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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 233, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166430

RESUMO

The amount of ground-level ozone in beech forests depends not only on the pollution intensity but also on the other environmental factors. This paper presents the analysis of the concentrations of ground-level ozone during the growing season (April-September) of beech trees, which represent the main objects modifying the microclimate conditions inside the forest. The research was localized in the Kremnické vrchy Mountains in Slovakia and realized during the period of 2004-2013. The study was carried out on four research plots with different stand structure which was caused by various intensities of cuts. Our results showed that the maximum concentration of ozone during this period was observed on the plot where the original beech stand (without management intervention) grown-maximal concentration reached the values from 44.0 to 50.0 ppb (in the sub-periods 2004-2008 and 2009-2013, respectively). On the other hand, the minimum concentration, 14.0 ppb, was found immediately after the cutting in 2004 on the plot, where all adult trees were removed. A similar course was found within average values of the ozone concentration on the research plots. Despite the fact that the results did not confirm significant differences among the plots, temporal trend showed an increasing concentration of ozone on all plots during the study period.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fagus , Ozônio , Florestas , Eslováquia , Árvores
2.
BMJ ; 368: m108, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess short term mortality risks and excess mortality associated with exposure to ozone in several cities worldwide. DESIGN: Two stage time series analysis. SETTING: 406 cities in 20 countries, with overlapping periods between 1985 and 2015, collected from the database of Multi-City Multi-Country Collaborative Research Network. POPULATION: Deaths for all causes or for external causes only registered in each city within the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily total mortality (all or non-external causes only). RESULTS: A total of 45 165 171 deaths were analysed in the 406 cities. On average, a 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone during the current and previous day was associated with an overall relative risk of mortality of 1.0018 (95% confidence interval 1.0012 to 1.0024). Some heterogeneity was found across countries, with estimates ranging from greater than 1.0020 in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Estonia, and Canada to less than 1.0008 in Mexico and Spain. Short term excess mortality in association with exposure to ozone higher than maximum background levels (70 µg/m3) was 0.26% (95% confidence interval 0.24% to 0.28%), corresponding to 8203 annual excess deaths (95% confidence interval 3525 to 12 840) across the 406 cities studied. The excess remained at 0.20% (0.18% to 0.22%) when restricting to days above the WHO guideline (100 µg/m3), corresponding to 6262 annual excess deaths (1413 to 11 065). Above more lenient thresholds for air quality standards in Europe, America, and China, excess mortality was 0.14%, 0.09%, and 0.05%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that ozone related mortality could be potentially reduced under stricter air quality standards. These findings have relevance for the implementation of efficient clean air interventions and mitigation strategies designed within national and international climate policies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136837, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018978

RESUMO

The response of a wheat cultivar (HD 2967) under the combination of elevated ozone (O3) and water deficit stress (WS) was evaluated in terms of morphological, physiological and yield parameters along with nutrient uptake and their redistribution to different plant parts. An open-top chamber experiment has been conducted under O3 exposures (ambient (A) and ambient +20 ppb O3 (E)) along with two different water regimes (well-watered; WW and water deficit with 50% of soil capacity; WS). Most of the growth parameters showed significant reductions due to elevated O3 under both WW and WS conditions. Stomatal conductance and assimilation rate reduced significantly under the combined stress as compared to their controls (AWW). The maximum decrease in grain yield was observed under the additive effect of both the stresses of water deficit and elevated O3 (-43.6%), followed by water deficit stress (-19.8%) and elevated O3 (-17.9%) as compared to the control (AWW). Furthermore, the study displayed that reduced water availability has checked the uptake of nutrients in the roots, shoot and leaves, while, a higher carbon accumulation has been observed with subsequent increases in C: N and C: K ratios in the leaves. Such limitation of nutrients uptake and photosynthates availability weakened the antioxidative defense system of the test cultivar, making it more sensitive against combined stresses. Besides, the study displayed that the defense system has been remarkably suppressed under the presence of interactive stress factors, which allowed us to predict that the distribution of limited carbon pool has inverse relationship between the plant's defense system and growth.


Assuntos
Triticum , Antioxidantes , Ozônio , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123009, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087545

RESUMO

In this study, a new intimately coupling technology of advanced oxidation and biodegradation was proposed, called simultaneous combination of ozonation and biodegradation (SCOB), which uses ozonation in place of traditional photocatalysis. SCOB was evaluated for its ability to degrade and detoxify tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). Biodegradation alone only resulted in negligible TCH removal, while ozone alone caused less effective performance, with TCH degradation rate constants of 29-171% lower than those of SCOB. The optimal ozone dose was 2.0 mg-O3/(L·h), and it contributed to remove 97% of the TCH within 2 h under SCOB operation. The SCOB effluent was not toxic to S. aureus after 8 h of exposure. During six SCOB operation cycles, the biomass in the biofilm remained stable, and cell structure was relatively intact. SCOB significantly improved TCH degradation and reduced toxicity of the effluent.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Staphylococcus aureus , Tetraciclina
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 156, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008106

RESUMO

This study investigates the potential factors that contribute to frequent high levels of ozone in Bangu, one of the most critical areas in the city of Rio de Janeiro, regarding ozone levels and air quality. Speciated non-oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using method TO-15 (US EPA). The measured concentrations and kinetic and mechanistic analysis of VOC reactivity showed that alkanes were the most important compounds. Ozone concentrations were simulated for a base case representing a day with high ozone levels. Simulated results and statistical multivariate analysis showed that the high ozone concentrations did not seem to be closely related to local emissions but rather were related to pollutant transport and low measured NOx levels and were triggered by photochemical activity. The differences between weekdays and weekends were also investigated, showing that ozone concentrations were also higher during weekends, mainly on Sunday, when the diesel heavy vehicle fleet was reduced and lower NO emissions were observed. The VOC/NOx ratios correspond to a VOC-limited process, which leads to higher ozone concentrations under low NOx conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise
6.
Water Res ; 172: 115513, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006773

RESUMO

Recovering and reusing treated wastewater effluent is a sustainable and cost-effective practice for addressing global water sustainability. To date, most potable reuse advanced water treatment (AWT) solutions are based on reverse osmosis (RO), which generates a continuous reject stream of concentrated brine waste. Ozone-biofiltration based solutions have been investigated as a potential alternative for RO. However, implementation of ozone-biofiltration for potable reuse projects around the world has been limited. The goal of this study was to conduct an extended field investigation of ozone-biofiltration treatment to address regulatory, design, and operational hurdles that may hinder implementation in water-short areas. For 16 months, two parallel biological activated carbon (BAC) filters were operated at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 10 min and 20 min treating up to 60,000 and 30,000 bed volumes (BVs), respectively, of sand filtered effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment process. BAC 1 (EBCT = 10 min) and BAC 2 (EBCT = 20 min) used Calgon Filtrasorb 400 granular activated carbon (GAC) as filter media, with equal bed depths of 0.8 m. Increasing the specific ozone dose from 0.9 to 2.0 provided a muted response with respect to oxidation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are resistive to ozonation. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was generated during ozonation, with the average concentration of NDMA in ozonated effluent being 40.4 ng/L. In BAC 1 (EBCT = 10 min), NDMA was fully removed during the first month of study (<2000 BVs), partially removed between 2000 and 20,000 BVs, and completely removed when monitored between 57,000 and 62,000 BVs. These trends clearly reveal time-dependent interactions between carbon-based (e.g., adsorption) and non-carbon-based (e.g., biodegradation) removal mechanisms. In BAC 2 (EBCT = 20 min), almost all CECs, excluding NDMA, were removed consistently throughout the study (through ∼30,000 BVs). This indicates a somewhat different interaction between carbon-based and non-carbon-based removal in the more lightly loaded BAC 2, compared to BAC 1. After 482 days of operation, BAC 1 (EBCT = 10 min) produced effluent with lower NDMA concentration (<2 ng/L) than BAC 2 (10 ng/L), confirming prior evidence of cometabolic NDMA biodegradation pathways operable in more heavily loaded BACs. These findings emphasize the need for extended field testing (50,000 BVs or greater). BAC 1 removed TOC in effluent until it plateaued at around 6 mg/L after 60,000 BVs, whereas BAC 2 effluent plateaued at around 4 mg/L. Under plateau conditions, BAC 1 and BAC 2 with sand filter pretreatment and ozonation appear to have a gross TOC removal potential of around 0.2-0.3 kg of TOC removed per day per cubic meter of carbon media (kg/d/m3). A comparative analysis of findings from this study and results from a past ozone-BAC study in the Reno area (termed BAC 3 operated downstream of membrane filter with an EBCT of 30 min) shows that higher TOC removal was observed in BAC with shorter EBCT and upstream sand filter compared to BAC with longer EBCT and upstream membrane filter. The present study addresses the regulatory and financial concerns associated with ozone-BAC performance in potable reuse applications. Improved comprehension of ozone-BAC performance, coupled with its reduced capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs compared to RO, may accelerate the full-scale implementation of ozone-BAC treatment as a sustainable solution for the rapidly emerging potable reuse market.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Dimetilnitrosamina , Filtração , Águas Residuárias
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2182-2191, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020793

RESUMO

Potable reuse of wastewater is expanding, and ozonation for water reuse is becoming more common, either as a preoxidant before membranes or as part of ozone/biological activated carbon (O3/BAC) systems. However, previous research has demonstrated that ozone drastically increases the formation potential of genotoxic halonitromethanes (HNMs), including during O3/BAC. Chloropicrin, the most common HNM, is synthesized by chlorinating nitromethane, suggesting that nitromethane may be the immediate precursor of chloropicrin, although nitromethane is unlikely to occur naturally in wastewater. We hypothesized that wastewater ozonation forms nitromethane, which would be the key intermediate toward HNMs. Ozonation of wastewater effluent was shown to form abundant nitromethane, which explained the majority (in one case, all) of subsequent chloropicrin formation. Next, we investigated a suspected category of nitromethane precursor: stimulant drugs, such as ephedrine and methamphetamine, and certain antidepressants. These drugs all feature N-methylamine functional groups, and certain N-alkylamines have been shown to produce primary nitroalkanes upon ozonation. Ozonation of N-methylamine drugs ubiquitously formed nitromethane, typically at >50% yield. Subsequent chlorination converted nitromethane to chloropicrin. The reaction mechanism was investigated to understand the variation in nitromethane yield between different precursors. These results suggest that nitromethane fate during reuse and nitromethane control should be investigated.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Metano/análogos & derivados , Metilaminas , Nitroparafinas , Águas Residuárias
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2859-2868, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022552

RESUMO

Both ozone exposure and extreme temperatures are found to be significantly associated with mortality; however, inconsistent results have been obtained on the modification effects of temperature on the ozone-mortality association. In the present study, we conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 128 counties from 2013-2018 to examine whether temperature modifies the association between short-term ozone exposure with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in China. First, we analyzed the effects of ozone exposure on mortality at different temperature levels. Then, we calculated the pooled effects through a meta-analysis across China. We found that high-temperature conditions (>75th percentile in each county) significantly enhanced the effects of ozone on nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 and 0.51%), 0.42% (95% CI: 0.32 and 0.51%) and 0.50% (95% CI: 0.31 and 0.68%), respectively, for a 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone at high temperatures. Stronger effects on nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed at high temperatures among elderly individuals aged 65 years and older compared with the younger people. Our findings provide evidence that health damage because of ozone may be influenced by the impacts of increasing temperatures, which point to the importance of mitigating ozone exposure in China under the context of climate change to further reduce the public health burden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ozônio , Idoso , China , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mortalidade , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113469, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902538

RESUMO

Both surface and satellite observations have shown a decrease in NOx emissions in East Asian countries in recent years. In order to reflect the recent NOx emission reduction and to investigate its impact on surface O3 concentrations in Asian megacities, we adjusted two bottom-up regional emission inventories of which base years are 2006 (E2006) and 2010 (E2010), respectively. We applied direct and relative emission adjustments to both E2006 and E2010 to constrain NOx emissions using OMI NO2 vertical column densities. Except for the relative emission adjustment with E2006, modeling results with adjusted emissions exhibit that NOx emissions over East Asian megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Seoul, and Tokyo) in the bottom-up inventories are generally overestimated. When the direct emission adjustment is applied to E2006, model biases in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea are reduced from 24 ppb to 2 ppb for NOx (=NO+NO2) and from -9 ppb to 0 ppb for O3. In addition, NO2 model biases in Beijing and Shanghai in China are reduced from 8 ppb to 18 ppb-0 ppb and 1 ppb, respectively. Daily maximum 8-h average O3 model biases over the same places are decreased by 8 ppb and 14 ppb. Further analyses suggest that the reduction in domestic South Korean NOx emissions plays a significant role in increasing O3 concentrations in SMA. We conclude that the current strong drive to reduce NOx emissions as part of the strategy to lower particulate matter concentrations in South Korea can account for increased O3 concentrations in recent years and suggest that more aggressive NOx emissions will be necessary soon.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Pequim , China , República da Coreia , Seul , Tóquio
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1938-1945, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904227

RESUMO

Normal temperature catalytic ozonation (NTCO) is a promising yet challenging method for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of limited activity of the catalysts at ambient temperature. Here, we report a series of Pt/FeOx catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method for NTCO of gaseous methanol. All samples were found to be active and among them, the Pt/FeOx-400 (calcined at 400 °C) catalyst with a Pt cluster loading of 0.2% exhibited the highest activity, able to completely convert methanol into CO2 and H2O at 30 °C. Extensive experimental research suggested that the superior catalytic activity could be attributed to the highly dispersed Pt clusters and an appropriate molar ratio of Pt0/Pt2+. Furthermore, electron paramagnetic resonance and density functional theory computational studies revealed the mechanism that the Pt/FeOx-400 catalyst could activate O3 and water effectively to produce hydroxyl radicals responsible for the catalytic oxidation of methanol. The findings of this work may foster the development of technologies for normal temperature abatement of VOCs with low energy consumption.


Assuntos
Metanol , Ozônio , Catálise , Platina , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2218-2227, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961661

RESUMO

Carbonyl compounds are an important class of by-products that are generated in disinfection reactions. These chemicals are ingredients contributing to toxicology in the drinking water system, the compositions and structures of which are worthy of attention. In this study, a chemical derivatization method based on simultaneous light/heavy isotope labeling was established for general recognition of carbonyl compounds and carbonyl disinfection by-products (DBPs) as per the humic substance reference standard (Suwannee river fulvic acid II, SRFA) before and after ozonation, chlorination, and chloramination. Decomposition of macromolecular components into polar carbonyl species was observed to be the most prominent pathway in ozone treatment due to the efficient reactivity of ozone with phenols and alkoxy aromatic rings. As a result, alteration of molecular characteristics was noticed. For instance, ozone-induced carbonyl DBPs in the highly oxygenated compound classes (0.67 ≤ O/C ≤ 1.2, 0.6 < H/C ≤ 1.5) possessed higher O/C but contained less oxygen numbers and carbon numbers. Cl/Br-carbonyl-DBPs were identified after chlorination and chloramination, and I-carbonyl-DBPs were found in ozone and chloramine treatments. Several major halogenated carbonyl homologues were further recognized, including halogenated 4-oxobutenoic acid analogues, halogenated 2,5-dioxohex-3-enoic acid analogues, and halogenated 4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones analogues. These findings illustrate the presence of abundant carbonyl DBPs in water disinfection, and hence their impacts on human health deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136802, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982769

RESUMO

This study focused on the establishment of thermophilic biofilm-based systems (TBSs) coupled with ozonation for treatment of high-temperature pulping wastewater. The effects of the inoculum, sludge growth mode, and temperature were investigated. These factors played roles in the organics removal performance and microbial communities of pulping wastewater treatment systems. At 50 °C, the TBS inoculated with optimal inoculum achieved 59.12% and 37.96% reductions in COD and chromaticity, which were superior to the reductions achieved by other systems. In this TBS, thermophilic lignocellulolytic microorganisms (Chloroflexus, Meiothermus, norank_f_Caldilineaceae, and Roseiflexus) and carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria (norank_f_Anaerolineaceae) were predominant. Their relative abundances were 25.55% and 10.42%, respectively. For enhanced removal of COD and chromaticity, an integrated system consisting of a primary TBS, ozonation, and a secondary TBS was proposed. The total COD and chromaticity removal efficiencies increased to 90.48% and 87.89%, respectively. BOD5/COD increased from 0.20 to 0.40, and shifts of lignin-like and humic acid-like substances were observed during ozonation with the primary TBS effluent.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Poluentes Ambientais , Microbiota , Reatores Biológicos , Ozônio , Temperatura Ambiente , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136825, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991279

RESUMO

During production of rivaroxaban, an orally administrated anticoagulant, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Due to low biodegradability in conventional waste water treatment plants, it is currently incinerated. Thus, new pre-treatment methods for rivaroxaban-containing waste water could facilitate its subsequent biological processing. In this study, ozonation was investigated as the pre-treatment method, with special emphasis on the elimination of the target compound and the generation of its main transformation products. These were determined by high performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). Our results show that the concentration of rivaroxaban in the ozonated waste water can be effectively reduced (below detection limit) under acidic conditions, whereas neutral or basic reaction environment proved less suitable. Four main transformation products were identified and their concentrations determined. Rivaroxaban and its most prominent transformation product acetoxamide were elucidated in multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MSn) experiments. Transformation products derived from the degradation of rivaroxaban were then compared to its natural (animal and human) metabolites as well as other known derivatives. In contrast to previously published rivaroxaban-derived metabolites, the presented ozonation experiments resulted in new transformation products.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Animais , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Ozônio , Rivaroxabana , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água
14.
Water Res ; 171: 115437, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893554

RESUMO

Despite plenty of literatures focused on the application of pre-ozonation prior to membrane, it was still unclear about the role of divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling mitigation. In this study, ozone pre-treatment (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mg O3/mg DOC (dissolved organic carbon)) was employed to oxidize model biopolymer, which was represented by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sodium alginate (SA) in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM). Cross-flow filtration was conducted to investigate RO membrane fouling by concentration mode. The results showed that at appropriate ozone dose there were measurable changes in physicochemical properties of BSA and SA, including increases in particle size, hydrophilicity, density of negative charge and carboxylic groups. Pre-ozonation markedly alleviated RO fouling by BSA at ozone dose of 0.25 mg O3/mg DOC when Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations raised from 0.5 to 2.0 mM since the increase in electrostatic (EL) repulsion and decrease in hydrophobic (HP) interaction compensated the increase in divalent cation bridging. Similar results were obtained for SA fouling in the presence of Mg2+. In contrast, the effect of pre-ozonation on SA fouling strongly depended on the concentration of Ca2+. In brief, it mitigated SA fouling at 0.5 mM Ca2+, whereas accelerated irreversible fouling at higher Ca2+ concentration (1.0 and 2.0 mM) due to the overwhelming effect of divalent cation bridging compared to EL and HP interactions, as revealed by adsorption experiments (in-situ streaming potential measurement). Pre-ozonation shifted the fouling layer from compact to porous and weakened the adhesion forces between foulants and membrane (foulants) except for SA containing 1.0 and 2.0 mM Ca2+. This study may provide the guidance for the application of pre-ozonation prior to RO filtration.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Purificação da Água , Biopolímeros , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 116, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942665

RESUMO

Serious air pollution motivates governments to take control measures. However, specific emission reduction effects of various temporary emission reduction policies are difficult to evaluate. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting in Beijing in 2014, the Chinese government implemented a number of emergency emission control measures in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area to maintain the air quality in this region. This gave us an opportunity to quantify the effectiveness of the emission reduction measures separately and identify the efficient policy combinations for the reduction of major pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of specific emission reduction measures on the concentrations of two major air pollutants (PM2.5 and O3) under eight policy scenarios using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Comparing these scenarios, we found that the control policies against the primary PM2.5 emission achieved the most significant results. Meanwhile, all the emission control measures raised the ozone concentrations in different degrees, which might be partly attributed to the changes of PM2.5 concentration and the ratio of NOx and VOCs caused by the emission control measures. Our results suggest that, in VOC-sensitive areas like Beijing, emergency control measures focusing on primary PM2.5 emission could lead to significant PM2.5 reduction and relatively small ozone increase, and should be considered as a priority policy. Joint emission control at the regional scale is also important especially under unfavorable meteorological conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2913-2921, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990190

RESUMO

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant medication with highly persistent properties in the aquatic environment, where it has the potential to affect nontarget biota. Because CBZ and many other pharmaceuticals are not readily removed in conventional sewage treatment plants (STP), additional STP effluent treatment technologies are being evaluated and implemented. Whole effluent ozonation is a prospective method to remove pharmaceuticals such as CBZ, yet knowledge on the toxicity of CBZ ozonation byproducts (OBPs) is lacking. This study presents, for the first time, in vivo individual and mixture toxicity of four putative OBPs, that is, carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide, 10,11-Dihydrocarbamazepine, 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2-one (BQM), and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. BQM and BQD were isolated from the ozonated solution as they were not commercially available. The study confirmed that the OBP mixture caused embryotoxic responses comparable to that of ozonated CBZ. Individual compound embryotoxicity assessment further revealed that BQM and BQD were the drivers of embryotoxicity. OBP chemical stability in ozonated CBZ water solution during 2 week dark storage at 22 °C was also assessed. The OBP concentrations remained over time, except for BQD which decreased by 94%. Meanwhile, ozonated CBZ persistently induced embryotoxicity over 2 week storage, potentially illustrating environmental concern.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamazepina , Estudos Prospectivos , Esgotos , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Water Res ; 169: 115230, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683105

RESUMO

This study demonstrates new empirical models to predict the decomposition of ozone (O3) and the exposures of oxidants (i.e., O3 and hydroxyl radical, OH) during the ozonation of natural waters. Four models were developed for the instantaneous O3 demand, first-order rate constant for the secondary O3 decay, O3 exposure (∫[O3]dt), and OH exposure ((∫[OH]dt)), as functions of five independent variables, namely the O3 dose, concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, alkalinity, and temperature. The models were derived by polynomial regression analysis of experimental data obtained by controlling variables in natural water samples from a single source water (Maegok water in Korea), and they exhibited high accuracies for regression (R2 = 0.99 for the three O3 models, and R2 = 0.96 for the OH exposure model). The three O3 models exhibited excellent internal validity for Maegok water samples of different conditions (that were not used for the model development). They also showed acceptable external validity for seven natural water samples collected from different sources (not Maegok water); the IOD model showed somewhat poor external validity. However, the OH exposure model showed relatively poor internal and external validity. The models for oxidant exposures were successfully used to predict the abatement of micropollutants by ozonation; the model predictions showed high accuracy for Maegok water, but not for the other natural waters.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Radical Hidroxila , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , República da Coreia
19.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125090, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683451

RESUMO

It is essential to mitigate the risk of exposure to effluent organic matter (EfOM) in aquatic environments to ensure safe wastewater recycling. Magnetic ion-exchange (MIEX) resin adsorption combined with ozonation could provide EfOM removal. However, the poor understanding of the influences of the parameters and mechanisms in the hybrid process has restricted the applications. In this study, the response surface methodology was used to reveal the interactions of the major operation parameters. The degradation behaviour of the EfOM was investigated by using spectroscopy combined with mathematical methods. The effect of the pH on the EfOM removal was also analysed. The maximum efficiency of the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 59.77% at the optimal MIEX resin dosage of 7.97 mL/L, ozone concentration of 8 mg/L, agitation speed of 199.84 r/min, and pH of 9.98. The ozonation was superior to resin adsorption in the removal of 1054-Da compounds, while the resin adsorption was advantageous in the removal of 4168-Da compounds. Three fluorescent components (C1, C2, and C3) were more easily subjected to external perturbation than the DOC and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm in the oxidation processes. The MIEX resin exhibited low efficiencies of removal of the fluorescent substances. A synchronous fluorescence analysis coupled with a two-dimensional correlation analysis revealed that the variation in EfOM followed the order of fulvic-to humic-like substances in the hybrid process of MIEX and the following ozonation. The pH was the most significant influencing factor in the hybrid process.


Assuntos
Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Ozônio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Adsorção , Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Oxirredução , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
20.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113419, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706769

RESUMO

Ozone has become a major atmospheric pollutant in China as the pattern of urban energy usage has changed and the number of motor vehicles has grown rapidly. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, also known as the Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration (hereafter, JJJUA), with a precarious balance between protecting the ecological environment and sustaining economic development, is challenged by high levels of ozone pollution. Based on ozone observation data from 13 cities in the JJJUA from 2014 to 2017, the spatio-temporal trends in the evolution of ozone pollution and its associated influencing factors were analyzed using Moran's I Index, hot-spot analysis, and Geodetector using ArcGIS and SPSS software. Five key results were obtained. 1) There was an increase in the annual average ozone concentration, for the period 2014-2017. Comparing the 13 prefecture-level cities, ozone pollution in Chengde and Hengshui decreased, while it worsened in the remaining 11 cities. 2) Ozone pollution was worse in spring and summer than in autumn and winter; the peak ozone pollution season was from May to September; the average ozone concentration on workdays was higher than that on non-workdays, showing a counter-weekend effect. 3) Annual average concentrations were high in the central and southern parts of the study region but low in the north. 4) Prominent positive spatial correlations were observed in ozone concentration, with the best correlations shown in summer and autumn; concentrations were high in Baoding and Xingtai but low in Beijing and Chengde. 5) Concentrations of PM10, NO2, CO, SO2, and PM2.5, as well as average wind speed, sunshine duration, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature, all had significant effects on ozone pollution, and interactions between these influencing factors increased it.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Vento
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