was analyzed. In total, 25,589 depression participants were 1:4 matched with 102,356 control participants for age, sex, income, and region of residence. Depression was defined based on a diagnosis (ICD-10: F31-33) by a psychiatric physician. Meteorological factors and air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (ppm), ozone (O3) (ppm), carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) (µg/m3) during the 30 days and 365 days before the index date were analyzed for associations with depression using conditional logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. The odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.05 (95% CI = 1.02-1.08) at 365 days for 1 h less of sunshine. The ORs for depression were 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01-1.03) and 1.03 (95% CI = 1.00-1.05) at 30 days and 365 days for PM10 (10 µg/m3), respectively. The ORs for depression were 1.18 (95% CI = 1.04-1.35) and 1.25 (95% CI = 1.07-1.47) at 30 days and 365 days for CO (ppm), respectively. In the subgroup analyses, the overall results were consistent. However, statistical significance diminished in the younger, high-income, and urban resident subgroups. Both short- and long-term exposure to PM10 and CO and a reduced duration of sunshine were related to an increased risk of depression.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Luz Solar
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111518, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between short-term exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) and ischemic stroke (IS) in Yancheng, China, from 2017 to 2019. METHODS: We designed a time-series study based on generalized additive models to explore the association of PM2.5 and IS admitted in two major hospitals in Yancheng. We built different lag patterns and conducted stratification analyses by age, gender, and season. Moreover, we examined the robustness of the associations adopting two-pollutant models and fitted the concentration-response curves. RESULT: We observed positive and significant associations at lag 0 day. Every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (lag0) was associated with 1.06% (95% CI: 0.21%-1.91%) increases in hospitalizations for IS. The association remained stable and statistically significant to the adjustment of carbon monoxide and ozone. We observed that the associations were stronger in females and during cold seasons. The overall concentration-response relationship curve was linear positive and increased slowly but rose sharply at higher concentrations in the cold season. CONCLUSION: Our study added to the evidence that short-term exposure to PM2.5 may induce IS, and the government should take action to address the air pollution issues and protect susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Isquemia Encefálica , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 2779-2790, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892285

RESUMO

The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) formed in aerobic and anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge (WAS) after ozone pretreatment were investigated with three ozone dosages (4.72, 10.96, and 13.8 mg O3/min) and four ozonation times (0, 10, 20, and 30 min) using six aerobic and six anaerobic digestion reactors. High decreasing rate of volatile suspended solid/total suspended solid indicated enhanced destruction of volatile solids and efficient sludge reduction. The results of TOC and UV absorbance indicated that increasing ozone dosage and time significantly enhanced hydrolysis and degradation of DOM. Data analysis with a first-order sequential reaction model revealed that, for aerobic digestion, kh increased in the range of 0.00049-0.00154 day-1; and for anaerobic digestion of WAS, kh increased in the range of 0.00302-0.00796 day-1 and kd increased in the range of 0.24910-0.54548 day-1. Detailed analysis of the composition of DOM showed that ozone pretreatment increased irreversible membrane resistance (IMR) and enhanced the breakdown of large DOM molecules, the formation of aromatic proteins, and tryptophan- and tyrosine-aromatic amino acids, as well as the accumulation of humic acid- and fulvic acid-like substances.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
18.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 2): 128203, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038803

RESUMO

Two different pearling degrees of wheat kernels (lightly-pearled: 14.4% and heavily-pearled: 38.9%) and un-pearled kernels were treated with ozone and evaluated for flour compositions and properties. Ozonation did not change main compositions and damaged starch content of three kernels' flours. Flour brightness of all three kernels was improved after ozone treatment. Ozonation enhanced the dough strength of the flours from un-pearled and pearled kernels and the effect elevated with increasing pearling degree. Ozone treatment increased the peak viscosity of flour and the level of increase in heavily-pearled kernels was greater than un-pearled and lightly-pearled. Ozonation resulted in an increase in the insoluble protein polymer content of heavily-pearled kernels' flour, but only had a slight effect on un-pearled lightly-pearled kernels. After ozone treatment, un-pearled and lightly-pearled kernels exhibited increases in molecular weight of starch, but heavily-pearled resulted in the opposite trend.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Ozônio/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Glutens/análise , Peso Molecular , Amido/análise , Viscosidade
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 321: 124433, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257169

RESUMO

The soil application of composting product will probably cause the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to environment, thereby it is crucial to remove ARGs in composting product. Ozone was adopted for the first time as a post-treatment method to remove the ARGs in composting product in this study. Ozone treatment significantly removed the total ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) once ozonation process finished. After 10-day storage stage, although the amount of total intracellular ARGs and MGEs increased, the total extracellular ARGs and MGEs decreased in the ozone-treated compost product. Correlation analysis revealed that the reduction in intracellular 16S rRNA contributed to intracellular tetQ and tetW removal, while the variations of other ARGs after ozonation related to MGEs abundance. Network analysis suggested that the reduction of potential host bacteria, as well as the decline in NH4+-N and TOC after the ozonation, contributed to the intracellular ARGs removal.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Ozônio , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Water Environ Res ; 93(1): 75-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335985

RESUMO

An integrated process with ozonation, ceramic membrane ultrafiltration, and activated carbon filtration is investigated for the treatment of drinking water in the rural area of China. A pilot-scale experiment with a capacity of 20 m3 /d is conducted, and a number of water quality parameters are evaluated, such as turbidity, color, organic matter (CODMn ), manganese (Mn), geosmin (GSM), 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), and 37 kinds of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The result shows that the removal efficiency of all the evaluated parameters of this integrated process is much higher than that of the conventional treatment processes. In particular, the removal rate of PPCPs achieves 52.5%, which is twice higher than that of the conventional process. Moreover, ozone can oxidize manganese ions, degrade organic matters, and reduce membrane fouling. It is believed that the integrated treatment process developed in this study is efficient in upgrading the existing water treatment plants and ensuring the safety of drinking water in the rural areas around the world.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cerâmica , China , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Projetos Piloto
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